Abstract

Various instabilities, such as regular and irregular pulsation, periodic oscillation, and optical chaos, have been observed by selecting geometric parameters in a mutually pumped phase conjugator (PC) of BaTiO3. The behavior of the PC output in the periodic oscillation state was studied in detail. Some explanations, for instance, competition among the coupling channels and interference between two PC beams coming from different channels, are proposed.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Weiss, S. Sternklar, and B. Fischer, “Double phase-conjugate mirror: analysis, demonstration, and application,” Opt. Lett. 12, 114–116 (1987); S. Sternklar, S. Weiss, M. Segev, and B. Fischer, “Beam coupling and locking of lasers using photorefractive four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 11, 528–530 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. C. Smout and R. W. Eason, “Analysis of mutually incoherent beam coupling in BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 12, 498–500 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Ewbank, “Mechanism for photorefractive phase conjugation using incoherent beams,” Opt. Lett. 13, 47–49 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Gunter, E. Voit, and M. Z. Zha, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos on self-pumped photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–214 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. C. Smout and R. W. Eason, “Regular oscillations and self-pulsating in self-pumped BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 77–82 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. W. Eason and A. M. C. Smout, “Bistability and noncommutative behavior of multiple-beam self-pulsing and self-pumping in BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 12, 51–53 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. W. James, G. Hussain, and R. W. Eason, “Dynamic instabilities in the mutually pumped ‘bird wing’ phase conjugator,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials Effects, and Devices II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), 325–328.
  9. P. Yeh, T. Y. Chang, and M. D. Ewbank, “Model for mutually pumped phase conjugation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1743–1749 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1987 (3)

1986 (1)

A. M. C. Smout and R. W. Eason, “Regular oscillations and self-pulsating in self-pumped BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 77–82 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. Gunter, E. Voit, and M. Z. Zha, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos on self-pumped photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

Eason, R. W.

A. M. C. Smout and R. W. Eason, “Analysis of mutually incoherent beam coupling in BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 12, 498–500 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Eason and A. M. C. Smout, “Bistability and noncommutative behavior of multiple-beam self-pulsing and self-pumping in BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 12, 51–53 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. C. Smout and R. W. Eason, “Regular oscillations and self-pulsating in self-pumped BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 77–82 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, G. Hussain, and R. W. Eason, “Dynamic instabilities in the mutually pumped ‘bird wing’ phase conjugator,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials Effects, and Devices II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), 325–328.

Ewbank, M. D.

Fischer, B.

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter, E. Voit, and M. Z. Zha, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos on self-pumped photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, G.

S. W. James, G. Hussain, and R. W. Eason, “Dynamic instabilities in the mutually pumped ‘bird wing’ phase conjugator,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials Effects, and Devices II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), 325–328.

James, S. W.

S. W. James, G. Hussain, and R. W. Eason, “Dynamic instabilities in the mutually pumped ‘bird wing’ phase conjugator,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials Effects, and Devices II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), 325–328.

Smout, A. M. C.

Sternklar, S.

Voit, E.

P. Gunter, E. Voit, and M. Z. Zha, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos on self-pumped photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Dadi

Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

Ye, Peixian

Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Zha, M. Z.

P. Gunter, E. Voit, and M. Z. Zha, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos on self-pumped photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Shiming

Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Zhiguo

Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Yong

Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

Dadi Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yong Zhu, Shiming Zhang, and Peixian Ye, “Observations on the coupling channel of two mutually incoherent beams without internal reflection in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 73, 495–500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Gunter, E. Voit, and M. Z. Zha, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos on self-pumped photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. M. C. Smout and R. W. Eason, “Regular oscillations and self-pulsating in self-pumped BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 77–82 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

S. W. James, G. Hussain, and R. W. Eason, “Dynamic instabilities in the mutually pumped ‘bird wing’ phase conjugator,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials Effects, and Devices II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), 325–328.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the mutually pumped phase conjugator. Beams 1 and 2 are e-polarized and mutually incoherent. Both beams enter the BaTiO3 in the same horizontal crystal plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: T, telescope; L’s, lenses; PZT, piezoelectric translator. A portion of power is split from an Ar multilongitudinal-mode laser for the erasing process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time dependence of the PC output of beam 1 for different values of X (from X = 1.5 mm to X = 4.0 mm) when other parameters were fixed at ϕ = −65°, θ = 156°, Y = 0.8 mm, and I1 = I2/2 = 2.0 mW. The vertical axis denotes the relative intensity of the beam 1 output.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Periodic oscillations of the PC outputs for I0 = I1 + I2 = 4.7 mW, 7.1 mW, and 15.6 mW at ϕ = −65°, θ = 156°, Y = 0.8 mm, and X = 3.7 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Log–log plot of intensity dependence of the frequency of oscillation outputs. I0 is the total power of the incident beams, and the best-fitting straight line has a slope of 0.7.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical time dependence of the oscillation outputs of beams 1 and 2, showing their synchronous character. The photographs indicate the output beam patterns in the far field recorded at moments corresponding to the peak and to the valley of the outputs, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of beam paths within the crystal during an oscillation state. The appearance of two bright curves indicates that the energy of beams is attracted to the two channels coupling two input beams.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph showing the far-field interference pattern produced on the screen by the interference between the PC output of beam 1 and of beam I20 through a set of beam splitters and mirrors. The arrow shows the motion direction of the fringes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Possible ring oscillation in the crystal that produces a frequency shift of the PC beams.

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