Abstract

By pumping a fiber in the anomalous group-velocity dispersion regime with a color-center laser, we generate a femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum with τ ≳ 100 fsec covering a wide spectral range between 1.55 < λ < 1.85 μm. We present a theory to explain the spectrum and use autocorrelations and cross correlations to verify the results experimentally. Modulation instability and the soliton self-frequency shift effect initiate a multisoliton collision process that results in narrow, high-intensity solitons. An ensemble average over these solitons, which start from noise and frequency shift by different amounts, yields the observed broad spectra. We use the fiber output in pump–probe experiments, measuring the exciton ionization time in InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells for the first time to our knowledge.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Hasegawa, W. F. Brinkman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 694 (1980); K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. N. Islam, S. P. Dijaili, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 13, 518 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 11, 662 (1986); F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 332 (1988); A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 12, 1035 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, D. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1301 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A more nearly complete discussion of the normalizations is given in L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Pinto, L. W. Stratton, C. R. Pollock, Opt. Lett. 10, 384 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, J. F. Nicoud, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Wegener, I. Bar-Joseph, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitonic absorption in the infrared InGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

1988

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 332 (1988); A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 12, 1035 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, D. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1301 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, S. P. Dijaili, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 13, 518 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

A more nearly complete discussion of the normalizations is given in L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 11, 662 (1986); F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1981

J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, J. F. Nicoud, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. Hasegawa, W. F. Brinkman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 694 (1980); K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

M. Wegener, I. Bar-Joseph, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitonic absorption in the infrared InGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Beaud, P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

Brinkman, W. F.

A. Hasegawa, W. F. Brinkman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 694 (1980); K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, J. F. Nicoud, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, I. Bar-Joseph, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitonic absorption in the infrared InGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Dianov, E. M.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dijaili, S. P.

Doran, N. J.

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 332 (1988); A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 12, 1035 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. P.

M. N. Islam, S. P. Dijaili, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 13, 518 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A more nearly complete discussion of the normalizations is given in L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 11, 662 (1986); F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 332 (1988); A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 12, 1035 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grudinin, A. B.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa, W. F. Brinkman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 694 (1980); K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodel, W.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, S. P. Dijaili, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 13, 518 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A more nearly complete discussion of the normalizations is given in L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, I. Bar-Joseph, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitonic absorption in the infrared InGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Khaidarov, D. V.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

A more nearly complete discussion of the normalizations is given in L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nicoud, J. F.

J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, J. F. Nicoud, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. F.

Pollock, C. R.

Prokhorov, A. M.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stratton, L. W.

Sucha, G.

M. Wegener, I. Bar-Joseph, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitonic absorption in the infrared InGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Taylor, J. R.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 332 (1988); A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 12, 1035 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodop’yanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Wegener, I. Bar-Joseph, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitonic absorption in the infrared InGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Wood, D.

Zyss, J.

J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, J. F. Nicoud, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zysset, B.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Hasegawa, W. F. Brinkman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 694 (1980); K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, A. Tomita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A more nearly complete discussion of the normalizations is given in L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 332 (1988); A. S. Gouveia-Neto, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 12, 1035 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. Zyss, D. S. Chemla, J. F. Nicoud, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4800 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, D. V. Khaidarov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1311 (1987); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomichev, JETP Lett. 41, 242 (1985); A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, D. V. Khaidarov, JETP Lett. 45, 211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Wegener, I. Bar-Joseph, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitonic absorption in the infrared InGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulations of pulse propagation in a fiber obtained from numerical solution of Eqs. (2) and (3). The parameter values correspond approximately to the experiments: A = 66.7, Ω peak = 2 A, td = 7.54 × 10−4, τc = 7.95 psec, Zc = 15.24 km, Pc = 12.73 mW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Continuation of simulations in Fig. 1, leading up to the onset of the FDSS. After propagating 84 m in the fiber, a narrow, intense pulse emerges on the trailing edge of the pump.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Continuation of simulations in Fig. 2 for a short distance in the fiber. The intense, fundamental soliton splits off from the original pulse because of the SSFS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulations of critical length Lc (Lc = length/100 m) versus A and τ. We define Lc as the length in which the peak intensity reaches ten times the original peak A2. Crosses through the triangles mean that compression occurs before MI. (a) Lc versus τ with A = 66.7. (b) Lc versus A with τ = 1. (c) Lc versus τ with A2τ = (66.7)2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental spectra for pump powers below the FDSS threshold.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FDSS spectra as a function of peak pump power from (a) 100-m and (b) 500-m fibers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Autocorrelations of fiber output after 1.7-μm filter in (a) 100-m and (b) 500-m fibers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Pulse width versus peak pump power from 100-m fiber after various filters. (b) Peak-to-pedestal ratio in autocorrelation versus wavelength after 100-m fiber.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cross correlation measurements taken by scanning a spectrometer after the nonlinear mixing crystal (zero delay between the two arms, 100-m fiber). Curve 1: 1.6-μm filter in one arm, no filter in other. Curve 2: 1.7-μm filter in one arm, no filter in other. Curve 3: 1.6-μm filter in one arm and 1.7-μm filter in the other.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cross correlation between 1.6 and 1.7 μm as a function of delay for different pump powers (100-m fiber). We used a 1.6-μm filter in one arm and set the spectrometer to 825 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Pulse width emerging from 500-m fiber versus (a) wavelength and (b) peak pump power (at λ = 1.7 μm).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmission versus delay following a 1.6-μm filter for absorption-saturation measurements in InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells. In (a) we subtract off the background before zero time delay.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Energy increase for lower-frequency pulse after collision with a higher-frequency pulse. The solid curve corresponds to exp(4td), and the circles to energies computed by solving Eq. (2) with the initial condition u = sech(t + 3.5)exp(i2t) + sech(t −3.5)exp(−i2t + /2) and L = 3Z0.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G = 2 Ω [ A 2 - ( Ω 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
- i u z = 1 2 2 u t 2 + u ( u 2 - t d u 2 t ) ,
z = ( x / Z c ) ( distance along fiber ) , t = ( τ - x / v g ) / τ c ( local time on the pulse ) , t d = ( 6 fsec / τ c [ slope of Raman gain curve near zero frequency ( cf . Appendix B ) ] ,
u = A sech ( t ) + sin ( Ω peak t ) ,
- i u z = β 2 2 u t 2 + u - d s f ( s ) u ( t - s ) 2 ,
u = a exp [ i ( a 2 z + ϕ ) ] ( 1 + ν ) ,
- i ν z = β 2 2 ν t 2 + a 2 0 d s f ( s ) [ ν ( t - s ) + ν * ( t - s ) ] .
ν = A exp ( K z - i Ω t ) + B * exp ( K * z + i Ω t ) .
- i K A = - β ( Ω 2 / 2 ) A + a 2 χ ( Ω ) ( A + B ) ,
i K B = - β ( Ω 2 / 2 ) B + a 2 χ ( Ω ) ( A + B ) ,
K 2 = β Ω 2 [ a 2 χ ( Ω ) - β Ω 2 / 4 ] .
χ max = 9.9 / ( 4 π × 3.2 ) 0.25.
K max = a 2 ,
Re ( K ) max = 0.25 a 2 .
z u 1 2 = - Im [ t ( u 1 * u 1 t ) + 2 u 1 * u 2 0 d s f ( s ) ( u 2 * u 1 ) t - s ] .
z u 1 2 - Im [ 2 u 1 2 u 2 2 0 d s f ( s ) exp ( - i Ω ¯ 2 s ) ] .
z ln u 1 2 = 2 u 2 2 Ω ¯ 2 t d .
u 2 2 = sech 2 ( t + Ω ¯ 2 z ) ,
u 1 final 2 / u 1 initial 2 = exp [ 4 d d sgn ( Ω ¯ 2 ) ] .

Metrics