Abstract

The linear- and nonlinear-optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP) have been investigated. The refractive indices exhibit strong dispersion and a high birefringence (0.15–0.3) in the visible. The three main refractive indices at λ = 550 nm are na = 1.700, nb = 1.845, and nc = 1.683. The calculations that were carried out show interesting critical (frequency doubling of the Nd:YAG laser at λ = 1064 nm) and noncritical [sum-frequency generation using 488-nm (argon) and 647-nm (krypton)] phase-matching properties. The nonlinear-optical susceptibilities d32 = (32 ± 16) pm/V and d33 = (13.7 ± 2) pm/V were determined. A one-dimensional charge-transfer model can be used to explain the anisotropy of the nonlinear-optical susceptibility tensor of COANP qualitatively.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, and J. Zyss, Opt. Eng. 25, 202–210 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Stegeman, in Integrated Optics, H. P. Nolting and R. Ulrich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 178.
  3. B. K. Nayer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 233, 153 (1983).
  4. P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Stewart, G. O. Kruger, H. L. Ammon, C. W. Dickinson, and S. R. Hall, Tech. Rep. TR-192 Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (as modified by D. Schwarzenbach).
  6. P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Born, Optik, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 45.
  9. See, e.g., N. H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope (Arnold, London, 1970).
  10. J. Gahm, Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 2, 389–410 (1962); Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 3, 3–31 (1963).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. S. Shumate, Appl. Opt. 5, 327–331 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 90.
  14. P. Yeh, Opt. Commun. 35, 15–19 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374–385 (1984).
  16. J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-24, 2362–2366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, and J. Zyss, Opt. Eng. 25, 202–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374–385 (1984).

1983 (1)

B. K. Nayer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 233, 153 (1983).

1982 (1)

J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

P. Yeh, Opt. Commun. 35, 15–19 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

1962 (1)

J. Gahm, Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 2, 389–410 (1962); Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 3, 3–31 (1963).

Ammon, H. L.

J. H. Stewart, G. O. Kruger, H. L. Ammon, C. W. Dickinson, and S. R. Hall, Tech. Rep. TR-192 Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (as modified by D. Schwarzenbach).

Arend, H.

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, J. C.

J. C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374–385 (1984).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 90.

M. Born, Optik, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 45.

Bosshard, Ch.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-24, 2362–2366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chapuis, G.

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Declercq, J.-P.

P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).

DeKries, R. C.

Dickinson, C. W.

J. H. Stewart, G. O. Kruger, H. L. Ammon, C. W. Dickinson, and S. R. Hall, Tech. Rep. TR-192 Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (as modified by D. Schwarzenbach).

Dobrowolski, D.

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ehrensperger, M.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-24, 2362–2366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fiske, S. J.

P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).

Gahm, J.

J. Gahm, Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 2, 389–410 (1962); Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 3, 3–31 (1963).

Germain, G.

P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).

Günter, P.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-24, 2362–2366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374–385 (1984).

Hall, S. R.

J. H. Stewart, G. O. Kruger, H. L. Ammon, C. W. Dickinson, and S. R. Hall, Tech. Rep. TR-192 Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (as modified by D. Schwarzenbach).

Hartshorne, N. H.

See, e.g., N. H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope (Arnold, London, 1970).

Hoffnagle, J.

J. C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374–385 (1984).

Hull, S. E.

P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).

Josse, D.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, and J. Zyss, Opt. Eng. 25, 202–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, G. O.

J. H. Stewart, G. O. Kruger, H. L. Ammon, C. W. Dickinson, and S. R. Hall, Tech. Rep. TR-192 Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (as modified by D. Schwarzenbach).

Lawless, W. N.

Ledoux, I.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, and J. Zyss, Opt. Eng. 25, 202–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Main, P.

P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).

Nayer, B. K.

B. K. Nayer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 233, 153 (1983).

Oudar, J. L.

J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shumate, M. S.

Stegeman, G.

G. Stegeman, in Integrated Optics, H. P. Nolting and R. Ulrich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 178.

Stewart, J. H.

J. H. Stewart, G. O. Kruger, H. L. Ammon, C. W. Dickinson, and S. R. Hall, Tech. Rep. TR-192 Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (as modified by D. Schwarzenbach).

Stuart, A.

See, e.g., N. H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope (Arnold, London, 1970).

Sutter, K.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-24, 2362–2366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-24, 2362–2366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vidakovic, P.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, and J. Zyss, Opt. Eng. 25, 202–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 90.

Woolfson, M. M.

P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Opt. Commun. 35, 15–19 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, and J. Zyss, Opt. Eng. 25, 202–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. (1)

B. K. Nayer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 233, 153 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, M. Ehrensperger, P. Günter, and R. J. Twieg, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-24, 2362–2366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Yeh, Opt. Commun. 35, 15–19 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, and J. Zyss, Opt. Eng. 25, 202–210 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Günter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 492, 374–385 (1984).

Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. (1)

J. Gahm, Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 2, 389–410 (1962); Zeiss Mitt. Fortschr. Tech. Opt. 3, 3–31 (1963).

Other (6)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 90.

G. Stegeman, in Integrated Optics, H. P. Nolting and R. Ulrich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 178.

M. Born, Optik, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 45.

See, e.g., N. H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope (Arnold, London, 1970).

J. H. Stewart, G. O. Kruger, H. L. Ammon, C. W. Dickinson, and S. R. Hall, Tech. Rep. TR-192 Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (as modified by D. Schwarzenbach).

P. Main, S. J. Fiske, S. E. Hull, J.-P. Declercq, G. Germain, and M. M. Woolfson, Universities of York, England, and Louvain, Belgium, multan—a system of computer programs for the automatic solution of crystal structures (1980).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dispersion of the refractive indices of COANP at room temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion of the optic angle observed with conoscopy. The theoretical curve obtained from the refractive indices is overlayed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maker-fringe curves for the evaluation of (a) d33 and (b) d32 of COANP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Noncritical phase-matching for sum-frequency generation and frequency doubling for (a) d31 and (b) d32. An example for d32 with λ1 = 1996 nm, λ2 = 647 nm, and λ3 = 488 nm is shown. λ1 is the signal wave, λ2 is the idler wave, and λ3 is the pump wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated angle-tuned phase matching for frequency doubling by using d31 and d32. An a plate is rotated around the c axis. The dotted lines mark the phase-matching condition for λ = 1064 nm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Crystal Data of COANP at Room Temperature

Tables Icon

Table 2 Atomic Coordinates (in Units of Cell Coordinates)a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Refractive Indices of COANP at λ = 550 nm and Dispersion Parameters of a One-Oscillator Model

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 ( ω ) - 1 = ω p 2 γ 0 ω 0 2 - ω 2 + A = q λ 0 - 2 - λ - 2 + A ,
n 2 ( ω ) - 1 = ω p 2 γ 0 + ω 0 2 A ω 0 2 - ω 2 ,
P 1 ( 2 ω ) = 2 0 d 15 E 1 E 3 , P 2 ( 2 ω ) = 2 0 d 24 E 2 E 3 , P 3 ( 2 ω ) = 0 ( d 31 E 1 2 + d 32 E 2 2 + d 33 E 3 2 ) ,
d 32 = ( 32 ± 16 ) pm / V ,             l c 32 = ( 14 ± 7 ) μ m , d 33 = ( 13.7 ± 2 ) pm / V ,             l c 33 = ( 2.9 ± 0.3 ) μ m .
θ CT , a = 66.4° , θ CT , b = 38.8° , θ CT , c = 61.1° .
d 32 = N f 3 2 ω ( f 2 ω ) 2 cos 2 ( θ CT , b ) cos ( θ CT , c ) β , d 33 = N f 3 2 ω ( f 3 ω ) 2 cos 3 ( θ CT , c ) β , d 24 = N f 2 2 ω f 2 ω f 3 ω cos 2 ( θ CT , b ) cos ( θ CT , c ) β ,
( d 32 / d 33 ) theory = 3.1 ,             ( d 32 / d 33 ) exp = 2.3 ± 1.8.

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