Abstract

For high-intensity, linearly polarized light, above-threshold ionization results from the time difference between the instant of ionization and the electric field maximum. Cold plasmas suitable for recombination extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) lasers can be produced if appropriate wavelength-ionizing radiation is used. Multiphoton ionization intensities are calculated for representative XUV laser schemes.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. I. Gudzenko and L. A. Shelepin, “Negative absorption in a nonequilibrium hydrogen plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 18, 998 (1964); “Radiation enhancement in a recombining plasma,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 10, 147 (1965).
  2. J. Peyraud and N. Peyraud, “Population inversion in laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2993 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Theory of short-wavelength lasers from recombining plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 450 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. M. Green and W. T. Silfast, “Population inversion with respect to the ground level of an ion or atom by the rapid cooling of a plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 253 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. J. Pert, “Model calculations of XUV gain in rapidly expanding cylindrical plasmas,” J. Phys. B 9, 3301 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. J. Tallents, “Population inversions for soft x-ray transitions computed for rapidly cooling plasmas,” J. Phys. B 10, 1769 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Suckewer and H. Fishman, “Conditions for soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1922 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Szatmari, F. P. Schaffer, E. Muller-Horsche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Strickland, P. Maine, M. Bouvier, S. Williamson, and G. Mourou, “Picosecond pulse amplification using pulse compression,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 38.
    [Crossref]
  13. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).
  14. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, London, 1978).
  15. A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1965).
  16. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).
  17. H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. R. Reiss, “Spectrum of atomic electrons ionized by an intense field,” J. Phys. B 20, L79 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. S. Luk, T. Graber, H. Jara, U. Johann, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Subpicosecond ultraviolet multiphoton electron spectroscopy of rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 847 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Recombination lasers from cooled hydrogenlike plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3118 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “On the population inversion in hydrogen-like plasmas,” J. Phys. B 11, 187 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

1987 (5)

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schaffer, E. Muller-Horsche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. R. Reiss, “Spectrum of atomic electrons ionized by an intense field,” J. Phys. B 20, L79 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, T. Graber, H. Jara, U. Johann, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Subpicosecond ultraviolet multiphoton electron spectroscopy of rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 847 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

1985 (1)

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

S. Suckewer and H. Fishman, “Conditions for soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1922 (1979).
[Crossref]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “On the population inversion in hydrogen-like plasmas,” J. Phys. B 11, 187 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Recombination lasers from cooled hydrogenlike plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3118 (1977).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tallents, “Population inversions for soft x-ray transitions computed for rapidly cooling plasmas,” J. Phys. B 10, 1769 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

J. M. Green and W. T. Silfast, “Population inversion with respect to the ground level of an ion or atom by the rapid cooling of a plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 253 (1976).
[Crossref]

G. J. Pert, “Model calculations of XUV gain in rapidly expanding cylindrical plasmas,” J. Phys. B 9, 3301 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Theory of short-wavelength lasers from recombining plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

J. Peyraud and N. Peyraud, “Population inversion in laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2993 (1972).
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1965).

1964 (1)

L. I. Gudzenko and L. A. Shelepin, “Negative absorption in a nonequilibrium hydrogen plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 18, 998 (1964); “Radiation enhancement in a recombining plasma,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 10, 147 (1965).

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ali, A. W.

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “On the population inversion in hydrogen-like plasmas,” J. Phys. B 11, 187 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Recombination lasers from cooled hydrogenlike plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3118 (1977).
[Crossref]

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Theory of short-wavelength lasers from recombining plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Bouvier, M.

D. Strickland, P. Maine, M. Bouvier, S. Williamson, and G. Mourou, “Picosecond pulse amplification using pulse compression,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 38.
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Chenais-Popovics, C.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corbett, R.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Darack, S.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Fishman, H.

S. Suckewer and H. Fishman, “Conditions for soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1922 (1979).
[Crossref]

Freeman, R. R.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geusic, M. E.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graber, T.

Green, J. M.

J. M. Green and W. T. Silfast, “Population inversion with respect to the ground level of an ion or atom by the rapid cooling of a plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 253 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gudzenko, L. I.

L. I. Gudzenko and L. A. Shelepin, “Negative absorption in a nonequilibrium hydrogen plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 18, 998 (1964); “Radiation enhancement in a recombining plasma,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 10, 147 (1965).

Hooker, J.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Jones, W. W.

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “On the population inversion in hydrogen-like plasmas,” J. Phys. B 11, 187 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Recombination lasers from cooled hydrogenlike plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3118 (1977).
[Crossref]

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Theory of short-wavelength lasers from recombining plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 450 (1975).
[Crossref]

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Key, M. H.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiehn, G. P.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, London, 1978).

Lewis, C. L. S.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, London, 1978).

Luk, T. S.

Maine, P.

D. Strickland, P. Maine, M. Bouvier, S. Williamson, and G. Mourou, “Picosecond pulse amplification using pulse compression,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 38.
[Crossref]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milchberg, M.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland, P. Maine, M. Bouvier, S. Williamson, and G. Mourou, “Picosecond pulse amplification using pulse compression,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 38.
[Crossref]

Muchenheim, W.

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schaffer, E. Muller-Horsche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305 (1987).
[Crossref]

Muller-Horsche, E.

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schaffer, E. Muller-Horsche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305 (1987).
[Crossref]

Perelomov, A. M.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1965).

Pert, G. J.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Pert, “Model calculations of XUV gain in rapidly expanding cylindrical plasmas,” J. Phys. B 9, 3301 (1976).
[Crossref]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Peyraud, J.

J. Peyraud and N. Peyraud, “Population inversion in laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2993 (1972).
[Crossref]

Peyraud, N.

J. Peyraud and N. Peyraud, “Population inversion in laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2993 (1972).
[Crossref]

Popov, V. S.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1965).

Rahman, N. K.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Regan, C.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiss, H. R.

H. R. Reiss, “Spectrum of atomic electrons ionized by an intense field,” J. Phys. B 20, L79 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rhodes, C. K.

Rose, S. J.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadatt, S.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffer, F. P.

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schaffer, E. Muller-Horsche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305 (1987).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, D.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelepin, L. A.

L. I. Gudzenko and L. A. Shelepin, “Negative absorption in a nonequilibrium hydrogen plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 18, 998 (1964); “Radiation enhancement in a recombining plasma,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 10, 147 (1965).

Silfast, W. T.

J. M. Green and W. T. Silfast, “Population inversion with respect to the ground level of an ion or atom by the rapid cooling of a plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 253 (1976).
[Crossref]

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland, P. Maine, M. Bouvier, S. Williamson, and G. Mourou, “Picosecond pulse amplification using pulse compression,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 38.
[Crossref]

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer and H. Fishman, “Conditions for soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1922 (1979).
[Crossref]

Szatmari, S.

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schaffer, E. Muller-Horsche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tallents, G. J.

G. J. Tallents, “Population inversions for soft x-ray transitions computed for rapidly cooling plasmas,” J. Phys. B 10, 1769 (1977).
[Crossref]

Terent’ev, M. V.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1965).

Tomie, T.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voorhees, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willi, O.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williamson, S.

D. Strickland, P. Maine, M. Bouvier, S. Williamson, and G. Mourou, “Picosecond pulse amplification using pulse compression,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 38.
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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S. Suckewer and H. Fishman, “Conditions for soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1922 (1979).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “Recombination lasers from cooled hydrogenlike plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3118 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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H. R. Reiss, “Spectrum of atomic electrons ionized by an intense field,” J. Phys. B 20, L79 (1987).
[Crossref]

W. W. Jones and A. W. Ali, “On the population inversion in hydrogen-like plasmas,” J. Phys. B 11, 187 (1978).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

G. J. Tallents, “Population inversions for soft x-ray transitions computed for rapidly cooling plasmas,” J. Phys. B 10, 1769 (1977).
[Crossref]

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S. Szatmari, F. P. Schaffer, E. Muller-Horsche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305 (1987).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

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R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, M. Milchberg, C. Keane, and D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadatt, R. Smith, T. Tomie, and O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free–free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

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L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1965).

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Other (3)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, London, 1978).

D. Strickland, P. Maine, M. Bouvier, S. Williamson, and G. Mourou, “Picosecond pulse amplification using pulse compression,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 38.
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical laser intensity required to give an ionization rate of 1012 sec−1 from Keldysh13 theory. For ionization potentials in excess of 50 eV the theory predicts no wavelength dependence of ionization rate for optical-frequency ionizing lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser intensity required to yield an ionization rate of 1012 sec−1 from the quasi-static approximation [Eq. (1) or (3) averaged over one laser period] for various ions of potential XUV laser interest. Wavelengths for transitions between the ground state and first excited state of these ions are as indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average ATI energy for ionization of hydrogenlike ions at a rate of 1012 sec−1 as a function of ionization potential and ionizing laser wavelength [Eq. (4)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electron energy distribution produced when a hydrogenlike ion with an ionization potential of 300 eV is ionized by means of a 0.3-μm-wavelength laser at a rate of 1012 sec−1. The solid curve denotes the quasi-static theory, while the parallel straight lines represent individual ATI peaks predicted by Keldysh [Eq. (18) of Ref. 13].

Equations (6)

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W st = 4 ω 0 ( E i E h ) 5 / 2 E 0 E s exp [ - 2 / 3 ( E i E h ) 3 / 2 E 0 E s ] ,
W ac = ( 3 / π ) 1 / 2 [ E E 0 ( E h E i ) 3 / 2 ] W st ( E ) .
W st = ω 0 2 C n * l 2 E i E h ( 2 l + 1 ) ( l + m ) ! 2 m ( m ) ! ( l - m ) ! [ 2 ( E i E h ) 3 / 2 E 0 E ] 2 n * - m - 1 × exp [ - 2 / 3 ( E i E h ) 3 / 2 E 0 E ] ,
= 0 π / 2 2 E q W st ( E L , E i ) cos 2 ϕ d ϕ 0 π / 2 W st ( E L , E i ) d ϕ .
F ( ) = a ( 1 - 2 E q ) ( 2 E q ) 1 / 2 exp [ - b ( 1 - 2 E q ) 1 / 2 ] ,
b = 2 3 ( E i E h ) 3 / 2 E 0 E .

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