Abstract

Analyses of the kinetics and magnitude of enhanced two-wave mixing gain under externally applied square-wave and sinusoidal electric fields are used to determine photocarrier drift mobility These direct measurements do not require that any other photorefractive parameters be known.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).
  2. P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. C. Jonathan, R. W. Hellwarth, and G. Roosen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1245 (1984).
  5. R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Besson, J. M. C. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, Accepted for publication in Optics Letters.
  10. G. Pauliat, C. Besson, and G. Roosen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1736 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (2)

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, C. Besson, and G. Roosen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1736 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. M. C. Jonathan, R. W. Hellwarth, and G. Roosen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1245 (1984).

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Allain, M.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Beckwith, P.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Besson, C.

G. Pauliat, C. Besson, and G. Roosen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1736 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Besson, J. M. C. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, Accepted for publication in Optics Letters.

Chang, T.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, A. E.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, R. W. Hellwarth, and G. Roosen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1245 (1984).

Hong, J.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

Jonathan, J. M. C.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, R. W. Hellwarth, and G. Roosen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1245 (1984).

C. Besson, J. M. C. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, Accepted for publication in Optics Letters.

Khoshevisan, M.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Launay, J. C.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, R. A.

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pauliat, G.

G. Pauliat, C. Besson, and G. Roosen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1736 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Besson, J. M. C. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, Accepted for publication in Optics Letters.

Petrov, M. P.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

G. Pauliat, C. Besson, and G. Roosen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1736 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, R. W. Hellwarth, and G. Roosen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1245 (1984).

C. Besson, J. M. C. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, Accepted for publication in Optics Letters.

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. I.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Villing, A.

C. Besson, J. M. C. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, Accepted for publication in Optics Letters.

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. C. Valley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, C. Besson, and G. Roosen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1736 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. M. C. Jonathan, R. W. Hellwarth, and G. Roosen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1245 (1984).

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

C. Besson, J. M. C. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, Accepted for publication in Optics Letters.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Kinetics of the relative amplified intensity (output probe beam intensity with pump beam on/output probe beam intensity with pump beam turned off) and the corresponding applied voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photorefractive two-wave mixing gain versus the frequency of the sinusoidal applied electric field for BGO 1 (see text). The resonance peak is located at νres = 1200 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photorefractive two-wave mixing gain for BGO 2 (see text) versus the frequency of the sinusoidal applied field. Four resonance and four antiresonance frequencies are visible.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative amplified intensity versus time at the resonance frequency νres. All the experimental conditions are the same as for Fig. 2. The intensity oscillates at twice the applied voltage frequency νres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Product of resonance frequency times fringe spacing versus the peak voltage of the applied sinusoidal electric field. Squares correspond to the fringe spacing Λ = 18 μm and to the optical wavelength λ = 514 nm; circles correspond to Λ = 30 μm and λ = 514 nm; triangles correspond to Λ = 29 μm and λ = 488 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Measurements Performed on Three BGO Samples with Different Dopings with the Square-Wave and the Sinusoidal Field Methods

Equations (19)

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L = ( k B T e μ τ R ) 1 / 2 ,
2 δ E t 2 + ( 1 τ a + 1 τ b ) δ E t + 1 τ a 1 τ b ( δ E E SC ) = 0 ,
2 δ E t 2 + 1 τ a [ δ E t + 1 τ b ( δ E E SC ) ] = 0.
1 τ a = i τ E + 1 τ R + 1 τ DI + 1 τ D ,
τ E = 1 k μ E 0 ,
τ D = e μ k B T k 2 ,
δ E ( t ) = A exp [ ( t / τ a ) ] + B exp [ ( t / τ b ) ] + E SC ,
δ E = δ E i + δ E cc .
δ E cc ( t ) = R { A ( 1 τ DI τ a ) exp [ ( t / τ a ) ] + B ( 1 τ DI τ b ) exp [ ( t / τ b ) ] + E SC } ,
R = 1 τ DI τ D + i τ DI τ E .
{ t < 0 m = 0 t > 0 m 0 or { t < 0 m 0 t > 0 m = 0
A B = τ a τ b .
{ t < 0 E 0 = 0 t > 0 E 0 0 A B τ a τ DI .
I p = I a e g L ,
Λ | μ | E 0 = 375 ± 30 μ sec .
d 0 T / 2 | μ | E 0 sin ( 2 π T t ) d t
ν res 2 | μ | E 0 π Λ .
Λ | μ | E 0 2 π ν res = 530 ± 15 μ sec .
E 0 = V / d .

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