Abstract

We describe a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (DRO) pumped with the second harmonic of a narrow-linewidth Nd: YAG laser. The linewidth of the DRO signal was less than 13 kHz, the DRO was shown to generate a phase-locked subharmonic of the pump at degeneracy, and the signal and the idler were shown to be mutually coherent with the pump and to be phase anticorrelated with each other away from degeneracy. The signal–idler heterodyne linewidth was 500 Hz, and pump phase modulation was shown to transfer to the DRO phase at degeneracy.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. For reviews of OPO’s see R. L. Byer, in Treatise in Quantum Electronics, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1973) pp. 587-702;R. G. Smith, in Advances in Lasers, A. K. Levine and A. J. DeMaria, eds. (Dekker, New York, 1976), Vol. 4.;Yuan Xuan Fan and R. L. Byer, “Progress in optical parametric oscillators,” in New Lasers for Analytical and Industrial Chemistry, A. Bernhardt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.461, 27–32 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. G. Smith, “A study of factors affecting the performance of a continuously pumped doubly resonant optical parameteric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 530–541 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Ling-Ann Wu, Min Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed states of light from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465–1475 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. F. Pereira, K.-C. Peng, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed state generation and QND detection by nondegenerate parametric down conversion,” presented at the Sixth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics, Rochester, New York, June26–28, 1989.
  8. W. J. Kozlovsky, E. K. Gustafson, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1102–1104 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. K. McDonald, “A scanning, single mode, LiNbO3, optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Pinard and J. F. Young, “Interferometric stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 4, 425–427 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66–68 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient, single-axial-mode operation of a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1134–1136 (1989),
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 external resonant cavities, ”IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913–919 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. D. Nabors, A. D. Farinas, T. Day, S. T. Yang, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Injection locking of a 13-W cw Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1189–1191 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. J. Kane, A. C. Nilsson, and R. L. Byer, “Frequency stability and offset locking of a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett.12, 175–177 (1987).
  17. S. P. Bush, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Studies of the coherence properties of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 646–647 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. H. Louisell, Coupled Mode and Parametric Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1960).
  20. W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. D. Drummond, K. J. McNeil, and D. F. Walls, “Non-equilibrium transitions in sub/second harmonic generation 1. Semiclassical theory,” Opt. Acta 27, 321–335 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  22. Ling-An Wu and H. J. Kimble, “Interference effects in second-harmonic generation within an optical cavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 697–703 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. D. Drummond and P. Kinsler, “Quantum tunneling and thermal activation in the parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4813–4816 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. R. Graham and H. Haken, “The quantum fluctuations of the optical parametric oscillator,” Z. Phys. 210, 276–302 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, “Quantum correlations of phase in nondegenerate parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731–2733 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. I. Kovrigin and R. L. Byer, “Stability factor for optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 384–385 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Piskarskas, A. Stabinis, and A. Yankauskas, “Parametric frequency modulation of picosecond light pulses in quadratically nonlinear crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1179–1180 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Active frequency stabilization of a 1.062-µm, Nd:GGG, diode-laser-pumped nonplanar ring oscillator to less than 3 Hz of relative linewidth,” Opt. Lett. 15, 221–223 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. H. Mclntrye and T. W. Hänsen, “Novel optical frequency divider and synthesizer,” in Digest of 1988 OSA Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 131.

1990 (1)

1989 (7)

P. D. Drummond and P. Kinsler, “Quantum tunneling and thermal activation in the parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4813–4816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. K. McDonald, “A scanning, single mode, LiNbO3, optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66–68 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient, single-axial-mode operation of a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1134–1136 (1989),
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Nabors, A. D. Farinas, T. Day, S. T. Yang, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Injection locking of a 13-W cw Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1189–1191 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (4)

W. J. Kozlovsky, E. K. Gustafson, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1102–1104 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Bush, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Studies of the coherence properties of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 646–647 (1988).
[Crossref]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 external resonant cavities, ”IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913–919 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, “Quantum correlations of phase in nondegenerate parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731–2733 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling-Ann Wu, Min Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed states of light from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465–1475 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kane, A. C. Nilsson, and R. L. Byer, “Frequency stability and offset locking of a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett.12, 175–177 (1987).

1985 (2)

Ling-An Wu and H. J. Kimble, “Interference effects in second-harmonic generation within an optical cavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 697–703 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Piskarskas, A. Stabinis, and A. Yankauskas, “Parametric frequency modulation of picosecond light pulses in quadratically nonlinear crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1179–1180 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

P. D. Drummond, K. J. McNeil, and D. F. Walls, “Non-equilibrium transitions in sub/second harmonic generation 1. Semiclassical theory,” Opt. Acta 27, 321–335 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. G. Smith, “A study of factors affecting the performance of a continuously pumped doubly resonant optical parameteric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 530–541 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

J. Pinard and J. F. Young, “Interferometric stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 4, 425–427 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

A. I. Kovrigin and R. L. Byer, “Stability factor for optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 384–385 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

R. Graham and H. Haken, “The quantum fluctuations of the optical parametric oscillator,” Z. Phys. 210, 276–302 (1968).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

Bush, S. P.

S. P. Bush, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Studies of the coherence properties of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 646–647 (1988).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Active frequency stabilization of a 1.062-µm, Nd:GGG, diode-laser-pumped nonplanar ring oscillator to less than 3 Hz of relative linewidth,” Opt. Lett. 15, 221–223 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. D. Nabors, A. D. Farinas, T. Day, S. T. Yang, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Injection locking of a 13-W cw Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1189–1191 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66–68 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient, single-axial-mode operation of a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1134–1136 (1989),
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Kozlovsky, E. K. Gustafson, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1102–1104 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 external resonant cavities, ”IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913–919 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kane, A. C. Nilsson, and R. L. Byer, “Frequency stability and offset locking of a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett.12, 175–177 (1987).

A. I. Kovrigin and R. L. Byer, “Stability factor for optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 384–385 (1969).
[Crossref]

For reviews of OPO’s see R. L. Byer, in Treatise in Quantum Electronics, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1973) pp. 587-702;R. G. Smith, in Advances in Lasers, A. K. Levine and A. J. DeMaria, eds. (Dekker, New York, 1976), Vol. 4.;Yuan Xuan Fan and R. L. Byer, “Progress in optical parametric oscillators,” in New Lasers for Analytical and Industrial Chemistry, A. Bernhardt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.461, 27–32 (1984).
[Crossref]

Camy, G.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dandridge, A.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. C.

S. P. Bush, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Studies of the coherence properties of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 646–647 (1988).
[Crossref]

Day, T.

Drummond, P. D.

P. D. Drummond and P. Kinsler, “Quantum tunneling and thermal activation in the parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4813–4816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, “Quantum correlations of phase in nondegenerate parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731–2733 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Drummond, K. J. McNeil, and D. F. Walls, “Non-equilibrium transitions in sub/second harmonic generation 1. Semiclassical theory,” Opt. Acta 27, 321–335 (1980).
[Crossref]

Eckardt, R. C.

Einstein, A.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

Elliot, D. S.

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falk, J.

J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
[Crossref]

Farinas, A. D.

C. D. Nabors, A. D. Farinas, T. Day, S. T. Yang, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Injection locking of a 13-W cw Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1189–1191 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
[Crossref]

Giacobino, E.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, R.

R. Graham and H. Haken, “The quantum fluctuations of the optical parametric oscillator,” Z. Phys. 210, 276–302 (1968).
[Crossref]

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gungor, A.

S. P. Bush, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Studies of the coherence properties of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 646–647 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gustafson, E. K.

Haken, H.

R. Graham and H. Haken, “The quantum fluctuations of the optical parametric oscillator,” Z. Phys. 210, 276–302 (1968).
[Crossref]

Hänsen, T. W.

D. H. Mclntrye and T. W. Hänsen, “Novel optical frequency divider and synthesizer,” in Digest of 1988 OSA Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 131.

Heidmann, A.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kane, T. J.

T. J. Kane, A. C. Nilsson, and R. L. Byer, “Frequency stability and offset locking of a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett.12, 175–177 (1987).

Kersey, A. D.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. L.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. K. McDonald, “A scanning, single mode, LiNbO3, optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

Ling-Ann Wu, Min Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed states of light from an optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465–1475 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ling-An Wu and H. J. Kimble, “Interference effects in second-harmonic generation within an optical cavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 697–703 (1985).
[Crossref]

S. F. Pereira, K.-C. Peng, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed state generation and QND detection by nondegenerate parametric down conversion,” presented at the Sixth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics, Rochester, New York, June26–28, 1989.

Kinsler, P.

P. D. Drummond and P. Kinsler, “Quantum tunneling and thermal activation in the parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4813–4816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovrigin, A. I.

A. I. Kovrigin and R. L. Byer, “Stability factor for optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 384–385 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louisell, W. H.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

W. H. Louisell, Coupled Mode and Parametric Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1960).

McDonald, J. K.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. K. McDonald, “A scanning, single mode, LiNbO3, optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mclntrye, D. H.

D. H. Mclntrye and T. W. Hänsen, “Novel optical frequency divider and synthesizer,” in Digest of 1988 OSA Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 131.

McNeil, K. J.

P. D. Drummond, K. J. McNeil, and D. F. Walls, “Non-equilibrium transitions in sub/second harmonic generation 1. Semiclassical theory,” Opt. Acta 27, 321–335 (1980).
[Crossref]

Minton, T. K.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. K. McDonald, “A scanning, single mode, LiNbO3, optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nabors, C. D.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66–68 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient, single-axial-mode operation of a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1134–1136 (1989),
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. D. Nabors, A. D. Farinas, T. Day, S. T. Yang, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, “Injection locking of a 13-W cw Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1189–1191 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 external resonant cavities, ”IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913–919 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, A. C.

T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kane, A. C. Nilsson, and R. L. Byer, “Frequency stability and offset locking of a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator,” Opt. Lett.12, 175–177 (1987).

Peng, K.-C.

S. F. Pereira, K.-C. Peng, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed state generation and QND detection by nondegenerate parametric down conversion,” presented at the Sixth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics, Rochester, New York, June26–28, 1989.

Pereira, S. F.

S. F. Pereira, K.-C. Peng, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed state generation and QND detection by nondegenerate parametric down conversion,” presented at the Sixth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics, Rochester, New York, June26–28, 1989.

Pinard, J.

J. Pinard and J. F. Young, “Interferometric stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 4, 425–427 (1972).
[Crossref]

Piskarskas, A.

A. Piskarskas, A. Stabinis, and A. Yankauskas, “Parametric frequency modulation of picosecond light pulses in quadratically nonlinear crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1179–1180 (1985).
[Crossref]

Podolsky, B.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

Reid, M. D.

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, “Quantum correlations of phase in nondegenerate parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731–2733 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, S. A.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. K. McDonald, “A scanning, single mode, LiNbO3, optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[Crossref]

Reynaud, S.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, N.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

Roy, R.

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R. G.

R. G. Smith, “A study of factors affecting the performance of a continuously pumped doubly resonant optical parameteric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 530–541 (1973).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. J.

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Stabinis, A.

A. Piskarskas, A. Stabinis, and A. Yankauskas, “Parametric frequency modulation of picosecond light pulses in quadratically nonlinear crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1179–1180 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tveten, A. B.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Walls, D. F.

P. D. Drummond, K. J. McNeil, and D. F. Walls, “Non-equilibrium transitions in sub/second harmonic generation 1. Semiclassical theory,” Opt. Acta 27, 321–335 (1980).
[Crossref]

Weller, J. F.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wu, Ling-An

Wu, Ling-Ann

Xiao, Min

Yang, S. T.

Yankauskas, A.

A. Piskarskas, A. Stabinis, and A. Yankauskas, “Parametric frequency modulation of picosecond light pulses in quadratically nonlinear crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1179–1180 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Young, J. F.

J. Pinard and J. F. Young, “Interferometric stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 4, 425–427 (1972).
[Crossref]

Yurek, A. M.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yurke, B.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. P. Bush, A. Gungor, and C. C. Davis, “Studies of the coherence properties of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 646–647 (1988).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. M. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, “Interferometric measurement of low-frequency phase noise characteristics of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 774–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Day, A. C. Nilsson, M. M. Fejer, A. D. Farinas, E. K. Gustafson, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “30-Hz linewidth diode-laser-pumped, Nd:GGG nonplanar ring oscillators by active frequency stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 25, 810–812 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 external resonant cavities, ”IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913–919 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. G. Smith, “A study of factors affecting the performance of a continuously pumped doubly resonant optical parameteric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 530–541 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. I. Kovrigin and R. L. Byer, “Stability factor for optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 384–385 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Acta (1)

P. D. Drummond, K. J. McNeil, and D. F. Walls, “Non-equilibrium transitions in sub/second harmonic generation 1. Semiclassical theory,” Opt. Acta 27, 321–335 (1980).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. K. McDonald, “A scanning, single mode, LiNbO3, optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Pinard and J. F. Young, “Interferometric stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 4, 425–427 (1972).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. (2)

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

P. D. Drummond and P. Kinsler, “Quantum tunneling and thermal activation in the parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4813–4816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, “Quantum correlations of phase in nondegenerate parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731–2733 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2557 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Piskarskas, A. Stabinis, and A. Yankauskas, “Parametric frequency modulation of picosecond light pulses in quadratically nonlinear crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1179–1180 (1985).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. (1)

R. Graham and H. Haken, “The quantum fluctuations of the optical parametric oscillator,” Z. Phys. 210, 276–302 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

D. H. Mclntrye and T. W. Hänsen, “Novel optical frequency divider and synthesizer,” in Digest of 1988 OSA Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 131.

S. F. Pereira, K.-C. Peng, and H. J. Kimble, “Squeezed state generation and QND detection by nondegenerate parametric down conversion,” presented at the Sixth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics, Rochester, New York, June26–28, 1989.

W. H. Louisell, Coupled Mode and Parametric Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1960).

For reviews of OPO’s see R. L. Byer, in Treatise in Quantum Electronics, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1973) pp. 587-702;R. G. Smith, in Advances in Lasers, A. K. Levine and A. J. DeMaria, eds. (Dekker, New York, 1976), Vol. 4.;Yuan Xuan Fan and R. L. Byer, “Progress in optical parametric oscillators,” in New Lasers for Analytical and Industrial Chemistry, A. Bernhardt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.461, 27–32 (1984).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monolithic DRO crystal cavity design. Dielectric mirrors that are highly reflective for the signal and the idler and transmit the pump are deposited directly upon the curved ends of the MgO:LiNbO3 resonator. m1, highly reflecting at 1064 nm, T = 85% at 532 nm. m2, T = 0.5% at 1064 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental layout showing the DRO pumped by the frequency-doubled injection-locked Nd:YAG laser for heterodyning with the Nd:GGG laser. SHG, second-harmonic generator; BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Heterodyne rf beat-note spectrum of the independent DRO signal and Nd:GGG laser oscillators. The 3-dB full width of the central peak is 13 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stable fringe pattern produced by interfering the degenerate DRO beam with a reference beam from the Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rf beat-note spectrum of the degenerate DRO heterodyned with a reference beam from the laser, which has been shifted 45 MHz with an acousto-optic modulator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beat-note spectrum of the DRO signal with idler frequencies displaced one axial mode from degeneracy. The central peak has a width of 500 Hz, and there is a 1-Hz trace-to-trace jitter in its position.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Amplitude of local oscillator–DRO beat note at 5.088 GHz versus local-oscillator phase. The rectified cosine waveform is as expected from relation (4).

Equations (11)

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E pump = E pump exp ( 2 i ω L t ) ,
E DRO = E DRO ( exp { i [ ( ω L + Δ ) t + ϕ ( t ) ] } + exp { i [ ( ω L + Δ ) t ϕ ( t ) ] } ) ,
E L = E L exp [ i ( ω L t + θ ) ] ,
V E DRO 2 cos [ 2 Δ t + 2 ϕ ( t ) ] + 2 E L E DRO cos ( θ ) cos [ Δ t + ϕ ( t ) ] .
E pump = E pump exp { i [ 2 ω L t + β sin ( ω mod t ) ] } ,
E DRO = E DRO exp { i [ ω L t + δ sin ( ω mod t + ξ ) ] } .
δ = β 2 [ 1 + 1 r ( ω mod / ω c ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
tan ( ξ ) = ω mod ω c r 1 / 2 ,
E LO = E LO exp [ i ( ω L + ω rf ) t ]
V cos [ ω rf t + δ sin ( ω mod t + ξ ) ] .
rel . sideband power = β 2 16 [ 1 + 1 r ( ω mod / ω c ) 2 ] 1 ,

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