Abstract

Measurement of femtosecond single-pulse and time-resolved absorbance in an optically thin silicon film is used to extract the direct two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient βTPA of silicon over a wide spectral range; it is also used to distinguish other nonlinear absorption channels, even with the fundamental pulse far above the indirect gap. We find that βTPA varies as follows: 15 cm/GW < βTPA < 36 cm/GW ± 6 cm/GW over the two-photon energy range 4.0 eV < 2 < 4.5 eV, consistent with available calculated values. The spectral structure of the results is related to the underlying band structure. The results show that second-order absorption nonlinearities dominate for fluences up to 0.07 J/cm2, just below the single-shot melting threshold. At fluences above this level a much stronger nonlinearity dominates.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Inoue, Y. Toyozawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 20, 363 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Mahr, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy,” in Quantum Electronics: Nonlinear Optics, H. Rabin, C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol.1, p. 287.
  3. B. S. Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 67 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Reintjes, J. C. McGroddy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Pidgeon, B. S. Wherrett, A. M. Johnston, J. Dempsey, A. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1785 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. H. Knox, J. B. Stark, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, S. Schmitt-Rink, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 331.
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. S. Jha, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 171, 891 (1968);J. C. Phillips, J. A. van Vechten, Phys. Rev. 183, 709 (1969);C. Flytzanis, Phys. Lett. 31A, 273 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Moss, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 14, 57 (1989);D. J. Moss, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, “Band structure calculation of dispersion and anisotropy in χ(3) for third harmonic generation in Si, Ge, and GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Extensions of these calculations to two-photon absorption are in progress (H. M. van Driel, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, personal communication).
  12. C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 595 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, C. H. Brito-Cruz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1438 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Combescot, J. Bok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1413 (1982);J. A. van Vechten, R. Tsu, F. W. Saris, D. Hoonhout, Phys. Lett. 74A, 417, 422 (1979);R. Biswas, V. Ambegaokar, Phys. Rev. B 26, 1980 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Kurz, N. Bloembergen, in Energy Beam-Solid Interactions and Transient Thermal Processing, D. K. Biegelson, G. A. Rozgonyi, C. V. Shank, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), p. 3, and references therein.
  19. Wm. M. Wood, G. Focht, M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 13, 984 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1985).
  21. F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 36 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Kutt, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 233.
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, C. Hirlimann, R. Yen, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 1 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 83.
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Kutt, K. Seibert, A. Esser, U. Lemmer, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, “Generation, cooling, and recombination of a dense electron–hole plasma in silicon,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.
  26. M. C. Downer, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 761 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. K. F. Berggren, B. E. Sernelius, Phys. Rev. B 24, 1971 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Moison, F. Barthe, M. Bensoussan, Phys. Rev. B 27, 3611 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Haas, Phys. Rev. 125, 1965 (1962);S. M. Ryvkin, Phys. Status Solidi 11, 285 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  30. See, for example, J. C. Phillips, Bands and Bonds in Semiconductors (Academic, New York, 1973).
  31. T. R. Bader, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 171, 997 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Haug, Solid-State Electron. 21, 1281 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Rasolt, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2208 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1989

1988

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wm. M. Wood, G. Focht, M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 13, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, C. H. Brito-Cruz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1438 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

M. Rasolt, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2208 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. C. Downer, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 761 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

1983

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, C. Hirlimann, R. Yen, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Moison, F. Barthe, M. Bensoussan, Phys. Rev. B 27, 3611 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. Combescot, J. Bok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1413 (1982);J. A. van Vechten, R. Tsu, F. W. Saris, D. Hoonhout, Phys. Lett. 74A, 417, 422 (1979);R. Biswas, V. Ambegaokar, Phys. Rev. B 26, 1980 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Berggren, B. E. Sernelius, Phys. Rev. B 24, 1971 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

C. R. Pidgeon, B. S. Wherrett, A. M. Johnston, J. Dempsey, A. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1785 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

A. Haug, Solid-State Electron. 21, 1281 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973

J. F. Reintjes, J. C. McGroddy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968

T. R. Bader, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 171, 997 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Jha, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 171, 891 (1968);J. C. Phillips, J. A. van Vechten, Phys. Rev. 183, 709 (1969);C. Flytzanis, Phys. Lett. 31A, 273 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

M. Inoue, Y. Toyozawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 20, 363 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962

C. Haas, Phys. Rev. 125, 1965 (1962);S. M. Ryvkin, Phys. Status Solidi 11, 285 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Astier, R.

A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aumiller, G. D.

H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, C. H. Brito-Cruz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1438 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bader, T. R.

T. R. Bader, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 171, 997 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Barthe, F.

J. M. Moison, F. Barthe, M. Bensoussan, Phys. Rev. B 27, 3611 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bensoussan, M.

J. M. Moison, F. Barthe, M. Bensoussan, Phys. Rev. B 27, 3611 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. F.

K. F. Berggren, B. E. Sernelius, Phys. Rev. B 24, 1971 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

S. S. Jha, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 171, 891 (1968);J. C. Phillips, J. A. van Vechten, Phys. Rev. 183, 709 (1969);C. Flytzanis, Phys. Lett. 31A, 273 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurz, N. Bloembergen, in Energy Beam-Solid Interactions and Transient Thermal Processing, D. K. Biegelson, G. A. Rozgonyi, C. V. Shank, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), p. 3, and references therein.

Boggess, T. F.

A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bohnert, K.

A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bok, J.

M. Combescot, J. Bok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1413 (1982);J. A. van Vechten, R. Tsu, F. W. Saris, D. Hoonhout, Phys. Lett. 74A, 417, 422 (1979);R. Biswas, V. Ambegaokar, Phys. Rev. B 26, 1980 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I. W.

A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Cruz, C. H.

H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, C. H. Brito-Cruz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1438 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

W. H. Knox, J. B. Stark, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, S. Schmitt-Rink, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 331.
[CrossRef]

Combescot, M.

M. Combescot, J. Bok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1413 (1982);J. A. van Vechten, R. Tsu, F. W. Saris, D. Hoonhout, Phys. Lett. 74A, 417, 422 (1979);R. Biswas, V. Ambegaokar, Phys. Rev. B 26, 1980 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Danielzik, B.

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dempsey, J.

C. R. Pidgeon, B. S. Wherrett, A. M. Johnston, J. Dempsey, A. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1785 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

Esser, A.

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, A. Esser, U. Lemmer, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, “Generation, cooling, and recombination of a dense electron–hole plasma in silicon,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Fabricius, N.

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Focht, G.

Fork, R. L.

Gold, A.

T. R. Bader, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 171, 997 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Haas, C.

C. Haas, Phys. Rev. 125, 1965 (1962);S. M. Ryvkin, Phys. Status Solidi 11, 285 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Haug, A.

A. Haug, Solid-State Electron. 21, 1281 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1985).

Heppner, J.

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hermes, P.

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, C. Hirlimann, R. Yen, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hulin, D.

A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

M. Inoue, Y. Toyozawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 20, 363 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 83.
[CrossRef]

Jha, S. S.

S. S. Jha, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 171, 891 (1968);J. C. Phillips, J. A. van Vechten, Phys. Rev. 183, 709 (1969);C. Flytzanis, Phys. Lett. 31A, 273 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, A. M.

C. R. Pidgeon, B. S. Wherrett, A. M. Johnston, J. Dempsey, A. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1785 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, J. B. Stark, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, S. Schmitt-Rink, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 331.
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Rasolt, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2208 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, A. Esser, U. Lemmer, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, “Generation, cooling, and recombination of a dense electron–hole plasma in silicon,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Kurz, N. Bloembergen, in Energy Beam-Solid Interactions and Transient Thermal Processing, D. K. Biegelson, G. A. Rozgonyi, C. V. Shank, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), p. 3, and references therein.

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 233.
[CrossRef]

Kutt, W.

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, A. Esser, U. Lemmer, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, “Generation, cooling, and recombination of a dense electron–hole plasma in silicon,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 233.
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, A. Esser, U. Lemmer, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, “Generation, cooling, and recombination of a dense electron–hole plasma in silicon,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Mahr, H.

H. Mahr, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy,” in Quantum Electronics: Nonlinear Optics, H. Rabin, C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol.1, p. 287.

Malvezzi, A. M.

M. Rasolt, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2208 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, A. Esser, U. Lemmer, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, “Generation, cooling, and recombination of a dense electron–hole plasma in silicon,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Mansour, K.

A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, J. C.

J. F. Reintjes, J. C. McGroddy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

C. R. Pidgeon, B. S. Wherrett, A. M. Johnston, J. Dempsey, A. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1785 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

W. H. Knox, J. B. Stark, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, S. Schmitt-Rink, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 331.
[CrossRef]

Moison, J. M.

J. M. Moison, F. Barthe, M. Bensoussan, Phys. Rev. B 27, 3611 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Moss, S. C.

A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Antonetti, R. Astier, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 38, 431 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. C.

See, for example, J. C. Phillips, Bands and Bonds in Semiconductors (Academic, New York, 1973).

Pidgeon, C. R.

C. R. Pidgeon, B. S. Wherrett, A. M. Johnston, J. Dempsey, A. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1785 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pospieszczyk, A.

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rasolt, M.

M. Rasolt, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2208 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J. F.

J. F. Reintjes, J. C. McGroddy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

W. H. Knox, J. B. Stark, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, S. Schmitt-Rink, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 331.
[CrossRef]

Seibert, K.

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, H. Kurz, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 233.
[CrossRef]

W. Kutt, K. Seibert, A. Esser, U. Lemmer, A. M. Malvezzi, H. Kurz, “Generation, cooling, and recombination of a dense electron–hole plasma in silicon,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Sernelius, B. E.

K. F. Berggren, B. E. Sernelius, Phys. Rev. B 24, 1971 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

M. C. Downer, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 761 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 595 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, C. Hirlimann, R. Yen, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 1 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 83.
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Smirl, A. L.

A. L. Smirl, T. F. Boggess, I. W. Boyd, S. C. Moss, K. Bohnert, K. Mansour, Opt. Eng. 25, 157 (1986);T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, E. W. van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stark, J. B.

W. H. Knox, J. B. Stark, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, S. Schmitt-Rink, in Ultrafast Phenomena VI, T. Yajima, K. Yoshihara, C. B. Harris, S. Shionoya, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 331.
[CrossRef]

Stritzker, B.

P. Hermes, B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, D. von der Linde, J. Kuhl, J. Heppner, B. Stritzker, A. Pospieszczyk, Appl. Phys. A 39, 9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Extensions of these calculations to two-photon absorption are in progress (H. M. van Driel, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, personal communication).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluence-dependent reflection and transmission of SOS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity dependence of the absorption coefficient of 0.5-μm SOS under 90-fsec, 620-nm excitation up to 250 GW/cm2. The straight line is a least-squares fit to αeff = α0 + βeffIinside. Inset: Intensity dependence of the absorption coefficient up to 500 GW/cm2. The solid squares are fitted by using a single thin-film model explained in the text. The open squares are fitted by using a two-layer thin-film model.

Figure 3
Figure 3

(a) Time-resolved absorbance of 90-fsec 525-nm probe pulses in 0.5-μm SOS under 90-fsec, 620-nm excitation near the single-pulse melting threshold. The solid curve is the theoretical absorbance assuming direct two-photon absorption and carrier-induced absorbance. The dotted curve represents the cross correlation of the pump and probe pulses, (b) Spectral dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficient. The dotted curve is a theoretical curve based on the scaling rules of Ref. 4. The circle represents data from Ref. 5. The lighter solid curve is a plot of the imaginary part of the dielectric constant 2. Filled squares denote measured values of the TPA coefficient. The heavier solid curve is a guide to the eye.

Equations (4)

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R = I R ( n eff , α eff , t ) d t I inc ( t ) d t , T = I T ( n eff , α eff , t ) d t I inc ( t ) d t .
α ( t ) = α 0 + β TPA I pump ( t τ ) + β t τ I pump ( t ) d t ,
n ( t ) = n 0 + n 2 I pump ( t τ ) + n t τ I pump ( t ) d t ,
N t = α 0 I ( t ) h ν + β eff I 2 ( t ) 2 h ν ( C e + C h ) N 3 [ 1 + ( λ B / k g ) 2 ] 2 ,

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