Abstract

High-quality single crystals of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene (DAN) were grown from dimethylsulfoxide solutions. Crystal platelets with dimensions as large as 10 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm were produced and optically characterized. An interferometric method for the measurement of refractive indices of platelike samples was developed and used for platelet surfaces parallel to one principal axis of the indicatrix. Dispersion data of the refractive indices and the birefringence were used to calculate the optical angle and the propagation directions for phase-matched frequency doubling of Nd:YAG laser radiation as well as the dependence of phase-matching angles in the xz plane on different wavelengths. Loci of directions for type I and type II collinear phase-matched second-harmonic generation were predicted and experimentally verified. By measuring the effective nonlinear-optical susceptibilities in several phase-matched configurations we were able to evaluate all different nonlinear-optical susceptibility coefficients allowed by Kleinman’s symmetry, the highest one being d23 = (50 ± 15) pm/V with Miller’s coefficient δ23 = (0.49 ± 0.1) m2/As.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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1989 (3)

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, H. Arend, and P. Günter, Ferroelectrics 92, 499 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

J. D. Rush, G. E. Holdcroft, and P. L. Dunn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 135 (1988).

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2362 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

1987 (3)

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, J. S. Obhi, S. A. Karaulov, M. B. Hursthouse, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, and S. R. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1013 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, and C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Arend, R. Perret, H. Wüest, and P. Kerkoc, J. Cryst. Growth 74, 321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, and Y. S. Liu, Laser Focus 21(10), 110 (1985).

1984 (2)

J.-C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374 (1984).

D. J. Williams, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 690 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. J. Twieg, K. Jain, and Y. Y. Cheng, Chem. Phys. Lett. 92, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. V. Hobden, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Arend, H.

P. Kerkoc, H. Arend, and P. Günter, Ferroelectrics 92, 499 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Arend, R. Perret, H. Wüest, and P. Kerkoc, J. Cryst. Growth 74, 321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. T.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Baumert, J.-C.

J.-C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, and C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374 (1984).

J.-C. Baumert, Ph.D. dissertation 7802 (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, 1985).

Belt, R. F.

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, and Y. S. Liu, Laser Focus 21(10), 110 (1985).

Bjorklund, G. C.

J.-C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, and C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bloor, D.

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, J. S. Obhi, S. A. Karaulov, M. B. Hursthouse, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, and S. R. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1013 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2362 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chad, J.

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chapuis, G.

Cheng, Y. Y.

R. J. Twieg, K. Jain, and Y. Y. Cheng, Chem. Phys. Lett. 92, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cruickshank, F. R.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Dirk, C. W.

J.-C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, and C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Twieg and C. W. Dirk, Research Rep. RJ 5329 (54799) (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, Calif., October1986).

Dunn, P. L.

J. D. Rush, G. E. Holdcroft, and P. L. Dunn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 135 (1988).

Ehrensperger, M.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2362 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gashurov, G.

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, and Y. S. Liu, Laser Focus 21(10), 110 (1985).

Günter, P.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, H. Arend, and P. Günter, Ferroelectrics 92, 499 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2362 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374 (1984).

Guthrie, S. M. G.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Hall, S. R.

P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, J. S. Obhi, S. A. Karaulov, M. B. Hursthouse, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, and S. R. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1013 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hobden, M. V.

M. V. Hobden, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hoffnagle, J.

J.-C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374 (1984).

Holdcroft, G. E.

J. D. Rush, G. E. Holdcroft, and P. L. Dunn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 135 (1988).

Hulliger, J.

P. Kerkoc and J. Hulliger, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetaminonitrobenzene bulk crystals and single cored fibers,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published).

Hursthouse, M. B.

Jain, K.

R. J. Twieg, K. Jain, and Y. Y. Cheng, Chem. Phys. Lett. 92, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Twieg and K. Jain, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser.233, 57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, J. S. Obhi, S. A. Karaulov, M. B. Hursthouse, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, and S. R. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1013 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Karaulov, S. A.

Kerkoc, P.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, H. Arend, and P. Günter, Ferroelectrics 92, 499 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Arend, R. Perret, H. Wüest, and P. Kerkoc, J. Cryst. Growth 74, 321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc and J. Hulliger, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetaminonitrobenzene bulk crystals and single cored fibers,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published).

Kolinsky, P. V.

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, J. S. Obhi, S. A. Karaulov, M. B. Hursthouse, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, and S. R. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1013 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. K.

S. K. Kurtz, in Quantum Electronics, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 209.

Liu, Y. S.

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, and Y. S. Liu, Laser Focus 21(10), 110 (1985).

Logan, J. A.

J.-C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, and C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McArdle, B. J.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

McGillivray, G. W.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Nicoud, J. F.

J. F. Nicoud and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vol. 2, p. 251.

Norman, P. A.

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, J. S. Obhi, S. A. Karaulov, M. B. Hursthouse, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, and S. R. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1013 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Obhi, J. S.

P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, J. S. Obhi, S. A. Karaulov, M. B. Hursthouse, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, and S. R. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1013 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Perret, R.

H. Arend, R. Perret, H. Wüest, and P. Kerkoc, J. Cryst. Growth 74, 321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, D.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Rush, J. D.

J. D. Rush, G. E. Holdcroft, and P. L. Dunn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 135 (1988).

Shepherd, E. E. A.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Sherwood, J. N.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Shumate, M. S.

Simpson, G. S.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Surmely, G.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2362 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2362 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, and C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Twieg, K. Jain, and Y. Y. Cheng, Chem. Phys. Lett. 92, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Twieg and C. W. Dirk, Research Rep. RJ 5329 (54799) (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, Calif., October1986).

R. J. Twieg and K. Jain, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser.233, 57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Nicoud and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vol. 2, p. 251.

Wang, W. S.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

D. J. Williams, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 690 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wüest, H.

H. Arend, R. Perret, H. Wüest, and P. Kerkoc, J. Cryst. Growth 74, 321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, C. S.

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

Zgonik, M.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

D. J. Williams, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 690 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, and C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. J. Twieg, K. Jain, and Y. Y. Cheng, Chem. Phys. Lett. 92, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. V. Kolinsky, J. Chad, R. J. Jones, S. R. Hall, P. A. Norman, D. Bloor, and J. S. Obhi, Electron. Lett. 23, 791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

P. Kerkoc, H. Arend, and P. Günter, Ferroelectrics 92, 499 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2362 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. V. Hobden, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Arend, R. Perret, H. Wüest, and P. Kerkoc, J. Cryst. Growth 74, 321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Focus (1)

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, and Y. S. Liu, Laser Focus 21(10), 110 (1985).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

J.-C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374 (1984).

R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, S. M. G. Guthrie, B. J. McArdle, G. W. McGillivray, D. Pugh, E. E. A. Shepherd, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and C. S. Yoon, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 212 (1988).

J. D. Rush, G. E. Holdcroft, and P. L. Dunn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1017, 135 (1988).

Other (8)

S. K. Kurtz, in Quantum Electronics, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 209.

P. Kerkoc and J. Hulliger, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetaminonitrobenzene bulk crystals and single cored fibers,” J. Cryst. Growth (to be published).

D. J. Williams, ed., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser.233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Nicoud and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vol. 2, p. 251.

R. J. Twieg and K. Jain, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser.233, 57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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K.-H. Hellwege, ed., Elastic, Piezoelectric, Pyroelectric, Piezooptic, Electrooptic Constants, and Nonlinear Dielectric Susceptibilities of Crystals, Landolt-Börnstein New Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), Vol. 11, p. 687.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

As-grown DAN single crystal prepared from a dimethylsulfoxide solution. The largest surface is parallel to the (001) crystallographic plane. The drawing shows orientation of the principal axes of the indicatrix (x, y, z). The angle ϕ between the normal to the plate n and the x axis is 55 ± 0.5°. The angle β between the crystallographic axes a and c is 94.43°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion of the refractive indices of DAN at room temperature. Filled squares, interferometrically measured values. Open squares, ny measured by the immersion method. The fit to expression (4) is represented by the solid curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical absorption coefficients (upper limit) αa and αb for the light beam polarized parallel to the a and b crystallographic axes. In the visible and near-infrared wavelength range the αa and αb values are near 1.3 and 1.5 cm−1, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Phase-matching configurations of DAN crystals. Calculated points are presented by the shaded areas. The outer region permits type II and the inner one type I phase matching. A mismatch of 0.007 in the calculated values between n2ω and nω was allowed. The symbols correspond to different combinations of incident and generated light polarizations. The filled inverted triangle marks the optical axis, and the open inverted triangle the surface normal. The coordinate system is defined in the figure, with k and kxz being the propagation direction and its projection to the xz plane, (b) Measured and calculated deff for phase-matched SHG. δ is the rotation angle around y, from which the tilt angle γ can be determined. Symbols represent values found in our experiments. Calculated points are represented by curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SHG internal phase-matching angles in the xz plane as a function of the fundamental wavelength. The diamonds show calculations from the conditions n y 2 ω n x z ω < 0.007 and 2 n x z 2 ω n y ω n x z ω < 0.014, corresponding to type I (left-hand region) and type II (right-hand region) collinear phase matching. Measured values are marked with circles. The angle δ corresponding to the crystallo-graphic axis a and the wavelength 1129 nm where the phase-matching direction is expected to be parallel to this axis are denoted by the filled arrowhead and the leftward-pointing filled arrow, respectively. The open inverted triangle marks the angle corresponding to normal incidence on the (001) crystal face.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maker fringes: dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the sample rotation around the y axis with fundamental and harmonic waves polarized parallel to the y axis. The irregularities near −12° show interference with symmetry-forbidden type I phase-matched SHG, which is generated because of a small sample misalignment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum value of the absolute effective nonlinear susceptibility coefficient deff for (a) type I and (b) type II interaction as a function of the Euler angles δ and γ. Curves for γ = 10° to γ = 90° are shown.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Refractive Indices of Solution-Grown DAN Crystals at Room Temperaturea

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Table 2 Fitting Parameters of the Dispersion Relation (4) for the Three Principal Refractive Indices

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Table 3 External and Internal Phase-Matching Angles in the xz Plane for type I and type II SHG of a Nd:YAG lasera

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Table 4 Nonlinear-Optical Susceptibilities djjk and Miller’s δijk Coefficients of DAN and Other Nonlinear-Optical Materials for Comparison

Equations (7)

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n y = α 2 + 2 ( 1 cos θ ) ( 1 α ) 2 ( 1 α cos θ ) ,
m λ = l s [ ( n x z 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 / 2 ( n y 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 / 2 ]
n x z 2 ( ϑ ) = n x 2 sin 2 ( ϕ + ϑ ) + n z 2 cos 2 ( ϕ + ϑ ) ,
n 2 1 = q λ 0 2 λ 2 + A ,
d eff = i j , k cos θ i ω 3 cos θ j ω 1 θ k ω 2 d i j k ,
d eff = ρ sin 2 δ d 21 + ρ 1 cos 2 δ d 23 + 2 sin δ cos δ d 25 ρ sin 2 δ + ρ 1 cos 2 δ ,
δ i j k = 0 χ i i 2 ω χ j j ω χ k k ω d i j k ,

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