Abstract

Anomalous and strong optical absorption occurs in Pr-doped LaCl3 crystals for laser pump light connecting excited electronic states of the Pr ion and intensity in excess of a well-defined threshold value. We have measured the absorption as a function of pumping intensity and compare the results with mathematical models of a laser-induced excited-state population.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Interscience, New York, 1968).
  2. W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. E. Cox and F. K. Fong, J. Cryst. Growth 20, 233 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. E. Case, J. S. Chivian, and R. W. Reynolds, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4509 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. E. Koch and W. E. Case, in Advances in Laser Science I, W. C. Stwalley and M. Lapp, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 142.

1979 (2)

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124 (1979).
[Crossref]

W. E. Case, J. S. Chivian, and R. W. Reynolds, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4509 (1979).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

D. E. Cox and F. K. Fong, J. Cryst. Growth 20, 233 (1973).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170 (1968).
[Crossref]

Case, W. E.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124 (1979).
[Crossref]

W. E. Case, J. S. Chivian, and R. W. Reynolds, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4509 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. E. Koch and W. E. Case, in Advances in Laser Science I, W. C. Stwalley and M. Lapp, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 142.

Chivian, J. S.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124 (1979).
[Crossref]

W. E. Case, J. S. Chivian, and R. W. Reynolds, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4509 (1979).
[Crossref]

Cox, D. E.

D. E. Cox and F. K. Fong, J. Cryst. Growth 20, 233 (1973).
[Crossref]

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Interscience, New York, 1968).

Eden, D. D.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124 (1979).
[Crossref]

Fong, F. K.

D. E. Cox and F. K. Fong, J. Cryst. Growth 20, 233 (1973).
[Crossref]

Gandrud, W. B.

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170 (1968).
[Crossref]

Koch, M. E.

M. E. Koch and W. E. Case, in Advances in Laser Science I, W. C. Stwalley and M. Lapp, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 142.

Moos, H. W.

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170 (1968).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, R. W.

W. E. Case, J. S. Chivian, and R. W. Reynolds, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4509 (1979).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. E. Case, J. S. Chivian, and R. W. Reynolds, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4509 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. E. Cox and F. K. Fong, J. Cryst. Growth 20, 233 (1973).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Interscience, New York, 1968).

M. E. Koch and W. E. Case, in Advances in Laser Science I, W. C. Stwalley and M. Lapp, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 142.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relevant energy levels of Pr3+ in LaCl3. The pump transition and various fluorescence transitions are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Semilogarithmic plot of laser (pump light) transmission versus incident power for a Pr:LaCl3 avalanche crystal. Below the critical pumping power (approximately 1 mW), the absorption in the sample is minimal. Reflection at the sample surfaces and windows of the sample cell accounts for most of the loss below critical power. The dashed curve shows expected behavior for power limiting of a Gaussian beam profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy-transfer process whereby one Pr3+ ion in 3H6 yields two in 3H5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative data showing transmitted versus incident laser power as much as 20 times the critical power. Sample thicknesses are circles, 140 μm; triangles, 460 μm; squares, 1.37 mm. The dashed curves are best fits obtained using Eq. (5) and ξ = 0.13.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fitting parameter ξ versus crystal thickness. The dashed lines are extrapolations of the first boundary points obtained using Eq. (6).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fitting parameter I′/Ic versus crystal thickness. The dashed curves are extrapolations from the first boundary points obtained using Eq. (8).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The data of Fig. 4 replotted with best fits to Eq. (9) (dashed curves). Fitting parameters: I′/Ic = 1.017 (top), 1.174 (middle), and 5 (bottom).

Equations (10)

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P out = T 0 P c [ 1 + ln ( P in P c ) ]
T = T 0 P c P in [ 1 + ln ( P in P c ) ] .
p = k ( I I c - 1 ) .
d I d z = - N σ I p .
P out = P c ( 1 + ln { P in P c [ 1 - exp ( - ξ ) ] + exp ( - ξ ) } 1 - exp ( - ξ ) ) ,             P in > P c ,
ξ = N σ k l .
p = k ( I I c - 1 ) 1 / 2 .
I = I c sec 2 ( ½ N σ k l ) ,
P out = P c [ 1 + ln ( P in P c ) ] ,
P out = P c ( 1 + ln I I c + 2 I I - I c { 1 1 + [ ( P in P c - 1 ) ( I I c - 1 ) ] 1 / 2 - I c I + ln 1 + [ ( P in P c - 1 ) ( I I c - 1 ) ] 1 / 2 I I c } ) .

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