Abstract

Quantum-confinement effects in CdSe microcrystallites in a glass matrix are investigated in the nanosecond time domain. The results of pump–probe and single-beam absorption saturation measurements show strong evidence for electron–hole quantization in the semiconductor microstructures, a different bleaching behavior from those of bulk semiconductors and multiple quantum wells, and a trend of increased saturation intensity with decreased microcrystallite size. A theory for the one- and two-pair states in quantum dots is developed that fully includes the relevant Coulomb interactions. The theory is evaluated numerically, and results are presented for intrinsic quantum dots and for quantum dots with impurities. The experimentally observed nonlinearities are attributed to saturation of one-electron–hole-pair resonances and induced absorption caused by two-pair resonances in the presence or absence of impurities (traps).

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 772 (1982); A. I. Ekimov and A. A. Onushchenko, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 775 (1982).
  2. L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403 (1984); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1909 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. F. Borrelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Rossetti, S. Nakahara, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1086 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Rossetti, R. Hall, J. M. Gibson, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 552 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Itoh and T. Kirihara, J. Lumin. 31, 120 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  7. Kai Shum, G. C. Tang, M. R. Junnarkar, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1839 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Wang, N. Herron, W. Mahler, and A. Suna, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 808 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Schmitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. B 35, 8113 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Hanamura, Phys. Rev. B 37, 1273 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Takagahara, Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Banyai, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Lett. 13, 212 (1988); L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and N. Neuroth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 312 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Hilinski, P. Lucas, and Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  16. V. Williams, G. R. Olbright, B. D. Fluegel, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1979 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. T. Remillard, H. Wang, M. D. Webb, and D. G. Steel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 408 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  18. S.-H. Park, Ph.D. dissertation, “Excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductors and semiconductor microstructures,” (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 1988).
  19. N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 42, 1713 (1990); see also Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, N. Peyghambarian, E. L. Pollock, and F. F. Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1805 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Mitsunaga, H. Shinojima, and K. Kubodera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1448 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. W. Hall and N. F. Borrelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1650 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. J. Liu and S. Risbud, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (personal communication, 1989).
  25. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2154 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  26. V. Esch, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Xu Jiagin, L. C. Liu, and S. Risbud, Opt. News 15(12), 26 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. P. Alivisatos, A. L. Harris, N. J. Levinas, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4001 (1988).
    [Crossref]

1990 (1)

Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 42, 1713 (1990); see also Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, N. Peyghambarian, E. L. Pollock, and F. F. Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1805 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (5)

V. Esch, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Xu Jiagin, L. C. Liu, and S. Risbud, Opt. News 15(12), 26 (1989).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, N. Herron, W. Mahler, and A. Suna, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 808 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and N. Neuroth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 312 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Remillard, H. Wang, M. D. Webb, and D. G. Steel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 408 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (8)

E. Hilinski, P. Lucas, and Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[Crossref]

V. Williams, G. R. Olbright, B. D. Fluegel, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1979 (1988).
[Crossref]

E. Hanamura, Phys. Rev. B 37, 1273 (1988).
[Crossref]

L. Banyai, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Lett. 13, 212 (1988); L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Alivisatos, A. L. Harris, N. J. Levinas, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4001 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Mitsunaga, H. Shinojima, and K. Kubodera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1448 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hall and N. F. Borrelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1650 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2154 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (5)

Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kai Shum, G. C. Tang, M. R. Junnarkar, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1839 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. Takagahara, Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. B 35, 8113 (1987).
[Crossref]

N. F. Borrelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Rossetti, R. Hall, J. M. Gibson, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 552 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

T. Itoh and T. Kirihara, J. Lumin. 31, 120 (1984).
[Crossref]

L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403 (1984); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1909 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. Rossetti, S. Nakahara, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1086 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 772 (1982); A. I. Ekimov and A. A. Onushchenko, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 775 (1982).

Alfano, R. R.

Kai Shum, G. C. Tang, M. R. Junnarkar, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1839 (1987).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, A. L. Harris, N. J. Levinas, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4001 (1988).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, A.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

Banyai, L.

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall and N. F. Borrelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1650 (1988).
[Crossref]

N. F. Borrelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399 (1987).
[Crossref]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Brus, L. E.

A. P. Alivisatos, A. L. Harris, N. J. Levinas, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4001 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. Rossetti, R. Hall, J. M. Gibson, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 552 (1985).
[Crossref]

L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403 (1984); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1909 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Rossetti, S. Nakahara, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1086 (1983).
[Crossref]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2154 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. B 35, 8113 (1987).
[Crossref]

Efros, A. L.

Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 772 (1982); A. I. Ekimov and A. A. Onushchenko, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 775 (1982).

Efros, Al. L.

Al. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 772 (1982); A. I. Ekimov and A. A. Onushchenko, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 775 (1982).

Esch, V.

V. Esch, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Xu Jiagin, L. C. Liu, and S. Risbud, Opt. News 15(12), 26 (1989).
[Crossref]

Etchepare, J.

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Fluegel, B.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fluegel, B. D.

V. Williams, G. R. Olbright, B. D. Fluegel, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1979 (1988).
[Crossref]

Flugel, B.

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Flytzanis, C.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and N. Neuroth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 312 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, H. M.

V. Esch, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Xu Jiagin, L. C. Liu, and S. Risbud, Opt. News 15(12), 26 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gibson, J. M.

R. Rossetti, R. Hall, J. M. Gibson, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 552 (1985).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall and N. F. Borrelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1650 (1988).
[Crossref]

N. F. Borrelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399 (1987).
[Crossref]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Hall, R.

R. Rossetti, R. Hall, J. M. Gibson, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 552 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hanamura, E.

E. Hanamura, Phys. Rev. B 37, 1273 (1988).
[Crossref]

Harris, A. L.

A. P. Alivisatos, A. L. Harris, N. J. Levinas, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4001 (1988).
[Crossref]

Herron, N.

Hilinski, E.

E. Hilinski, P. Lucas, and Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[Crossref]

Holland, H. J.

N. F. Borrelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 42, 1713 (1990); see also Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, N. Peyghambarian, E. L. Pollock, and F. F. Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1805 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Hulin, D.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Itoh, T.

T. Itoh and T. Kirihara, J. Lumin. 31, 120 (1984).
[Crossref]

Jiagin, Xu

V. Esch, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Xu Jiagin, L. C. Liu, and S. Risbud, Opt. News 15(12), 26 (1989).
[Crossref]

Joffre, M.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Junnarkar, M. R.

Kai Shum, G. C. Tang, M. R. Junnarkar, and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1839 (1987).
[Crossref]

Khitrova, G.

V. Esch, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Xu Jiagin, L. C. Liu, and S. Risbud, Opt. News 15(12), 26 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kirihara, T.

T. Itoh and T. Kirihara, J. Lumin. 31, 120 (1984).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 42, 1713 (1990); see also Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, N. Peyghambarian, E. L. Pollock, and F. F. Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1805 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

V. Williams, G. R. Olbright, B. D. Fluegel, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1979 (1988).
[Crossref]

L. Banyai, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Lett. 13, 212 (1988); L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Kubodera, K.

Levinas, N. J.

A. P. Alivisatos, A. L. Harris, N. J. Levinas, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4001 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lindberg, M.

Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 42, 1713 (1990); see also Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, N. Peyghambarian, E. L. Pollock, and F. F. Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1805 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

L. Banyai, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Lett. 13, 212 (1988); L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Liu, L. C.

V. Esch, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Xu Jiagin, L. C. Liu, and S. Risbud, Opt. News 15(12), 26 (1989).
[Crossref]

Liu, L. J.

L. J. Liu and S. Risbud, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (personal communication, 1989).

Lucas, P.

E. Hilinski, P. Lucas, and Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lukasik, J.

Mahler, W.

Migus, A.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2154 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. B 35, 8113 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mitsunaga, M.

Morgan, R. A.

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Nakahara, S.

R. Rossetti, S. Nakahara, and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1086 (1983).
[Crossref]

Neuroth, N.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and N. Neuroth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 312 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olbright, G. R.

V. Williams, G. R. Olbright, B. D. Fluegel, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1979 (1988).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

N. Peyghambarian, S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, B. Flugel, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, D. Hulin, A. Migus, J. Etchepare, M. Joffre, G. Grillon, D. W. Hall, and N. F. Borrelli, in Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems, H. Haug and L. Banyai, eds. (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 191.
[Crossref]

Park, S.-H.

S.-H. Park, Ph.D. dissertation, “Excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductors and semiconductor microstructures,” (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 1988).

Peyghambarian, N.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516 (1989).
[Crossref]

V. Williams, G. R. Olbright, B. D. Fluegel, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1979 (1988).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption spectra for three samples grown with heat-treatment temperatures of 600, 650, and 700°C. The inset show a simple schematic for the quantum-confined energy levels. The relative position of the hole energy level 1sB compared with 1pA depends on the effective masses of the radius and the hole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear absorption spectra (inset) and corresponding DTS for 600°C QD sample for various pump intensities (in MW/cm2) at room temperature: (a) λp = 581 nm; 1, 4.76; 2, 2.38; 3, 1.32; 4, 0.59; (b) λp = 552 nm; 1, 5.81; 2, 2.93; 3, 1.40; 4, 0.72; (c) λp = 490 nm; 1, 7.43; 2, 4.07; 3, 2.04; (d) λp = 490 nm; 1, 9.04; 2, 4.97; 3, 2.29.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear absorption spectra (inset) and corresponding DTS for 600°C QD sample for various pump intensities (in MW/cm2) at 10 K: (a) λp = 562 nm; 1, 3.76; 2, 1.83; 3, 0.86; 4, 0.42; (b) λp = 538 nm; 1, 4.80; 2, 2.38; 3, 1.19; 4, 0.64; (c) λp = 478 nm, 1, 20.2; 2, 10.1; 3, 5.9.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Computed linear absorption spectrum (dashed curve) and DTS (solid curve) for pumping into the energetically lowest transition for intrinsic semiconductor QD’s. The parameters used for this figure are given in the text. The computed DTS is proportional to the absorption changes as α(l pair) − α(2 pairs).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4, but for quantum dots in the presence of an additional point charge at the surface of the dot. The computed DTS is proportional to the absorption changes as α(l pair + a surface charge) − α(2 pairs + a surface charge).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Linear absorption spectra for an intrinsic quantum dot (solid curve, same as linear spectrum in Fig. 4) and for a quantum dot with a second electron–hole pair whose hole is trapped at the surface (dashed curve), (b) shows the difference between the two linear absorption spectra, i.e., α(1 pair) − α(3 charges inside + a surface charge), which is proportional to the DTS of Figs. 4 and 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Single-beam absorption saturation data taken at (a) 300 K; (b)10 K for the three samples, (c) is similar data taken for the 600°C sample at 10 K when the laser was tuned to 478 nm, near the C* transition.

Equations (19)

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H ˆ = H ˆ e + H ˆ h + V ˆ e e + V ˆ h h + V ˆ e h + W ˆ ,
H ˆ e = s d r ψ e ( r , s ) ( E g ћ 2 2 m e 2 ) ψ e ( r , s ) ,
H ˆ h = s d r ψ h ( r , s ) ( ћ 2 2 m h 2 ) ψ h ( r , s ) ,
V ˆ e e = 1 2 s s d r d r ψ e ( r , s ) ψ e ( r , s ) × V ( r r ) ψ e ( r , s ) ψ e ( r , s ) ,
V ˆ h h = 1 2 s s d r d r ψ h ( r , s ) ψ h ( r , s ) × V ( r r ) ψ h ( r , s ) ψ h ( r , s ) ,
V ˆ e h = s s d r d r ψ e ( r , s ) ψ h ( r , s ) × V ( r r ) ψ h ( r , s ) ψ e ( r , s ) ,
ψ e ( r , s ) = ψ h ( r , s ) = 0 when | r | R .
H ˆ int = E ( t ) P ( + ) + H . c . = p c υ E ( t ) s d r ψ e ( r , s ) ψ h ( r , s ) + H . c .,
| Ψ e = s d r ϕ ( r , s ) ψ e ( r , s ) | 0 ,
ћ 2 2 m e 2 ϕ ( r , s ) = ( E E g ) ϕ ( r , s ) ,
ϕ n l m σ ( r , s ) = ( 2 R 3 ) 1 / 2 j l ( α n l | r | R ) j l + 1 ( α n l ) Y l m ( θ , Φ ) δ σ s ,
n = 1 , 2 , 3 , , l = 0 , 1 , 2 , , m = l , l + 1 , , l 1 , l , σ = 1 2 , 1 2 ,
E = E n l = ћ 2 2 m ( α n l R ) 2 .
| ψ e h = d r e d r h ϕ 1 ( r e , r h ) s e s h χ ( s e , s h ) ψ e ( r e , s e ) ψ h ( r h , s h ) | 0 ,
ϕ 1 , L M ( r e , r h ) = n 1 l 1 m 1 n 1 l 1 m 1 C n 2 l 2 m 2 l 1 m 1 l 2 m 2 | L M × ϕ e ( n 1 l 1 m 1 ) ϕ h ( n 2 l 2 m 2 ) ,
χ av = 0 d R ρ ( R ) χ R ,
H ˆ H ˆ + H ˆ im ,
H ˆ im = i = e , h d r i ψ i ( r ) V im ( r i z ) ψ i ( r i ) ,
α = α 0 1 + I / I s + α B ,

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