Abstract

Interferometric measurements of saturation of the nonlinear index of refraction in a semiconductor-doped glass (Schott OG 550) are reported. The index change, measured at a wavelength of 532 nm, reaches a maximum value of ~1.5 × 10−4 at high intensity. It is shown that the magnitude of the corresponding third-order susceptibility, χ(3), is determined mainly by the absorption change. Furthermore, the effective nonlinearity is dramatically reduced by the darkening effect when the glass is exposed to an intense laser beam.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. K. Jain and R. C. Lind, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 646 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Yumoto, S. Fukushima, and K. Kubodera, Opt. Lett. 12, 832 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Mitsunaga, H. Shinojima, and K. Kubodera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1448 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Kull, J. L. Coutaz, G. Manneberg, and V. Grivickas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1830 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Gabel, K. W. Delong, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1682 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1788 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. W. Hall and N. F. Borelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 1650 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, and W. W. Simmons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 728 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.
  19. Optical Glass Filters Catalog, Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany.

1989 (1)

M. Kull, J. L. Coutaz, G. Manneberg, and V. Grivickas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1830 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (5)

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Mitsunaga, H. Shinojima, and K. Kubodera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1448 (1988).
[Crossref]

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
[Crossref]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1788 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hall and N. F. Borelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 1650 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (7)

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Gabel, K. W. Delong, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1682 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Yumoto, S. Fukushima, and K. Kubodera, Opt. Lett. 12, 832 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. K. Jain and R. C. Lind, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 646 (1983).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, and W. W. Simmons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 728 (1974).
[Crossref]

Acioli, L. H.

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1788 (1988).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

Banyai, W. C.

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Bell, J.

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Bhumbra, B. S.

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Bliss, E. S.

E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, and W. W. Simmons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 728 (1974).
[Crossref]

Borelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall and N. F. Borelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 1650 (1988).
[Crossref]

Coutaz, J. L.

M. Kull, J. L. Coutaz, G. Manneberg, and V. Grivickas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1830 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cullen, T.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
[Crossref]

Cullen, T. J.

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

de Rougemont, F.

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

Delong, K. W.

A. Gabel, K. W. Delong, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1682 (1987).
[Crossref]

Finlayson, N.

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Flytzanis, C.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[Crossref]

Frey, R.

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fukushima, S.

Gabel, A.

A. Gabel, K. W. Delong, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1682 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gomes, A. S. L.

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1788 (1988).
[Crossref]

Grivickas, V.

M. Kull, J. L. Coutaz, G. Manneberg, and V. Grivickas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1830 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall and N. F. Borelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 1650 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ironside, C. N.

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Jain, R. K.

R. K. Jain and R. C. Lind, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 646 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kubodera, K.

Kull, M.

M. Kull, J. L. Coutaz, G. Manneberg, and V. Grivickas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1830 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lind, R. C.

R. K. Jain and R. C. Lind, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 646 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lukasik, J.

Manneberg, G.

M. Kull, J. L. Coutaz, G. Manneberg, and V. Grivickas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1830 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mitsunaga, M.

Olbright, G. R.

G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ricard, D.

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[Crossref]

Rios Leite, J. R.

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1788 (1988).
[Crossref]

Roussignol, P.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[Crossref]

Rustagi, K. C.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[Crossref]

Seaton, C. T.

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Gabel, K. W. Delong, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1682 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Shinojima, H.

Simmons, W. W.

E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, and W. W. Simmons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 728 (1974).
[Crossref]

Speck, D. R.

E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, and W. W. Simmons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 728 (1974).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. I.

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 492 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Gabel, K. W. Delong, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1682 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Walker, A. C.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wright, E. M.

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yumoto, J.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. Kull, J. L. Coutaz, G. Manneberg, and V. Grivickas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1830 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Gabel, K. W. Delong, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1682 (1987).
[Crossref]

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1144 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, C. N. Ironside, T. Cullen, and A. C. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1035 (1987).
[Crossref]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1788 (1988).
[Crossref]

E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, and W. W. Simmons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 728 (1974).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Assanto, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, and T. J. Cullen, Electron. Lett. 23, 485 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

D. W. Hall and N. F. Borelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 1650 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. K. Jain and R. C. Lind, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 646 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, and C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

C. N. Ironside, T. J. Cullen, B. S. Bhumbra, J. Bell, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, presented at the Fourth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO’87, Glasgow, 1987.

Optical Glass Filters Catalog, Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The main beam corresponds to the solid line, the reference beam to the dashed one. ND is the variable neutral-density filter, T the telescope, and L a lens of 2-cm focal length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical records of fringe patterns. The left-hand part of each curve corresponds to the reference fringes, the right-hand part to the main beam fringes. Curve 1 was recorded at I = 13.6 MW/cm2 (the lowest intensity Ilow), curve 2 at 240 MW/cm2, and curve 3 at 611 MW/cm2. The distance between the reference peak and the main beam peak is F(I), and Λ is the fringe periodicity. The shift ΔF of the main beam peak owing to the nonlinear effect is ΔF = F(I) − F(Ilow). The relative fringe shift is Δϕ = ΔF/Λ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured refractive-index changes versus the peak intensity I. Typical error bars are shown in the figure. The solid curve is the fit to Eq. (2b) with n2 = −8 × 10−10 cm2/kW and Is = 220 MW/cm2. The inset shows the corresponding bleaching of the absorption.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Darkening of Δnm versus the exposure (number of laser shots). The peak intensity during darkening was 1.3 GW/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Darkening of Δα versus the exposure (I = 1.3 GW/cm2).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n m = Δ ϕ λ / L ,
Δ n = n 2 I 1 + I / I s ,
Δ n = Δ n low + Δ n m = n 2 I low 1 + I low / I s + n 2 ( I - I low ) ( 1 + I low / I s ) ( 1 + I / I s ) ,
Δ n = 3 4 ɛ 0 n 0 2 c Re χ ( 3 ) I ,
Δ α = 3 ω 2 ɛ 0 n 0 2 c 2 Im χ ( 3 ) I .

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