Abstract

Transient and stable color centers created by optical pumping at 308 nm have been studied in Ce3+:YLiF4. Since the color centers are absorptive at the cerium emission wavelengths, they degrade the Ce3+:YLiF4 laser performance. The color centers are produced following a multiphoton ionization of the Ce3+ ions. Rate equations that incorporate both creation and photobleaching processes are developed to model the observed kinetics and intensity dependence of the color-center density. Measurements of the single-pass gain at 325 nm as a function of the repetition rate of the pump laser are interpreted in terms of the relaxation time of the transient centers.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurements of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3+ in and implications for tunable 5d→ 4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410–412 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of excited-state absorption in Ce3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109–6111 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobaysi, “Excited-state absorption in Eu2+:CaF2and Ce3+:YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216–1223 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. S. Hamilton, in Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, and A. Pinto, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 80–90.
    [Crossref]
  5. D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. J. Pogatshnik and D. S. Hamilton, “Excited-state photoionization of Ce3+ ions in Ce3+:CaF2,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 8251–8257 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, “Ultraviolet solid-state Ce:YLF laser at 325 nm,” Opt. Lett. 4, 184–186 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, “Optically pumped Ce:LaF3laser at 286 nm,” Opt. Lett. 5, 339–341 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  9. Ki-Soo Lim and D. S. Hamilton, “UV-induced loss mechanisms in a Ce3+:YLiF4laser,” J. Lumin. 40/41, 319–320 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  10. Ki-Soo Lim, “UV-induced color centers and gain measurements in trivalent cerium doped lithium yttrium fluoride,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1987).
  11. G. M. Renfro, L. E. Halliburton, W. A. Sibley, and R. F. Belt, “Radiation effects in LiYF4,” J. Phys. C 13, 1941–1950 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. A. Tavshunskii, P. K. Khabibullaev, O. T. Khalikov, and K. B. Seiranyan, “Radiation coloring of LiYF4crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 513–514 (1982).
  13. Other temporal pulse shapes can be treated by a moments technique described by W. T. White, M. A. Henesian, and M. J. Weber, “Photothermal-lensing measurements of two-photon absorption and two-photon-induced color centers in borosilicate glasses at 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1402–1408 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. F. Moulton, Schwartz Electro-Optics, 45 Winthrop Street, Concord, Massachusetts 01742 (personal communication).

1989 (1)

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Ki-Soo Lim and D. S. Hamilton, “UV-induced loss mechanisms in a Ce3+:YLiF4laser,” J. Lumin. 40/41, 319–320 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

G. J. Pogatshnik and D. S. Hamilton, “Excited-state photoionization of Ce3+ ions in Ce3+:CaF2,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 8251–8257 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

G. A. Tavshunskii, P. K. Khabibullaev, O. T. Khalikov, and K. B. Seiranyan, “Radiation coloring of LiYF4crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 513–514 (1982).

1981 (1)

J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobaysi, “Excited-state absorption in Eu2+:CaF2and Ce3+:YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216–1223 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, “Optically pumped Ce:LaF3laser at 286 nm,” Opt. Lett. 5, 339–341 (1980).
[Crossref]

G. M. Renfro, L. E. Halliburton, W. A. Sibley, and R. F. Belt, “Radiation effects in LiYF4,” J. Phys. C 13, 1941–1950 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurements of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3+ in and implications for tunable 5d→ 4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of excited-state absorption in Ce3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109–6111 (1978).
[Crossref]

Belt, R. F.

G. M. Renfro, L. E. Halliburton, W. A. Sibley, and R. F. Belt, “Radiation effects in LiYF4,” J. Phys. C 13, 1941–1950 (1980).
[Crossref]

Dorain, P. B.

J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobaysi, “Excited-state absorption in Eu2+:CaF2and Ce3+:YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216–1223 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ehrlich, D. J.

Gayen, S. K.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ghen, R. D.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
[Crossref]

Halliburton, L. E.

G. M. Renfro, L. E. Halliburton, W. A. Sibley, and R. F. Belt, “Radiation effects in LiYF4,” J. Phys. C 13, 1941–1950 (1980).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, D. S.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ki-Soo Lim and D. S. Hamilton, “UV-induced loss mechanisms in a Ce3+:YLiF4laser,” J. Lumin. 40/41, 319–320 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. J. Pogatshnik and D. S. Hamilton, “Excited-state photoionization of Ce3+ ions in Ce3+:CaF2,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 8251–8257 (1987).
[Crossref]

D. S. Hamilton, in Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, and A. Pinto, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 80–90.
[Crossref]

Henesian, M. A.

Jacobs, R. R.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurements of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3+ in and implications for tunable 5d→ 4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

Khabibullaev, P. K.

G. A. Tavshunskii, P. K. Khabibullaev, O. T. Khalikov, and K. B. Seiranyan, “Radiation coloring of LiYF4crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 513–514 (1982).

Khalikov, O. T.

G. A. Tavshunskii, P. K. Khabibullaev, O. T. Khalikov, and K. B. Seiranyan, “Radiation coloring of LiYF4crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 513–514 (1982).

Kobaysi, T.

J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobaysi, “Excited-state absorption in Eu2+:CaF2and Ce3+:YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216–1223 (1981).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W. F.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurements of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3+ in and implications for tunable 5d→ 4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

Lim, Ki-Soo

Ki-Soo Lim and D. S. Hamilton, “UV-induced loss mechanisms in a Ce3+:YLiF4laser,” J. Lumin. 40/41, 319–320 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ki-Soo Lim, “UV-induced color centers and gain measurements in trivalent cerium doped lithium yttrium fluoride,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1987).

Miniscalco, W. J.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of excited-state absorption in Ce3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109–6111 (1978).
[Crossref]

Moulton, P. F.

Osgood, R. M.

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobaysi, “Excited-state absorption in Eu2+:CaF2and Ce3+:YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216–1223 (1981).
[Crossref]

Pellegrino, J. M.

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of excited-state absorption in Ce3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109–6111 (1978).
[Crossref]

Pogatshnik, G. J.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. J. Pogatshnik and D. S. Hamilton, “Excited-state photoionization of Ce3+ ions in Ce3+:CaF2,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 8251–8257 (1987).
[Crossref]

Renfro, G. M.

G. M. Renfro, L. E. Halliburton, W. A. Sibley, and R. F. Belt, “Radiation effects in LiYF4,” J. Phys. C 13, 1941–1950 (1980).
[Crossref]

Seiranyan, K. B.

G. A. Tavshunskii, P. K. Khabibullaev, O. T. Khalikov, and K. B. Seiranyan, “Radiation coloring of LiYF4crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 513–514 (1982).

Sibley, W. A.

G. M. Renfro, L. E. Halliburton, W. A. Sibley, and R. F. Belt, “Radiation effects in LiYF4,” J. Phys. C 13, 1941–1950 (1980).
[Crossref]

Tavshunskii, G. A.

G. A. Tavshunskii, P. K. Khabibullaev, O. T. Khalikov, and K. B. Seiranyan, “Radiation coloring of LiYF4crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 513–514 (1982).

Weber, M. J.

White, W. T.

Yen, W. M.

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of excited-state absorption in Ce3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109–6111 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurements of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3+ in and implications for tunable 5d→ 4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410–412 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, “Measurements of excited-state absorption in Ce3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109–6111 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. F. Owen, P. B. Dorain, and T. Kobaysi, “Excited-state absorption in Eu2+:CaF2and Ce3+:YAG single crystals at 298 and 77 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216–1223 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

Ki-Soo Lim and D. S. Hamilton, “UV-induced loss mechanisms in a Ce3+:YLiF4laser,” J. Lumin. 40/41, 319–320 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. C (1)

G. M. Renfro, L. E. Halliburton, W. A. Sibley, and R. F. Belt, “Radiation effects in LiYF4,” J. Phys. C 13, 1941–1950 (1980).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, and W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical absorption and photoionization measurements from the excited states of Ce3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807–8815 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. J. Pogatshnik and D. S. Hamilton, “Excited-state photoionization of Ce3+ ions in Ce3+:CaF2,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 8251–8257 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

G. A. Tavshunskii, P. K. Khabibullaev, O. T. Khalikov, and K. B. Seiranyan, “Radiation coloring of LiYF4crystals,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 513–514 (1982).

Other (3)

Ki-Soo Lim, “UV-induced color centers and gain measurements in trivalent cerium doped lithium yttrium fluoride,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1987).

P. F. Moulton, Schwartz Electro-Optics, 45 Winthrop Street, Concord, Massachusetts 01742 (personal communication).

D. S. Hamilton, in Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. B. Budgor, and A. Pinto, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 80–90.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement used for the transient absorption measurements. The crossing angle between the pump and probe beams is approximately 4 deg. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transient absorption at 633 nm as a function of the XeCl laser intensity. The circles represent the absorption at 50 μsec after the laser pulse and are shown along with a straight line whose slope is 1. The absorption due to just the shortest-lifetime (less than 50-nsec) decay component is indicated with the crosses along with a straight line of slope 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarized absorption spectra of the Ce:YLF sample following irradiation at 27 MW/cm2 for approximately 2000 laser pulses at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Growth of the stable absorption at 325 nm. The XeCl laser intensity is A, 4.3 MW/cm2; B, 9.9 MW/cm2; C, 13 MW/cm2; D, 18 MW/cm2; E, 25 MW/cm2; F, 33 MW/cm2; and G, 44 MW/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Initial growth of the stable color-center formation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Steady-state value of the absorption at 325 nm as a function of the XeCl laser intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Single-pass gain at 325 nm as a function of the repetition rate of the 308-nm pump beam.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d n d t = N n a A I 2 - n B I ,
n ( j + ) = n ( j - ) exp ( - B I Δ t ) + N n a A I B [ 1 - exp ( - B I Δ t ) ] ,
n ( j - ) = n ( j + - 1 ) exp ( - T / τ ) .
n ( j + ) = N n a A I [ 1 - exp ( - B I Δ t ] [ 1 - exp ( - B I j Δ t - j T / τ ) ] B [ 1 - exp ( - B I Δ t - T / τ ) ] .
n ( ) = N n a A I [ 1 - exp ( - B I Δ t ) ] B [ 1 - exp ( - B I Δ t - T / τ ) ] .
n ( ) N n a A I 2 Δ t 1 - exp ( - T / τ ) ,
n ( ) N n a A I B .
n a = V f - n s ,
d n s d t = N ( V f - n s ) A I 2 - n s B I .
n s ( j + ) = N V f A I N A I + B { 1 - exp [ - ( N A I 2 + B I ) j Δ t ] } .
n s ( j + ) N V f A I 2 j Δ t ,
n s ( ) V f ( 1 + B / N A I ) - 1 ,

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