Abstract

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) generation by resonant third-order sum–difference frequency conversion (wVUV = 2wRwT) in krypton has been investigated. The frequency wRR = 212.55 nm) was resonant with the Kr two-photon transition 4p–5p[1/2, 0]. By tuning wT in the range λT = 220–860 nm it was possible to generate wVUV in the wavelength range λVUV = 200–120 nm. The conversion efficiency was enhanced in the range 121–123 nm by phase matching with a normally dispersive buffer gas (Ar); under the best phase-matched conditions employed, VUV output powers at the Lyman-α wavelength of the order of 1 kW were inferred from the estimated VUV pulse energy. This source was used to measure high-lying members of the Mg principal series near 162 nm. High resolution and excellent sensitivity of detection, when a thermionic diode detector was used, have been demonstrated.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. H. C. New, J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Ward, G. H. C. New, Phys. Rev. 185, 57 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. Vidal, in Tunable Lasers, L. F. Mollenauer, J. C. White, eds., Vol. 59 of Springer-Verlag Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Chap. 3.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Reintjes, Nonlinear Optical Parametric Processes in Liquids and Gases (Academic, New York, 1984).
  7. D.W. Koopman, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 555 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. F. Dobele, M. Rowenkamp, B. Ruckle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1284 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Marangos, in Spectral Lineshapes, J. Szudy, ed. (Ossolineum, Wroclaw, Poland, 1989), Vol. 5, p. 97.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Hilber, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1753 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Opt. 21, 913 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

G. Hilber, D. J. Brink, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, Phys. Rev. A 38, 6231 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 38, 147, (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. F. Dobele, M. Rowenkamp, B. Ruckle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

M. H. R. Hutchinson, K. J. Thomas, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1823 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (2)

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johanin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D.W. Koopman, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 555 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. F. Ward, G. H. C. New, Phys. Rev. 185, 57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

G. H. C. New, J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abjean, R.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johanin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baig, M. A.

J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, in Handbook of Synchrotron Radiation, G.V. Marr, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Vol. 2, p. 175.

Bideau-Mehu, A.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johanin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Brink, D. J.

G. Hilber, D. J. Brink, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, Phys. Rev. A 38, 6231 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

Connerade, J. P.

U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Connerade, N. Shen, H. Ma, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and Its Applications (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988).

J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, in Handbook of Synchrotron Radiation, G.V. Marr, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Vol. 2, p. 175.

Dobele, H. F.

H. F. Dobele, M. Rowenkamp, B. Ruckle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ginter, M. L.

Griesmann, U.

U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guern, Y.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johanin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hilber, G.

G. Hilber, D. J. Brink, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, Phys. Rev. A 38, 6231 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hilber, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, R. Wallenstein, in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, P. Yeh, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.613, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hilbig, R.

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Opt. 21, 913 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, R. Wallenstein, in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, P. Yeh, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.613, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hormes, J.

U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

M. H. R. Hutchinson, K. J. Thomas, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1823 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johanin-Gilles, A.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johanin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, D.W.

D.W. Koopman, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 555 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A. H.

J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lago, A.

G. Hilber, D. J. Brink, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, Phys. Rev. A 38, 6231 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hilber, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, R. Wallenstein, in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, P. Yeh, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.613, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

J. P. Connerade, N. Shen, H. Ma, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and Its Applications (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988).

Marangos, J. P.

J. P. Marangos, in Spectral Lineshapes, J. Szudy, ed. (Ossolineum, Wroclaw, Poland, 1989), Vol. 5, p. 97.

McIlrath, T. J.

D.W. Koopman, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 555 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Myerscough, V. P.

D.W. Koopman, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 555 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Naber, R. H.

New, G. H. C.

J. F. Ward, G. H. C. New, Phys. Rev. 185, 57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. H. C. New, J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Niemax, K.

K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 38, 147, (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J. F.

J. F. Reintjes, Nonlinear Optical Parametric Processes in Liquids and Gases (Academic, New York, 1984).

Rowenkamp, M.

H. F. Dobele, M. Rowenkamp, B. Ruckle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ruckle, B.

H. F. Dobele, M. Rowenkamp, B. Ruckle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Connerade, N. Shen, H. Ma, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and Its Applications (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988).

Sommer, K.

U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, K. J.

M. H. R. Hutchinson, K. J. Thomas, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1823 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tilford, S. G.

Vidal, C. R.

C. R. Vidal, in Tunable Lasers, L. F. Mollenauer, J. C. White, eds., Vol. 59 of Springer-Verlag Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

G. Hilber, D. J. Brink, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, Phys. Rev. A 38, 6231 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hilber, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Opt. 21, 913 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, R. Wallenstein, in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, P. Yeh, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.613, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward, G. H. C. New, Phys. Rev. 185, 57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. H. C. New, J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, B.

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, R. Wallenstein, in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, P. Yeh, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.613, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Niemax, Appl. Phys. B 38, 147, (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. R. Hutchinson, K. J. Thomas, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1823 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Dobele, M. Rowenkamp, B. Ruckle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

U. Griesmann, N. Shen, J. P. Connerade, K. Sommer, J. Hormes, J. Phys. B 21, L83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johanin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D.W. Koopman, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 555 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. F. Ward, G. H. C. New, Phys. Rev. 185, 57 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Hilber, D. J. Brink, A. Lago, R. Wallenstein, Phys. Rev. A 38, 6231 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, A. H. Kung, R. B. Miles, S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. H. C. New, J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. P. Marangos, in Spectral Lineshapes, J. Szudy, ed. (Ossolineum, Wroclaw, Poland, 1989), Vol. 5, p. 97.

C. R. Vidal, in Tunable Lasers, L. F. Mollenauer, J. C. White, eds., Vol. 59 of Springer-Verlag Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, R. Wallenstein, in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, P. Yeh, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.613, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Reintjes, Nonlinear Optical Parametric Processes in Liquids and Gases (Academic, New York, 1984).

J. P. Connerade, N. Shen, H. Ma, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and Its Applications (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988).

J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, in Handbook of Synchrotron Radiation, G.V. Marr, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Vol. 2, p. 175.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level scheme for Kr, showing resonance-enhanced sum–difference mixing to produce radiation at λVUV = 121.6 nm. The resonance line due to the 4p6–4p55s transition is at 123.6 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the four-wave mixing experiment. Further details of the lasers and optics are given in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intensity of VUV radiation generated as a function of Kr pressure at λVUV = 130 nm: ○, f = 225-mm lens (bR = 0.5 cm, bT = 2 cm); ▵, f = 100-mm lens (bR = 0.11 cm, bT = 0.4 cm). (b) Intensity of VUV radiation generated as a function of Kr pressure at λVUV = 121.6 nm for an f = 225-mm lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental data at λVUV = 121.6 nm illustrating the enhancement obtained by phase matching in Ar–Kr mixtures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental arrangement for the measurement of the Mg principal series spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

High Rydberg states of the Mg atom, (a) Data obtained in photoabsorption with a 500-MeV electron synchrotron and a 5000-line/mm holographic grating.21 (b) Data obtained by ion detection (with a thermionic diode) with the tunable coherent VUV source.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Dyes Used and Resulting VUV Tuning Ranges

Equations (2)

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P VUV P R 2 P T N 2 χ 2 F ,
F ( b R ) exp ( α b R Δ k ) ,

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