Abstract

Nonresonant second-order microscopic nonlinear-optical susceptibilities (β) of a series of organic conjugated π-electron molecules were measured, using dc-induced second-harmonicgeneration. This study confirms structure–property relationships that affect β, including the electronic properties of substituents, the length of and type of π-electron system, molecular configuration, and dispersion. A quantity β0, based on a two-level model, is used, allowing trends to be discerned more easily by dividing out the effects of the dispersion of the first excited state. The second-order microscopic susceptibilities of materials based on cyanovinyl-substituted azobenzenes and stilbenes are found to be large. Details of the experimental configuration and method are also presented.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  3. J. Zyss, “Nonlinear organic materials for integrated optics: a review,” J. Molec. Electron. 1, 25 (1985).
  4. A. F. Garito and K. D. Singer, “Organic crystals and polymers—a new class of nonlinear optical materials,” Laser Focus 80(2), 59 (1982).
  5. J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, “Optical nonlinearities of various substituted benzene molecules in the liquid state, and comparison with solid state nonlinear susceptibilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. T. Boyd, “Optical second harmonic generation as an orientational probe in poled polymers,” Thin Solid Films 152, 295 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Le Barny, “Chemistry of polymer molecules for ultrathin films,” Thin Solid Films 152, 99 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, “Synthesis of molecular arrays with nonlinear optical properties. Second harmonic generation by covalently functionalized glassy polymers,” Macromolecules 20, 2322 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Orientation and second harmonic generation in doped polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
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  11. J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
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  23. C. W. Dirk, R. J. Twieg, and G. Wagniere, “The contributions of or electrons to second harmonic generation in organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 5387 (1986).
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  29. A. Dulcic, C. Flytzanis, C. L. Tang, D. Pepin, M. Fetizon, and Y. Hoppilliard, “Length dependence of the second-order nonlinearity in conjugated hydrocarbons,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1559 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. L. Oudar and H. Le Person, “Second-order polarizabilities of some aromatic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 15, 258 (1975).
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  43. Standard condensation of p-nitrobenzaldehyde and p-N,N-dimethylaminoaniline in boiling ethanol benzene.
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    [Crossref]
  45. C. C. Teng and A. F. Garito, “Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6766 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  46. K. D. Singer, M. S. Merlin, S. J. Lalama, and A. F. Garito, “Interferometric refractometer for measuring the relative refractive index of two liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 202 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  47. A. F. Garito, C. C. Teng, K. Y. Wong, and O. Zammani’Khamiri, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical processes in organic and polymeric crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 106, 219 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  48. B. F. Levine, “Donor–acceptor charge transfer contributions to the second order hyperpolarizability,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 37, 516 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  49. F. Kajzar, I. Ledoux, and J. Zyss, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation in polydiacetylene solutions,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 2210 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Effects on hyperpolarizabilities of molecular interactions in associating liquid mixtures,” J. Chen. Phys. 65, 2429 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  51. A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, and C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233(1983).
    [Crossref]
  52. W. Liptay, “Dipole moments and polarizabilities of molecules,” in Excited States, E. C. Lim, ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. I and references therein.
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  54. R. J. Twieg and K. Jain, “Organic materials for optical second harmonic generation,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233, 57 (1983).
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  55. I. Gryczynski, D. Gloyna, and A. Kawski, “Influence of donor-acceptor interactions in stilbenes on the polarity in the first excited state,” Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 777 (1980).
  56. J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, and J. F. Nicoud, “Demonstration of efficient nonlinear optical crystals with vanishing molecular dipole moment: second-harmonic generation in 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  57. J. H. Perlstein, “Organic metals—the intermolecular migration of aromaticity,” Ang. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 16, 519 (1977).
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  58. J. Shorter, Correlation Analysis in Organic Chemistry (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973).
  59. S. J. Lalama, K. D. Singer, A. F. Garito, and K. N. Desai, “Exceptional second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of quinoid systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 940 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  60. J. P. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  61. Y. L. Yagupol’skii, A. Y. Il’chenko, N. G. Korzhenevskaya, and L. M. Yagupol’skii, “Fluorine-containing aromatic azomethines. III. Azomethines with substituents in nuclei and at the methyne atom of carbon,” Zh. Org. Khim. 12, 166 (1976).
  62. D. Christoforou and D. A. R. Happer, “The application of the Hammett equation to carbon-13 NMR spectrometry. V. The transmission of electronic effects through azophenylene and ethynylphenylene groups,” Aust. J. Chem. 36, 2083 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  63. A. Echevarria, J. Miller, and M. G. Nascimento, “Carbon-13 NMR and azomethine proton NMR spectra of substituted N-benzylideneanilines and Hammett correlations,” Magn. Res. Chem. 23, 809 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  64. S. K. Dayal, S. Ehrenson, and R. W. Taft, “Substituent effects, electronic transmission, and structural dependence of π delocalization as studied with the p-fluorophenyl tag,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9113 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  65. G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  66. R. O. Loutfy and K. Y. Law, “Electrochemistry and spectroscopy of intramolecular charge-transfer complexes. p-N,N-dialkylaminobenzylidenemalonitriles,” J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2803 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  67. A. Safarzadeh-Amiri, “Internal rotation in (p-(dialkylamino)-benzylidene)malonitriles,” Can. J. Chem. 62, 1895 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  68. L. N. Patnaik and S. Das, “Conformation of p-dimethylaminobenzylidene-p-nitroaniline, p-nitrobenzylidene-p-dimethylaminoaniline, their stilbene and azobenzene derivatives,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 27, 135 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  69. J. Zyss and D. S. Chemla, “Quadratic nonlinear optics and optimization of the second-order nonlinear optical response of molecular crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-1, pp. 23–191.
    [Crossref]
  70. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
    [Crossref]

1988 (3)

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Orientation and second harmonic generation in doped polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (8)

C. S. Willand and D. J. Williams, “Nonlinear optical properties of polymeric materials,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 91, 1304 (1987).

S. Matsumoto, K. Kubodera, T. Kurihara, and T. Kaino, “Nonlinear optical properties of an azo dye attached polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1 (1987).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. T. Boyd, “Optical second harmonic generation as an orientational probe in poled polymers,” Thin Solid Films 152, 295 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Le Barny, “Chemistry of polymer molecules for ultrathin films,” Thin Solid Films 152, 99 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, “Synthesis of molecular arrays with nonlinear optical properties. Second harmonic generation by covalently functionalized glassy polymers,” Macromolecules 20, 2322 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561 (1987).
[Crossref]

F. Kajzar, I. Ledoux, and J. Zyss, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation in polydiacetylene solutions,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 2210 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

C. W. Dirk, R. J. Twieg, and G. Wagniere, “The contributions of or electrons to second harmonic generation in organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 5387 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (3)

J. Zyss, “Nonlinear organic materials for integrated optics: a review,” J. Molec. Electron. 1, 25 (1985).

L. N. Patnaik and S. Das, “Conformation of p-dimethylaminobenzylidene-p-nitroaniline, p-nitrobenzylidene-p-dimethylaminoaniline, their stilbene and azobenzene derivatives,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 27, 135 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Echevarria, J. Miller, and M. G. Nascimento, “Carbon-13 NMR and azomethine proton NMR spectra of substituted N-benzylideneanilines and Hammett correlations,” Magn. Res. Chem. 23, 809 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (3)

A. F. Garito, C. C. Teng, K. Y. Wong, and O. Zammani’Khamiri, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical processes in organic and polymeric crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 106, 219 (1984).
[Crossref]

D. J. Williams, “Organic polymeric and non-polymeric materials with large optical nonlinearities,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23, 690 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. Safarzadeh-Amiri, “Internal rotation in (p-(dialkylamino)-benzylidene)malonitriles,” Can. J. Chem. 62, 1895 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (3)

D. J. Williams, ed., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, ACS Symp. Ser. 233(1983).
[Crossref]

C. C. Teng and A. F. Garito, “Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6766 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. Christoforou and D. A. R. Happer, “The application of the Hammett equation to carbon-13 NMR spectrometry. V. The transmission of electronic effects through azophenylene and ethynylphenylene groups,” Aust. J. Chem. 36, 2083 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

K. D. Singer, M. S. Merlin, S. J. Lalama, and A. F. Garito, “Interferometric refractometer for measuring the relative refractive index of two liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 202 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. F. Garito and K. D. Singer, “Organic crystals and polymers—a new class of nonlinear optical materials,” Laser Focus 80(2), 59 (1982).

1981 (6)

G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
[Crossref]

Condensation: R. I. Yurchenko, I. N. Zhmurova, T. V. Pidvarko, and V. G. Yurchenko, “4-R-4′-(2-X-2-Y-vinyl)stilbenes,” Zh. Obshch. Khim. 51, 196 (1981); aldehyde: G. Manecke and S. Luettke, “Syntheses of some oligomeric substituted arylenevinylenes,” Chem. Ber. 103, 700 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, and J. F. Nicoud, “Demonstration of efficient nonlinear optical crystals with vanishing molecular dipole moment: second-harmonic generation in 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lalama, K. D. Singer, A. F. Garito, and K. N. Desai, “Exceptional second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of quinoid systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 940 (1981).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer and A. F. Garito, “Measurements of molecular second order optical susceptibilities using dc induced second harmonic generation,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3572 (1981).
[Crossref]

A. Dulcic, C. Flytzanis, C. L. Tang, D. Pepin, M. Fetizon, and Y. Hoppilliard, “Length dependence of the second-order nonlinearity in conjugated hydrocarbons,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1559 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

I. Gryczynski, D. Gloyna, and A. Kawski, “Influence of donor-acceptor interactions in stilbenes on the polarity in the first excited state,” Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 777 (1980).

R. O. Loutfy and K. Y. Law, “Electrochemistry and spectroscopy of intramolecular charge-transfer complexes. p-N,N-dialkylaminobenzylidenemalonitriles,” J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2803 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, “Origin of the nonlinear and second-order optical susceptibilities of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

A. Dulcic and C. Sauteret, “The regularities observed in the second order hyperpolarizabilities of variously disubstituted benzenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 3453 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (4)

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2664 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. H. Perlstein, “Organic metals—the intermolecular migration of aromaticity,” Ang. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 16, 519 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, “Optical nonlinearities of various substituted benzene molecules in the liquid state, and comparison with solid state nonlinear susceptibilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (3)

Y. L. Yagupol’skii, A. Y. Il’chenko, N. G. Korzhenevskaya, and L. M. Yagupol’skii, “Fluorine-containing aromatic azomethines. III. Azomethines with substituents in nuclei and at the methyne atom of carbon,” Zh. Org. Khim. 12, 166 (1976).

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Effects on hyperpolarizabilities of molecular interactions in associating liquid mixtures,” J. Chen. Phys. 65, 2429 (1976).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine, “Donor–acceptor charge transfer contributions to the second order hyperpolarizability,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 37, 516 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (3)

B. F. Levine, “Conjugated electron contributions to the second order hyperpolarizability of substituted benzene molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 115 (1975).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. L. Oudar and H. Le Person, “Second-order polarizabilities of some aromatic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 15, 258 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (3)

R. S. Finn and J. F. Ward, “Measurements of hyperpolarizabilities for some halogenated methanes,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 454 (1974).
[Crossref]

N. B. Kupletskaya, V. N. Kalinichenko, and L. A. Kazitsyna, “An investigation of the electron donating capacity of dimethylaminobenzonitriles by the hydrogen bond method,” Zh. Org. Khim. 10, 2594 (1974).

J. P. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

S. K. Dayal, S. Ehrenson, and R. W. Taft, “Substituent effects, electronic transmission, and structural dependence of π delocalization as studied with the p-fluorophenyl tag,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9113 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

S. Kielich, “Optical second-harmonic generation by electrically polarized isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 562 (1969).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

D. A. Kleinman, “Nonlinear dielectric polarization in optical media,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1977 (1962).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. L. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry, VI. Tricyanovinyl amines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806 (1958).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

B. B. Corson and R. W. Stoughton, “Reactions of α,β-unsaturated dinitriles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 50, 2825 (1928).
[Crossref]

Batifol, E.

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, “Optical nonlinearities of various substituted benzene molecules in the liquid state, and comparison with solid state nonlinear susceptibilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Effects on hyperpolarizabilities of molecular interactions in associating liquid mixtures,” J. Chen. Phys. 65, 2429 (1976).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bhatti, A. M.

A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, and G. A. Howell, “Pyridine N-oxides as polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 115.

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, “Optical second harmonic generation as an orientational probe in poled polymers,” Thin Solid Films 152, 295 (1987).
[Crossref]

Buckley, A.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cairns, T. L.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. L. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry, VI. Tricyanovinyl amines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806 (1958).
[Crossref]

Calundann, G.

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

Calvert, P. D.

P. D. Calvert and B. D. Moyle, “Second harmonic generation by polymer composites,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 357.

Chatani, Y.

T. Watanabe, K. Yoshinaga, D. Fichou, Y. Chatani, and S. Miyata, “Strong second harmonic generation in poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline complexes crystallized under electric field,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 339.

Chemla, D. S.

J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, and J. F. Nicoud, “Demonstration of efficient nonlinear optical crystals with vanishing molecular dipole moment: second-harmonic generation in 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2664 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, “Optical nonlinearities of various substituted benzene molecules in the liquid state, and comparison with solid state nonlinear susceptibilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Zyss and D. S. Chemla, “Quadratic nonlinear optics and optimization of the second-order nonlinear optical response of molecular crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-1, pp. 23–191.
[Crossref]

Choe, E.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

Choe, E. W.

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

Christoforou, D.

D. Christoforou and D. A. R. Happer, “The application of the Hammett equation to carbon-13 NMR spectrometry. V. The transmission of electronic effects through azophenylene and ethynylphenylene groups,” Aust. J. Chem. 36, 2083 (1983).
[Crossref]

Coffman, D. D.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. L. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry, VI. Tricyanovinyl amines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806 (1958).
[Crossref]

Comizzoli, R. B.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[Crossref]

Corson, B. B.

B. B. Corson and R. W. Stoughton, “Reactions of α,β-unsaturated dinitriles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 50, 2825 (1928).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

L. N. Patnaik and S. Das, “Conformation of p-dimethylaminobenzylidene-p-nitroaniline, p-nitrobenzylidene-p-dimethylaminoaniline, their stilbene and azobenzene derivatives,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 27, 135 (1985).
[Crossref]

Dayal, S. K.

S. K. Dayal, S. Ehrenson, and R. W. Taft, “Substituent effects, electronic transmission, and structural dependence of π delocalization as studied with the p-fluorophenyl tag,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9113 (1972).
[Crossref]

DeMartino, R.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

Desai, K. N.

S. J. Lalama, K. D. Singer, A. F. Garito, and K. N. Desai, “Exceptional second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of quinoid systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 940 (1981).
[Crossref]

Dirk, C. W.

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. W. Dirk, R. J. Twieg, and G. Wagniere, “The contributions of or electrons to second harmonic generation in organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 5387 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ducuing, J.

J. P. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100 (1974).
[Crossref]

Dulcic, A.

A. Dulcic, C. Flytzanis, C. L. Tang, D. Pepin, M. Fetizon, and Y. Hoppilliard, “Length dependence of the second-order nonlinearity in conjugated hydrocarbons,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1559 (1981).
[Crossref]

A. Dulcic and C. Sauteret, “The regularities observed in the second order hyperpolarizabilities of variously disubstituted benzenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 3453 (1978).
[Crossref]

Echevarria, A.

A. Echevarria, J. Miller, and M. G. Nascimento, “Carbon-13 NMR and azomethine proton NMR spectra of substituted N-benzylideneanilines and Hammett correlations,” Magn. Res. Chem. 23, 809 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ehrenson, S.

S. K. Dayal, S. Ehrenson, and R. W. Taft, “Substituent effects, electronic transmission, and structural dependence of π delocalization as studied with the p-fluorophenyl tag,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9113 (1972).
[Crossref]

Fetizon, M.

A. Dulcic, C. Flytzanis, C. L. Tang, D. Pepin, M. Fetizon, and Y. Hoppilliard, “Length dependence of the second-order nonlinearity in conjugated hydrocarbons,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1559 (1981).
[Crossref]

Fichou, D.

T. Watanabe, K. Yoshinaga, D. Fichou, Y. Chatani, and S. Miyata, “Strong second harmonic generation in poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline complexes crystallized under electric field,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 339.

Finn, R. S.

R. S. Finn and J. F. Ward, “Measurements of hyperpolarizabilities for some halogenated methanes,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 454 (1974).
[Crossref]

Flytzanis, C.

A. Dulcic, C. Flytzanis, C. L. Tang, D. Pepin, M. Fetizon, and Y. Hoppilliard, “Length dependence of the second-order nonlinearity in conjugated hydrocarbons,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1559 (1981).
[Crossref]

Garito, A. F.

A. F. Garito, C. C. Teng, K. Y. Wong, and O. Zammani’Khamiri, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical processes in organic and polymeric crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 106, 219 (1984).
[Crossref]

C. C. Teng and A. F. Garito, “Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6766 (1983).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, M. S. Merlin, S. J. Lalama, and A. F. Garito, “Interferometric refractometer for measuring the relative refractive index of two liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 202 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. F. Garito and K. D. Singer, “Organic crystals and polymers—a new class of nonlinear optical materials,” Laser Focus 80(2), 59 (1982).

S. J. Lalama, K. D. Singer, A. F. Garito, and K. N. Desai, “Exceptional second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of quinoid systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 940 (1981).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer and A. F. Garito, “Measurements of molecular second order optical susceptibilities using dc induced second harmonic generation,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3572 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, “Origin of the nonlinear and second-order optical susceptibilities of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
[Crossref]

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, and C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233(1983).
[Crossref]

Gloyna, D.

I. Gryczynski, D. Gloyna, and A. Kawski, “Influence of donor-acceptor interactions in stilbenes on the polarity in the first excited state,” Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 777 (1980).

Gordon, H. M.

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561 (1987).
[Crossref]

Griffin, A. C.

A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, and G. A. Howell, “Pyridine N-oxides as polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 115.

Gryczynski, I.

I. Gryczynski, D. Gloyna, and A. Kawski, “Influence of donor-acceptor interactions in stilbenes on the polarity in the first excited state,” Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 777 (1980).

Haas, D.

R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

Hallas, G.

G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hampsch, H. L.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Orientation and second harmonic generation in doped polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[Crossref]

Happer, D. A. R.

D. Christoforou and D. A. R. Happer, “The application of the Hammett equation to carbon-13 NMR spectrometry. V. The transmission of electronic effects through azophenylene and ethynylphenylene groups,” Aust. J. Chem. 36, 2083 (1983).
[Crossref]

Heckert, R. E.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. L. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry, VI. Tricyanovinyl amines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806 (1958).
[Crossref]

Hepworth, J. D.

G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hermann, J. P.

J. P. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Third-order polarizabilities of long-chain molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5100 (1974).
[Crossref]

Holland, W. R.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hoppilliard, Y.

A. Dulcic, C. Flytzanis, C. L. Tang, D. Pepin, M. Fetizon, and Y. Hoppilliard, “Length dependence of the second-order nonlinearity in conjugated hydrocarbons,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1559 (1981).
[Crossref]

Howell, G. A.

A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, and G. A. Howell, “Pyridine N-oxides as polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 115.

Ibbitson, D. A.

G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
[Crossref]

Il’chenko, A. Y.

Y. L. Yagupol’skii, A. Y. Il’chenko, N. G. Korzhenevskaya, and L. M. Yagupol’skii, “Fluorine-containing aromatic azomethines. III. Azomethines with substituents in nuclei and at the methyne atom of carbon,” Zh. Org. Khim. 12, 166 (1976).

Jain, K.

R. J. Twieg and K. Jain, “Organic materials for optical second harmonic generation,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233, 57 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. M.

G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kaino, T.

S. Matsumoto, K. Kubodera, T. Kurihara, and T. Kaino, “Nonlinear optical properties of an azo dye attached polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar, I. Ledoux, and J. Zyss, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation in polydiacetylene solutions,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 2210 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalinichenko, V. N.

N. B. Kupletskaya, V. N. Kalinichenko, and L. A. Kazitsyna, “An investigation of the electron donating capacity of dimethylaminobenzonitriles by the hydrogen bond method,” Zh. Org. Khim. 10, 2594 (1974).

Katz, H. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kawski, A.

I. Gryczynski, D. Gloyna, and A. Kawski, “Influence of donor-acceptor interactions in stilbenes on the polarity in the first excited state,” Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 777 (1980).

Kazitsyna, L. A.

N. B. Kupletskaya, V. N. Kalinichenko, and L. A. Kazitsyna, “An investigation of the electron donating capacity of dimethylaminobenzonitriles by the hydrogen bond method,” Zh. Org. Khim. 10, 2594 (1974).

Keane, T. P.

G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
[Crossref]

Khanarian, G.

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

Kielich, S.

S. Kielich, “Optical second-harmonic generation by electrically polarized isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 562 (1969).
[Crossref]

King, L. A.

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kleinman, D. A.

D. A. Kleinman, “Nonlinear dielectric polarization in optical media,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1977 (1962).
[Crossref]

Korzhenevskaya, N. G.

Y. L. Yagupol’skii, A. Y. Il’chenko, N. G. Korzhenevskaya, and L. M. Yagupol’skii, “Fluorine-containing aromatic azomethines. III. Azomethines with substituents in nuclei and at the methyne atom of carbon,” Zh. Org. Khim. 12, 166 (1976).

Kubodera, K.

S. Matsumoto, K. Kubodera, T. Kurihara, and T. Kaino, “Nonlinear optical properties of an azo dye attached polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kupletskaya, N. B.

N. B. Kupletskaya, V. N. Kalinichenko, and L. A. Kazitsyna, “An investigation of the electron donating capacity of dimethylaminobenzonitriles by the hydrogen bond method,” Zh. Org. Khim. 10, 2594 (1974).

Kurihara, T.

S. Matsumoto, K. Kubodera, T. Kurihara, and T. Kaino, “Nonlinear optical properties of an azo dye attached polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, M. S. Merlin, S. J. Lalama, and A. F. Garito, “Interferometric refractometer for measuring the relative refractive index of two liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 202 (1982).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lalama, K. D. Singer, A. F. Garito, and K. N. Desai, “Exceptional second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of quinoid systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 940 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, “Origin of the nonlinear and second-order optical susceptibilities of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, S. J. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, “Electro-optic organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-8, pp. 437–468.
[Crossref]

Law, K. Y.

R. O. Loutfy and K. Y. Law, “Electrochemistry and spectroscopy of intramolecular charge-transfer complexes. p-N,N-dialkylaminobenzylidenemalonitriles,” J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2803 (1980).
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Le Barny, P.

P. Le Barny, “Chemistry of polymer molecules for ultrathin films,” Thin Solid Films 152, 99 (1987).
[Crossref]

Le Person, H.

J. L. Oudar and H. Le Person, “Second-order polarizabilities of some aromatic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 15, 258 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ledoux, I.

F. Kajzar, I. Ledoux, and J. Zyss, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation in polydiacetylene solutions,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 2210 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leslie, T.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, “Donor–acceptor charge transfer contributions to the second order hyperpolarizability,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 37, 516 (1976).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Effects on hyperpolarizabilities of molecular interactions in associating liquid mixtures,” J. Chen. Phys. 65, 2429 (1976).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666 (1975).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine, “Conjugated electron contributions to the second order hyperpolarizability of substituted benzene molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 115 (1975).
[Crossref]

Lipscomb, G. F.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
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J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
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R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

Marks, T. J.

C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, “Synthesis of molecular arrays with nonlinear optical properties. Second harmonic generation by covalently functionalized glassy polymers,” Macromolecules 20, 2322 (1987).
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R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

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A. Echevarria, J. Miller, and M. G. Nascimento, “Carbon-13 NMR and azomethine proton NMR spectra of substituted N-benzylideneanilines and Hammett correlations,” Magn. Res. Chem. 23, 809 (1985).
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A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
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J. F. Nicoud and R. J. Twieg, “Design and synthesis of organic molecular compounds for efficient second-harmonic generation,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-3, pp. 227–295.
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Pugh, D.

D. Pugh and J. O. Morley, “Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-2, pp. 193–225.
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R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

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G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
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R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

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Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
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H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561 (1987).
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K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
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K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
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A. F. Garito and K. D. Singer, “Organic crystals and polymers—a new class of nonlinear optical materials,” Laser Focus 80(2), 59 (1982).

K. D. Singer, M. S. Merlin, S. J. Lalama, and A. F. Garito, “Interferometric refractometer for measuring the relative refractive index of two liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 202 (1982).
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S. J. Lalama, K. D. Singer, A. F. Garito, and K. N. Desai, “Exceptional second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of quinoid systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 940 (1981).
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K. D. Singer and A. F. Garito, “Measurements of molecular second order optical susceptibilities using dc induced second harmonic generation,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3572 (1981).
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K. D. Singer, S. J. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, “Electro-optic organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-8, pp. 437–468.
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K. D. Singer, “Experimental studies of second order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in organic systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 1981).

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, and C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233(1983).
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Small, R. D.

K. D. Singer, S. J. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, “Electro-optic organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-8, pp. 437–468.
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Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561 (1987).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, S. J. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, “Electro-optic organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-8, pp. 437–468.
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Stamatoff, J.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

Stiller, M. A.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
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A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
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[Crossref]

Teng, C.

R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

Teng, C. C.

A. F. Garito, C. C. Teng, K. Y. Wong, and O. Zammani’Khamiri, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical processes in organic and polymeric crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 106, 219 (1984).
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C. C. Teng and A. F. Garito, “Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6766 (1983).
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A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, and C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233(1983).
[Crossref]

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

Thackara, J. I.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ticknor, A. J.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[Crossref]

Torkelson, J. M.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Orientation and second harmonic generation in doped polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
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Turton, A. R.

G. Hallas, N. Saadatjou, J. D. Hepworth, D. A. Ibbitson, A. M. Jones, T. P. Keane, and A. R. Turton, “Dipole moments of derivatives of 4-phenylazo-N,N-diethylaniline and of 9-phenylazojulolidine,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1292 (1981).
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J. F. Nicoud and R. J. Twieg, “Design and synthesis of organic molecular compounds for efficient second-harmonic generation,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-3, pp. 227–295.
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C. W. Dirk, R. J. Twieg, and G. Wagniere, “The contributions of or electrons to second harmonic generation in organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 5387 (1986).
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T. Watanabe, K. Yoshinaga, D. Fichou, Y. Chatani, and S. Miyata, “Strong second harmonic generation in poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline complexes crystallized under electric field,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 339.

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Wong, G. K.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Orientation and second harmonic generation in doped polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, “Synthesis of molecular arrays with nonlinear optical properties. Second harmonic generation by covalently functionalized glassy polymers,” Macromolecules 20, 2322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. Y.

A. F. Garito, C. C. Teng, K. Y. Wong, and O. Zammani’Khamiri, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical processes in organic and polymeric crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 106, 219 (1984).
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Yagupol’skii, Y. L.

Y. L. Yagupol’skii, A. Y. Il’chenko, N. G. Korzhenevskaya, and L. M. Yagupol’skii, “Fluorine-containing aromatic azomethines. III. Azomethines with substituents in nuclei and at the methyne atom of carbon,” Zh. Org. Khim. 12, 166 (1976).

Yang, J.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Orientation and second harmonic generation in doped polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, “Synthesis of molecular arrays with nonlinear optical properties. Second harmonic generation by covalently functionalized glassy polymers,” Macromolecules 20, 2322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

C. Ye, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, “Synthesis of molecular arrays with nonlinear optical properties. Second harmonic generation by covalently functionalized glassy polymers,” Macromolecules 20, 2322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yoon, H.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

Yoon, H. N.

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

Yoshinaga, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Yoshinaga, D. Fichou, Y. Chatani, and S. Miyata, “Strong second harmonic generation in poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline complexes crystallized under electric field,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 339.

Yurchenko, R. I.

Condensation: R. I. Yurchenko, I. N. Zhmurova, T. V. Pidvarko, and V. G. Yurchenko, “4-R-4′-(2-X-2-Y-vinyl)stilbenes,” Zh. Obshch. Khim. 51, 196 (1981); aldehyde: G. Manecke and S. Luettke, “Syntheses of some oligomeric substituted arylenevinylenes,” Chem. Ber. 103, 700 (1970).
[Crossref]

Yurchenko, V. G.

Condensation: R. I. Yurchenko, I. N. Zhmurova, T. V. Pidvarko, and V. G. Yurchenko, “4-R-4′-(2-X-2-Y-vinyl)stilbenes,” Zh. Obshch. Khim. 51, 196 (1981); aldehyde: G. Manecke and S. Luettke, “Syntheses of some oligomeric substituted arylenevinylenes,” Chem. Ber. 103, 700 (1970).
[Crossref]

Zammani’Khamiri, O.

A. F. Garito, C. C. Teng, K. Y. Wong, and O. Zammani’Khamiri, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical processes in organic and polymeric crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 106, 219 (1984).
[Crossref]

Zhmurova, I. N.

Condensation: R. I. Yurchenko, I. N. Zhmurova, T. V. Pidvarko, and V. G. Yurchenko, “4-R-4′-(2-X-2-Y-vinyl)stilbenes,” Zh. Obshch. Khim. 51, 196 (1981); aldehyde: G. Manecke and S. Luettke, “Syntheses of some oligomeric substituted arylenevinylenes,” Chem. Ber. 103, 700 (1970).
[Crossref]

Zyss, J.

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[Crossref]

J. Zyss and D. S. Chemla, “Quadratic nonlinear optics and optimization of the second-order nonlinear optical response of molecular crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-1, pp. 23–191.
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J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, “Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
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S. J. Lalama, K. D. Singer, A. F. Garito, and K. N. Desai, “Exceptional second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of quinoid systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 940 (1981).
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K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
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J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, and J. F. Nicoud, “Demonstration of efficient nonlinear optical crystals with vanishing molecular dipole moment: second-harmonic generation in 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
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K. D. Singer and A. F. Garito, “Measurements of molecular second order optical susceptibilities using dc induced second harmonic generation,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3572 (1981).
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[Crossref]

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A. F. Garito and K. D. Singer, “Organic crystals and polymers—a new class of nonlinear optical materials,” Laser Focus 80(2), 59 (1982).

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F. Kajzar, I. Ledoux, and J. Zyss, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation in polydiacetylene solutions,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 2210 (1987).
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A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optics: a molecular basis of electronic substitution,” Polym. Mat. Sci. Eng. 54, 502 (1986).

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Zh. Org. Khim. (2)

N. B. Kupletskaya, V. N. Kalinichenko, and L. A. Kazitsyna, “An investigation of the electron donating capacity of dimethylaminobenzonitriles by the hydrogen bond method,” Zh. Org. Khim. 10, 2594 (1974).

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Other (17)

J. Shorter, Correlation Analysis in Organic Chemistry (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973).

J. Zyss and D. S. Chemla, “Quadratic nonlinear optics and optimization of the second-order nonlinear optical response of molecular crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-1, pp. 23–191.
[Crossref]

R. J. Twieg and K. Jain, “Organic materials for optical second harmonic generation,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233, 57 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, and C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, D. J. Williams, ed., ACS Symp. Ser.233(1983).
[Crossref]

W. Liptay, “Dipole moments and polarizabilities of molecules,” in Excited States, E. C. Lim, ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. I and references therein.

J. F. Nicoud and R. J. Twieg, “Design and synthesis of organic molecular compounds for efficient second-harmonic generation,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-3, pp. 227–295.
[Crossref]

Standard condensation of p-nitrobenzaldehyde and p-N,N-dimethylaminoaniline in boiling ethanol benzene.

D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), and references cited therein.

K. D. Singer, S. J. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, “Electro-optic organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-8, pp. 437–468.
[Crossref]

R. D. Martino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng, and H. Yoon, “Nonlinear optical polymers for electrooptic devices,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 65.

A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, and G. A. Howell, “Pyridine N-oxides as polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 115.

T. Watanabe, K. Yoshinaga, D. Fichou, Y. Chatani, and S. Miyata, “Strong second harmonic generation in poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline complexes crystallized under electric field,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 339.

P. D. Calvert and B. D. Moyle, “Second harmonic generation by polymer composites,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers, A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein, and D. R. Ulrich, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), p. 357.

D. Pugh and J. O. Morley, “Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap II-2, pp. 193–225.
[Crossref]

G. R. Meredith, “Optical nonlinearity: molecules, assemblies and wave phenomena,” presented at American Chemical Society Topical Workshop on Organic and Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials, Virginia Beach, Va., May 1988.

K. D. Singer, “Experimental studies of second order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in organic systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 1981).

J. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 85 (1986).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for dc-induced second-harmonic generation. P.D., photodiode; B.S., beam splitter; L’s, lenses; T.P.’s, turning prisms; F’s, filters; DISP. PRISM’s, dispersing prisms; I.F.’s, interference filters; PMT’s, photomultiplier tubes; REF., reference; ADC, analog-to-digital converter; DAC, digital-to-analog converter; H.V., high-voltage generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of sample cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dispersion of β for 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (from Ref. 45).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion of β for Disperse Red 1 (Compound J).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

β0 for selected molecules.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

β versus excited-state energy, Eng for p-substituted benzene molecules from the present work (Compounds A–G).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

β/f(ω) versus excited-state energy Eng for p-substituted benzene molecules from the present work (Compounds A–G).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear- and Nonlinear-Optical Properties, Dipole Moment, and First-Excited-State Energy of Molecules Studied in This Papera

Tables Icon

Table 2 Previously Reported Values of the Second-Order Susceptibility of p-Nitroaniline As Determined by Second-Harmonic Generation

Tables Icon

Table 3 Previously Reported Values of the Second-Order Susceptibility of 4-N,N-Dimethylamino-4′-Nitrostilbene As Determined by Second-Harmonic Generation

Equations (18)

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P i 2 ω = β i j k F j ω F k ω + γ i j k l F j ω F k ω F l 0 ,
P 1 2 ω = Γ 1111 E 1 ω E 1 ω E 1 0 ,
Γ 1111 = v N v f v 0 ( f v ω ) 2 f v 2 ω ( γ + β μ 5 k T ) v
γ = 1 15 u , v = x , y , z ( 2 γ u u v v + γ u v v u ) ,
β β x = ( 3 β x x x + β x y y + 2 β y y x + β x z z + 2 β z z x ) ,
Γ 1111 = v N v f v 0 ( f v ω ) 2 f v 2 ω γ v ,
N A γ 1 = ( 2 0 + n 1 2 ) ( 2 n 0 2 + n 1 2 ) 3 M 1 ( n 1 2 + 2 ) 4 n 0 6 0 { υ 0 Γ 1111 w | 0 + v 0 Γ 0 - v 0 Γ 0 [ 1 n 0 2 n 2 w | 0 + ( 1 0 - 2 2 0 + n 2 2 ) d w | 0 ] } ,
4 π N A M 1 { v 1 e [ 0 ( n 1 2 + 2 ) 2 0 + n 1 2 ] + μ 1 2 3 k T [ 0 ( 2 0 + 1 ) ( n 1 2 + 2 ) 2 3 ( 2 0 + n 1 2 ) 2 ] } = v 0 w | 0 + ( 0 - 1 ) v 0 - w | 0 [ ( n 0 2 - 1 ) v 0 ( 1 0 - 2 2 0 + n 0 2 ) + ( 0 - n 0 2 ) v 0 ( 1 0 + 2 2 0 + 1 - 4 2 0 + n 0 2 ) ]
4 π N A 3 M 1 α 1 e = 3 v 0 ( n 0 2 + 2 ) 2 n 2 w | 0 + v 0 n 0 2 - 1 n 0 2 + 2 .
I 2 ω = A E 0 2 I ω 2 ( T 1 Γ G l c G - T 2 Γ L l c L ) 2 f ( l ) ,
f ( l ) = 2 exp [ - ( a ω + a 2 w 2 ) l ] { cosh [ ( a ω - a 2 ω 2 ) ] - cos ( π l l c L ) } , A = 8 π c ( 8 ω c ) 2 ,             T 1 = t 2 ω G t ω 2 1 n 2 ω G + n ω G n ω G + n 2 ω L n 2 ω G + n 2 ω L , T 2 = t 2 ω G t ω 2 t ω 2 1 n 2 ω L + n ω L n ω L + n 2 ω L n 2 ω G + n 2 ω L ,
t 2 ω G = 2 n 2 ω G 1 + n 2 ω G ,             t ω = 2 1 + n ω G ,             t ω = 2 n ω G n ω G + n ω L ,
l c = π c 2 ω ( n 2 ω - n ω ) ,
A m = A 1 2 + A 2 ,
A m L A m R = E 0 2 ( T 1 Γ G l c G - T 2 Γ L l c L ) 2 [ exp ( - 2 a ω l ¯ ) + exp ( - a 2 ω l ¯ ) ] ( Q 1 2 + Q 2 2 ) d 11 2 ( l c R ) 2 ,
Q 1 = 2 n 2 ω R n 2 ω R + 1 n ω R + 1 n 2 ω R + 1 1 n 2 ω R + n ω R ( 2 n ω R + 1 ) 2 , Q 2 = n 2 ω R + n ω R n 2 ω R + 1 1 n 2 ω R + n ω R ( 2 n ω R + 1 ) 2 .
β x x x ( - 2 ω ; ω , ω ) = e 3 μ 01 2 ( μ 11 - μ 00 ) 2 F ( ω ) ,
F ( ω ) = 3 ω 0 2 ( ω 0 2 - ω 2 ) ( ω 0 2 - 4 ω 2 ) ,

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