Abstract

Using the method of time-domain spectroscopy, we measure the far-infrared absorption and dispersion from 0.2 to 2 THz of the crystalline dielectrics sapphire and quartz, fused silica, and the semiconductors silicon, gallium arsenide, and germanium. For sapphire and quartz, the measured absorptions are consistent with the earlier work below 0.5 THz. Above 1 THz we measure significantly more absorption for sapphire, while for quartz our values are in reasonable agreement with those of the previous work. Our results on high-purity fused silica are consistent with those on the most transparent fused silica measured to date. For the semiconductors, we show that many of the previous measurements on silicon were dominated by the effects of carriers due to impurities. For high-resistivity, 10-kΩ cm silicon, we measure a remarkable transparency together with an exceptionally nondispersive index of refraction. For GaAs our measurements extend the precision of the previous work, and we resolve two weak absorption features at 0.4 and 0.7 THz. Our measurements on germanium demonstrate the dominant role of intrinsic carriers; the measured absorption and dispersion are well fitted by the simple Drude theory.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. J. R. Birch, “The absolute determination of complex reflectivity,” Infrared Phys. 18, 613–620 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  45. R. H. Stolen, “Temperature dependence of far-infrared absorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 767–770 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  46. T. Ohba, S. Ikawa, “Far-infrared absorption of silicon crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4141–4143 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  47. K. Seeger, “Microwave dielectric constants of silicon, gallium arsenide, and quartz,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5439–5443 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1990

S. Keiding, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the phase shift and reshaping of teraHz pulses due to total internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 15, 48–50 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990); “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately-doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of high Tc substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1055–1057 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness teraHz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “A Cherenkov source for freely propagating teraHz beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2608–2610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, “Coherent broadband microwave spectroscopy using picosecond optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307–309 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectoscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, G. V. Kopcsay, J.-M. Halbout, “Dielectric properties of uniaxial crystals measured with optoelectronically generated microwave transient radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2277–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Point source terahertz optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohba, S. Ikawa, “Far-infrared absorption of silicon crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4141–4143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Seeger, “Microwave dielectric constants of silicon, gallium arsenide, and quartz,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5439–5443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, “Transient response of planar integrated optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155–1157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, “Optoelectronic transmission and reception of ultrashort electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, “Electromagnetic shock waves from transmission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663–1666 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “A novel technique for measuring far-infrared absorption and dispersion,” Infrared Phys. 26, 23–27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dutta, C. R. Jones, H. Dave, “Complex dielectric constants for selected near-millimeter-wave materials at 245 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-34, 932–936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “Excitation of coherent phonon polaritons with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2152–2155 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Afsar, “Dielectric measurements of millimeter-wave materials,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-32, 1598–1609 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. H. Auston, “Subpicosecond electro-optic Shockwaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713–715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0 K, 1.2 K, 0.3 K, and 0.1 K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255–258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, “The optical constants of pure fused quartz in the far-infrared,” Infrared Phys. 18, 215–219 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Birch, “The absolute determination of complex reflectivity,” Infrared Phys. 18, 613–620 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509–517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. H. Stolen, “Temperature dependence of far-infrared absorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 767–770 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. R. Birch, C. C. Bradley, M. F. Kimmitt, “Absorption and refraction in germanium at 293°K in the range 12–50 cm−1,” Infrared Phys. 14, 189–197 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

1971

S. Perkowitz, “Far-infrared free-carrier absorption in N-type gallium arsenide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 32, 2267–2274 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

1967

Afsar, M. N.

M. N. Afsar, “Dielectric measurements of millimeter-wave materials,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-32, 1598–1609 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509–517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Arjavalingam, G.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, G. V. Kopcsay, J.-M. Halbout, “Dielectric properties of uniaxial crystals measured with optoelectronically generated microwave transient radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2277–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, “Coherent broadband microwave spectroscopy using picosecond optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307–309 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “A novel technique for measuring far-infrared absorption and dispersion,” Infrared Phys. 26, 23–27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “Excitation of coherent phonon polaritons with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2152–2155 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, “Subpicosecond electro-optic Shockwaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713–715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bell, E. E.

Birch, J. R.

J. R. Birch, “The absolute determination of complex reflectivity,” Infrared Phys. 18, 613–620 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Birch, C. C. Bradley, M. F. Kimmitt, “Absorption and refraction in germanium at 293°K in the range 12–50 cm−1,” Infrared Phys. 14, 189–197 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C. C.

J. R. Birch, C. C. Bradley, M. F. Kimmitt, “Absorption and refraction in germanium at 293°K in the range 12–50 cm−1,” Infrared Phys. 14, 189–197 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambers, W. G.

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, “The optical constants of pure fused quartz in the far-infrared,” Infrared Phys. 18, 215–219 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, “Electromagnetic shock waves from transmission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663–1666 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “A novel technique for measuring far-infrared absorption and dispersion,” Infrared Phys. 26, 23–27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “Excitation of coherent phonon polaritons with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2152–2155 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.-C.

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, “Electromagnetic shock waves from transmission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663–1666 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, “Spectroscopy with ultrashort electrical pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1987).

Chi, C-C.

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dave, H.

J. M. Dutta, C. R. Jones, H. Dave, “Complex dielectric constants for selected near-millimeter-wave materials at 245 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-34, 932–936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, A. W.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0 K, 1.2 K, 0.3 K, and 0.1 K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255–258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

DeFonzo, A. P.

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, “Optoelectronic transmission and reception of ultrashort electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, “Transient response of planar integrated optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155–1157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, “Electromagnetic shock waves from transmission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663–1666 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Halas, I. N. Duling, M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, “Measured dispersion and absorption of a 5 micron coplanar transmission line,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986).

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, “Spectroscopy with ultrashort electrical pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1987).

Dutta, J. M.

J. M. Dutta, C. R. Jones, H. Dave, “Complex dielectric constants for selected near-millimeter-wave materials at 245 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-34, 932–936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness teraHz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectoscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “A Cherenkov source for freely propagating teraHz beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2608–2610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Point source terahertz optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, “The optical constants of pure fused quartz in the far-infrared,” Infrared Phys. 18, 215–219 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, W. J.

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, “Spectroscopy with ultrashort electrical pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1987).

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths, Chemical Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Grischkowsky, D.

S. Keiding, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the phase shift and reshaping of teraHz pulses due to total internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 15, 48–50 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990); “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately-doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of high Tc substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1055–1057 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “A Cherenkov source for freely propagating teraHz beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2608–2610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectoscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness teraHz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Point source terahertz optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, “Electromagnetic shock waves from transmission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663–1666 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, “Time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Infrared Physics, R. Kesselring, F. K. Kneubuhl, eds. (ETH, Zurich, 1988).

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic teraHz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (to be published).

N. J. Halas, I. N. Duling, M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, “Measured dispersion and absorption of a 5 micron coplanar transmission line,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986).

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, “Spectroscopy with ultrashort electrical pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1987).

Halas, N. J.

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Halas, I. N. Duling, M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, “Measured dispersion and absorption of a 5 micron coplanar transmission line,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986).

Halbout, J.-M.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, G. V. Kopcsay, J.-M. Halbout, “Dielectric properties of uniaxial crystals measured with optoelectronically generated microwave transient radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2277–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, “Coherent broadband microwave spectroscopy using picosecond optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307–309 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Halbout, J-M

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Halbout, J-M.

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Honijk, D. D.

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509–517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ikawa, S.

T. Ohba, S. Ikawa, “Far-infrared absorption of silicon crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4141–4143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jarwala, M.

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, “Transient response of planar integrated optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155–1157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0 K, 1.2 K, 0.3 K, and 0.1 K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255–258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. J.

Jones, C. R.

J. M. Dutta, C. R. Jones, H. Dave, “Complex dielectric constants for selected near-millimeter-wave materials at 245 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-34, 932–936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of high Tc substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1055–1057 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Keiding, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the phase shift and reshaping of teraHz pulses due to total internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 15, 48–50 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketchen, M. B.

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Halas, I. N. Duling, M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, “Measured dispersion and absorption of a 5 micron coplanar transmission line,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986).

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, “Spectroscopy with ultrashort electrical pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1987).

Kimmitt, M. F.

J. R. Birch, C. C. Bradley, M. F. Kimmitt, “Absorption and refraction in germanium at 293°K in the range 12–50 cm−1,” Infrared Phys. 14, 189–197 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kleinsasser, A. W.

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kopcsay, G. V.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, “Coherent broadband microwave spectroscopy using picosecond optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307–309 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, G. V. Kopcsay, J.-M. Halbout, “Dielectric properties of uniaxial crystals measured with optoelectronically generated microwave transient radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2277–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. P.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, E. V.

Low, F. J.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0 K, 1.2 K, 0.3 K, and 0.1 K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255–258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, C. R.

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, “Optoelectronic transmission and reception of ultrashort electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, “Transient response of planar integrated optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155–1157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, M.

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509–517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

May, P. G.

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. L.

Nuss, M. C.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohba, T.

T. Ohba, S. Ikawa, “Far-infrared absorption of silicon crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4141–4143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T. J.

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, “The optical constants of pure fused quartz in the far-infrared,” Infrared Phys. 18, 215–219 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Passchier, W. F.

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509–517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pastol, Y.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, G. V. Kopcsay, J.-M. Halbout, “Dielectric properties of uniaxial crystals measured with optoelectronically generated microwave transient radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2277–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, “Coherent broadband microwave spectroscopy using picosecond optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307–309 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Perkowitz, S.

S. Perkowitz, “Far-infrared free-carrier absorption in N-type gallium arsenide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 32, 2267–2274 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. M.

Rawcliffe, R. D.

Russell, E. E.

Seeger, K.

K. Seeger, “Microwave dielectric constants of silicon, gallium arsenide, and quartz,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5439–5443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, G. H.

Smith, D. R.

Smith, P. R.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, “Spectroscopy with ultrashort electrical pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1987).

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, “Temperature dependence of far-infrared absorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 767–770 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, “Far-infrared absorption in high resistivity GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 74–75 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990); “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately-doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness teraHz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectoscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic teraHz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (to be published).

Weil, R.

Zhang, X.-C.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990); “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately-doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of high Tc substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1055–1057 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, “Subpicosecond electro-optic Shockwaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713–715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M Halbout, J. A. Kash, G. P. Li, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751–753 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, “Transient response of planar integrated optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155–1157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, “Optoelectronic transmission and reception of ultrashort electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness teraHz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Free-space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gallagher, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, D. Grischkowsky, N. J. Halas, M. B. Ketchen, A. W. Kleinsasser, “Subpicosecond optoelectronic study of resistive and superconductive transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 350–352 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared spectroscopy with subpicosecond electrical pulses on transmission lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Point source terahertz optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480–1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, “Coherent broadband microwave spectroscopy using picosecond optoelectronic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307–309 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, G. V. Kopcsay, J.-M. Halbout, “Dielectric properties of uniaxial crystals measured with optoelectronically generated microwave transient radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2277–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, “Far-infrared absorption in high resistivity GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 74–75 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “A Cherenkov source for freely propagating teraHz beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2608–2610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, C-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J-M. Halbout, P. G. May, “Capacitance free generation and detection of subpicosecond electrical pulses on coplanar transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 221–225 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

M. N. Afsar, “Dielectric measurements of millimeter-wave materials,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-32, 1598–1609 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dutta, C. R. Jones, H. Dave, “Complex dielectric constants for selected near-millimeter-wave materials at 245 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-34, 932–936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, “The optical constants of pure fused quartz in the far-infrared,” Infrared Phys. 18, 215–219 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Birch, C. C. Bradley, M. F. Kimmitt, “Absorption and refraction in germanium at 293°K in the range 12–50 cm−1,” Infrared Phys. 14, 189–197 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Birch, “The absolute determination of complex reflectivity,” Infrared Phys. 18, 613–620 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “A novel technique for measuring far-infrared absorption and dispersion,” Infrared Phys. 26, 23–27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Ohba, S. Ikawa, “Far-infrared absorption of silicon crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4141–4143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Seeger, “Microwave dielectric constants of silicon, gallium arsenide, and quartz,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5439–5443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

S. Perkowitz, “Far-infrared free-carrier absorption in N-type gallium arsenide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 32, 2267–2274 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509–517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0 K, 1.2 K, 0.3 K, and 0.1 K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255–258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

R. H. Stolen, “Temperature dependence of far-infrared absorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 767–770 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, “Excitation of coherent phonon polaritons with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2152–2155 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, “Electromagnetic shock waves from transmission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663–1666 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1555–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. R. Griffiths, Chemical Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1975).

D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1982).

N. J. Halas, I. N. Duling, M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, “Measured dispersion and absorption of a 5 micron coplanar transmission line,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986).

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic teraHz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (to be published).

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, “Spectroscopy with ultrashort electrical pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1987).

D. Grischkowsky, “Time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Infrared Physics, R. Kesselring, F. K. Kneubuhl, eds. (ETH, Zurich, 1988).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Ultrafast dipolar antenna. (b) Terahertz optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured electrical pulse of the freely propagating terahertz beam in pure nitrogen. (b) Amplitude spectrum of (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured electrical pulse of the freely propagating terahertz beam after passage through the 9.589-mm-thick sapphire sample. (b) Amplitude spectrum of (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TDS measurements of crystalline sapphire. The circles are the data of Refs. 31 and 32; the asterisks are the data of Ref. 33. (a) Power absorption coefficient (ordinary ray), (b) index of refraction (ordinary ray), (c) power absorption coefficient (extraordinary ray), (d) index of refraction (extraordinary ray).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TDS measurements of crystalline quartz. The circles are the data of Refs. 31 and 35; the asterisks are the data of Ref. 33. (a) Power absorption coefficient (ordinary ray), (b) index of refraction (ordinary ray), (c) power absorption coefficient (extraordinary ray), (d) index of refraction (extraordinary ray).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TDS measurements of fused silica. The circles are the data of Refs. 31 and 38; the asterisks are the data of Ref. 39. (a) Power absorption coefficient, (b) index of refraction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TDS measurements of crystalline high-resistivity silicon. (a) Power absorption coefficient, (b) index of refraction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TDS measurements of crystalline high-resistivity gallium arsenide. (a) Power absorption coefficient, (b) index of refraction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

TDS measurements of crystalline intrinsic germanium. (a) Power absorption coefficient, (b) index of refraction.

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