Abstract

Steady-state fluorescence spectra and excitation spectra from native human normal and malignant tumor breast tissues have been measured and analyzed. Two types of spectra from normal tissues have been found and discussed. The statistics of the fluorescence results are given, and the reasons for false negative, false positive, and equivocal results are presented.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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Errata

R. R. Alfano, S. J. Wahl, Asima Pradhan, and G. C. Tang, "Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissues: erratum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 393_1-393 (1990)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josab/abstract.cfm?uri=josab-7-3-393_1

References

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  1. J. Yguerabide, “Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and membranes,” in Fluorescence Techniques in Cell Biology, A. A. Thaer, M. Sernetz, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973), pp. 311–331.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Udenfriend, Fluorescence Assay in Biology and Medicine (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 1.
  3. S. Udenfriend, Fluorescence Assay in Biology and Medicine (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 2.
  4. G. M. Brenboim, A. N. Domanskii, K. K. Turoverov, Luminescence of Biopolymers and Cells (Plenum, New York, 1969), pp. 67–71.
  5. R. R. Alfano, S. S. Yao, “Human teeth with and without caries studied by visible luminescent spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res. 60, 120–122 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. R. Alfano, M. A. Alfano, “Medical diagnostics: a new optical frontier,” Photon. Spectra 19, 55–60 (1985).
  8. C. Kittrel, R. L. Willet, C. de Los, Santos Pacheo, N. B. Ratcliff, J. R. Kramer, E. G. Malk, M. S. Feld, “Diagnosis of fibrous arterial atherosclerosis using fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2280–2281 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Pantar, M. V. R. Rao, M. Atreyi, S. Kumar, “Fluorescence behaviour of sequential tyrosil polypeptides,” Photo-chem. Photobiol. 43, 591–594 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Shimomura, “Bioluminescence of the brittle star Ophiopsila californica,” Photochem. Photobiol. 44, 671–674 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. D. Fasman, ed., Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1975), pp. 205–210.
  13. R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M. E. Zaruba, G. M. McKhann, “Cellular autofluorescence—Is it due to flavins?” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44–48 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).
  15. B. Honig, “Theoretical aspects of photoisomerisation,” in Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy,” R. R. Alfano, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 285.
  16. T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of heme proteins effect of oxidation and spin state,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96, 338–345 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 2622–2626 (1972).

1987

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. V. Pantar, M. V. R. Rao, M. Atreyi, S. Kumar, “Fluorescence behaviour of sequential tyrosil polypeptides,” Photo-chem. Photobiol. 43, 591–594 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. Shimomura, “Bioluminescence of the brittle star Ophiopsila californica,” Photochem. Photobiol. 44, 671–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. R. Alfano, S. S. Yao, “Human teeth with and without caries studied by visible luminescent spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res. 60, 120–122 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M. E. Zaruba, G. M. McKhann, “Cellular autofluorescence—Is it due to flavins?” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44–48 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of heme proteins effect of oxidation and spin state,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96, 338–345 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 2622–2626 (1972).

Alfano, M. A.

R. R. Alfano, M. A. Alfano, “Medical diagnostics: a new optical frontier,” Photon. Spectra 19, 55–60 (1985).

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, M. A. Alfano, “Medical diagnostics: a new optical frontier,” Photon. Spectra 19, 55–60 (1985).

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, S. S. Yao, “Human teeth with and without caries studied by visible luminescent spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res. 60, 120–122 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atreyi, M.

A. V. Pantar, M. V. R. Rao, M. Atreyi, S. Kumar, “Fluorescence behaviour of sequential tyrosil polypeptides,” Photo-chem. Photobiol. 43, 591–594 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Benson, R. C.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M. E. Zaruba, G. M. McKhann, “Cellular autofluorescence—Is it due to flavins?” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44–48 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bordagaray, G.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Brenboim, G. M.

G. M. Brenboim, A. N. Domanskii, K. K. Turoverov, Luminescence of Biopolymers and Cells (Plenum, New York, 1969), pp. 67–71.

Choy, D. S. J.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cordero, J.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cothren, R.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

de Los, C.

Domanskii, A. N.

G. M. Brenboim, A. N. Domanskii, K. K. Turoverov, Luminescence of Biopolymers and Cells (Plenum, New York, 1969), pp. 67–71.

Feld, M. S.

C. Kittrel, R. L. Willet, C. de Los, Santos Pacheo, N. B. Ratcliff, J. R. Kramer, E. G. Malk, M. S. Feld, “Diagnosis of fibrous arterial atherosclerosis using fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2280–2281 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Fitzmaurice, M.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Honig, B.

B. Honig, “Theoretical aspects of photoisomerisation,” in Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy,” R. R. Alfano, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 285.

Hoyt, C.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Kittrel, C.

Kittrell, C.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Kjellstrom, T.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Kolubayev, T.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Kramer, J.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Kramer, J. R.

Kumar, S.

A. V. Pantar, M. V. R. Rao, M. Atreyi, S. Kumar, “Fluorescence behaviour of sequential tyrosil polypeptides,” Photo-chem. Photobiol. 43, 591–594 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lam, W.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Longo, F.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Malk, E. G.

McKhann, G. M.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M. E. Zaruba, G. M. McKhann, “Cellular autofluorescence—Is it due to flavins?” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44–48 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, A.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Meyer, R. A.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M. E. Zaruba, G. M. McKhann, “Cellular autofluorescence—Is it due to flavins?” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44–48 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opher, E.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pacheo, Santos

Pantar, A. V.

A. V. Pantar, M. V. R. Rao, M. Atreyi, S. Kumar, “Fluorescence behaviour of sequential tyrosil polypeptides,” Photo-chem. Photobiol. 43, 591–594 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rao, M. V. R.

A. V. Pantar, M. V. R. Rao, M. Atreyi, S. Kumar, “Fluorescence behaviour of sequential tyrosil polypeptides,” Photo-chem. Photobiol. 43, 591–594 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ratcliff, N. B.

Ratliff, N. B.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Sacks, B.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

Shimomura, O.

O. Shimomura, “Bioluminescence of the brittle star Ophiopsila californica,” Photochem. Photobiol. 44, 671–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Spiro, T.

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of heme proteins effect of oxidation and spin state,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96, 338–345 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 2622–2626 (1972).

Streakas, T.

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of heme proteins effect of oxidation and spin state,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96, 338–345 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 2622–2626 (1972).

Tang, G. C.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tata, D.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tomashefsky, P.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Turoverov, K. K.

G. M. Brenboim, A. N. Domanskii, K. K. Turoverov, Luminescence of Biopolymers and Cells (Plenum, New York, 1969), pp. 67–71.

Udenfriend, S.

S. Udenfriend, Fluorescence Assay in Biology and Medicine (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 1.

S. Udenfriend, Fluorescence Assay in Biology and Medicine (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 2.

Willet, R. L.

Yao, S. S.

R. R. Alfano, S. S. Yao, “Human teeth with and without caries studied by visible luminescent spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res. 60, 120–122 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yguerabide, J.

J. Yguerabide, “Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and membranes,” in Fluorescence Techniques in Cell Biology, A. A. Thaer, M. Sernetz, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973), pp. 311–331.
[CrossRef]

Zaruba, M. E.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M. E. Zaruba, G. M. McKhann, “Cellular autofluorescence—Is it due to flavins?” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44–48 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of heme proteins effect of oxidation and spin state,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96, 338–345 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res.

R. R. Alfano, S. S. Yao, “Human teeth with and without caries studied by visible luminescent spectroscopy,” J. Dent. Res. 60, 120–122 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Histochem. Cytochem.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M. E. Zaruba, G. M. McKhann, “Cellular autofluorescence—Is it due to flavins?” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44–48 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photo-chem. Photobiol.

A. V. Pantar, M. V. R. Rao, M. Atreyi, S. Kumar, “Fluorescence behaviour of sequential tyrosil polypeptides,” Photo-chem. Photobiol. 43, 591–594 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

O. Shimomura, “Bioluminescence of the brittle star Ophiopsila californica,” Photochem. Photobiol. 44, 671–674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Spectra

R. R. Alfano, M. A. Alfano, “Medical diagnostics: a new optical frontier,” Photon. Spectra 19, 55–60 (1985).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

T. Spiro, T. Streakas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 2622–2626 (1972).

Other

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, T. Kolubayev, C. Hoyt, R. Cothren, B. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, T. Kjellstrom, G. Bordagaray, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Kramer, “Spectroscopic diagnosis for control of laser treatment of atherosclerosis,” in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. R. Persson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

B. Honig, “Theoretical aspects of photoisomerisation,” in Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy,” R. R. Alfano, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 285.

G. D. Fasman, ed., Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1975), pp. 205–210.

J. Yguerabide, “Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and membranes,” in Fluorescence Techniques in Cell Biology, A. A. Thaer, M. Sernetz, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973), pp. 311–331.
[CrossRef]

S. Udenfriend, Fluorescence Assay in Biology and Medicine (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 1.

S. Udenfriend, Fluorescence Assay in Biology and Medicine (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 2.

G. M. Brenboim, A. N. Domanskii, K. K. Turoverov, Luminescence of Biopolymers and Cells (Plenum, New York, 1969), pp. 67–71.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for steady-state spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectra excited at 488 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue with Raman peaks and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectra excited at 514.5 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue with Raman peaks and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence spectra excited at 457.9 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue with Raman peaks and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence spectra excited at 488 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue without Raman peaks and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence spectra excited at 514.5 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue without Raman peaks and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence spectra excited at 457.9 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue without Raman peaks and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Excitation spectra measured at 520 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Excitation spectra measured at 550 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Excitation spectra measured at 600 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fluorescence spectra excited at 488 nm from (a) human tumor breast tissue with Raman peaks and (b) the same tumor tissue without Raman peaks at a different location (example of equivocal result).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fluorescence spectra excited at 488 nm from (a) human normal breast tissue without secondary peaks (example of equivocal result) and (b) human tumor breast tissue.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Statistics of the Fluorescence-Spectrum Results of Normal and Tumor Human Breast Tissues

Metrics