Abstract

Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) is a unique nonlinear-optical material that is being widely used for second-harmonic generation of Nd lasers emitting near 1 μm. KTP is also attractive for various sum- and difference-frequency and optical parametric applications over its entire transparency range from 0.35 to 4.5 μm. Its combination of large electro-optic coefficients and low dielectric constants makes KTP potentially useful for various electro-optic applications, and, in particular, it has a figure of merit for an optical waveguide modulator that is nearly a factor of 2 larger than that for any other inorganic material. Low-loss optical waveguides can be formed in KTP, and several electro-optic and nonlinear-optic devices have been fabricated that confirm that KTP is also a superior material for many optical waveguide applications.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Bierlein, T. D. Gier, U.S. Patent3,949,323 (April6, 1976).
  2. F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. E. Gier, “Kx Rb1−x TiOPO4: a new nonlinear optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Tordjman, R. Masse, J. C. Guitel, “Structure cristalline du monophosphate KTiPO5,” Z. Kristallogr. 139, 103 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Gashurov, R. F. Belt, “Growth of KTP,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers for Remote Sensing, R. L. Byer, E. K. Gustafson, R. Frebino, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 119.
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Laudise, R. J. Cava, A. J. Caporaso, “Phase relations, solubility and growth of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTP,” J. Crystal Growth 74, 275 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. F. Cai, Z. T. Yang, “Investigation on some properties of KTiOPO4crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 79, 974 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Z. Shen, C. E. Huang, “A new nonlinear optical crystal KTP,” Prog. Crystal Growth Characterization 11, 269 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).
  12. A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, “Observations of complex domain walls in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1498 (1988); V. I. Voronkova, R. S. Gvozdover, V. K. Vanovskii, “Ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4and RbTiOPO4crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 390 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, Y. S. Liu, “KTP as a harmonic generator for Nd:YAG lasers,” Laser Focus 21, 110 (1985).
  17. F. C. Zumsteg, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (personal communicaton).
  18. T. E. Gier, F. C. Zumsteg, “KTP crystals for second harmonic generation,” written for contract F33615-77-C-1131 (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Del., November1978).
  19. J. Q. Yao, T. S. Fahlen, “Calculations of optimum phase match parameters for the biaxial crystal KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 65 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. S. Liu, L. Drafall, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “Nonlinear optical phase-matching properties of KTiOPO4,” (General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., 1982).
  21. D. T. Hon, “High average power, efficient second harmonic generation,” in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1979), Vol. 3, p. 421.
  22. Y. S. Liu, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “High-average-power intracavity second-harmonic generation using KTiOPO4in an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator at 5 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 9, 76 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “20-W average-power KTP intracavity-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1066 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. A. Driscoll, H. J. Hoffman, R. E. Stone, P. E. Perkins, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in KTP crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 683 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Vanherzeele, “Optimization of a cw mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3608 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Huth, D. Kuizenga, “Green light from doubled Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Optron. 6, 59 (1987).
  27. See, e.g., D. A. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena IV, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984); G. R. Fleming, A. E. Siegman, eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena V (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Vanherzeele, L. De Vos, P. Muys, “Tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled high power cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P65 (1986).
  29. P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “Half watt average power at 25 kHz from fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1636 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. E. Perkins, T. A. Driscoll, “Efficient intracavity doubling in flash-lamp pumped Nd:YLF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1281 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. E. Moody, J. M. Eggleston, J. F. Seamans, “Long-pulse second harmonic generation in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 335 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Baer, “Frequency-doubled, diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 610, 45 (1986).
  33. P. Kortz, Adlas GmbH, Lubeck, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication).
  34. A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. Reynaud, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, “Quantum fluctuations in a two-mode parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1520 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. K. H. Hellwege, ed., Landolt–Bornstein Tables, Nonlinear Dielectric Susceptibilities (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), Vol. 2, Group 3, Sec. 6.; Sellmeier equations in this reference are constructed from only a limited refractive-index data set from Ref. 2 for hydrothermally grown KTP.
  40. T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. K. Kato, “Second harmonic and sum-frequency generation to 4950 and 4589 Å in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 3 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  42. D. W. Anthon, C. D. Crowder, “Wavelength dependent phase matching in KTP,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2650 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, “Index of refraction measurements and parametric generation in hydrothermally-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3314 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. H. Vanherzeele, “Optical parametric conversion of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(13), P87 (1988).
  45. I. Ledoux, J. Badan, J. Zyss, “Generation of high-peak power tunable infrared femtosecond pulses in an organic crystal: application to time resolution of weak infrared signals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 987 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  46. J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  47. W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  48. A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, “Generation of tunable picosecond light pulses covering the frequency range between 2,700 and 32,000 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. 23, 113 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  49. D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  50. L. L. Chase, R. Adair, S. A. Payne, “Influence of structure and composition of the third-order susceptibility of inorganic optical materials,” Mat. Res. Soc. EA-12, 13 (1987).
  51. G. A. Massey, T. M. Loehr, L. J. Willis, J. C. Johnson, “Raman and electrooptic properties of potassium titanate phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4136 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, R. A. Laudise, “Low temperature hydrothermal growth of KTiOPO4(KTP),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 968, 100 (1988).
  53. V. K. Yanovskii, V. I. Voronkova, “Ferroelectric phase transitions and properties of crystals of the KTiOPO4family,” Phys. Status Solidi A 93, 665 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  54. J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, M. Roelofs, “KTiOPO4(KTP): a new material for optical waveguide applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 160 (1989).
  55. D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).
  56. J. D. Bierlein, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in KTiOPO4waveguides,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Advanced Materials (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1989).

1989 (1)

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, M. Roelofs, “KTiOPO4(KTP): a new material for optical waveguide applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 160 (1989).

1988 (9)

D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).

D. W. Anthon, C. D. Crowder, “Wavelength dependent phase matching in KTP,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2650 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, “Index of refraction measurements and parametric generation in hydrothermally-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3314 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vanherzeele, “Optimization of a cw mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3608 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, “Observations of complex domain walls in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1498 (1988); V. I. Voronkova, R. S. Gvozdover, V. K. Vanovskii, “Ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4and RbTiOPO4crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, “Second harmonic and sum-frequency generation to 4950 and 4589 Å in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 3 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Vanherzeele, “Optical parametric conversion of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(13), P87 (1988).

W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, R. A. Laudise, “Low temperature hydrothermal growth of KTiOPO4(KTP),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 968, 100 (1988).

1987 (16)

D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, R. Adair, S. A. Payne, “Influence of structure and composition of the third-order susceptibility of inorganic optical materials,” Mat. Res. Soc. EA-12, 13 (1987).

I. Ledoux, J. Badan, J. Zyss, “Generation of high-peak power tunable infrared femtosecond pulses in an organic crystal: application to time resolution of weak infrared signals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 987 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “20-W average-power KTP intracavity-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1066 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Perkins, T. A. Driscoll, “Efficient intracavity doubling in flash-lamp pumped Nd:YLF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1281 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Moody, J. M. Eggleston, J. F. Seamans, “Long-pulse second harmonic generation in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 335 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huth, D. Kuizenga, “Green light from doubled Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Optron. 6, 59 (1987).

P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Reynaud, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, “Quantum fluctuations in a two-mode parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1520 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (9)

T. A. Driscoll, H. J. Hoffman, R. E. Stone, P. E. Perkins, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in KTP crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Laudise, R. J. Cava, A. J. Caporaso, “Phase relations, solubility and growth of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTP,” J. Crystal Growth 74, 275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Cai, Z. T. Yang, “Investigation on some properties of KTiOPO4crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 79, 974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).

A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Vanherzeele, L. De Vos, P. Muys, “Tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled high power cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P65 (1986).

T. Baer, “Frequency-doubled, diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 610, 45 (1986).

V. K. Yanovskii, V. I. Voronkova, “Ferroelectric phase transitions and properties of crystals of the KTiOPO4family,” Phys. Status Solidi A 93, 665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (4)

A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “Half watt average power at 25 kHz from fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1636 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, Y. S. Liu, “KTP as a harmonic generator for Nd:YAG lasers,” Laser Focus 21, 110 (1985).

D. Z. Shen, C. E. Huang, “A new nonlinear optical crystal KTP,” Prog. Crystal Growth Characterization 11, 269 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Yao, T. S. Fahlen, “Calculations of optimum phase match parameters for the biaxial crystal KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “High-average-power intracavity second-harmonic generation using KTiOPO4in an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator at 5 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 9, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, “Generation of tunable picosecond light pulses covering the frequency range between 2,700 and 32,000 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. 23, 113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Massey, T. M. Loehr, L. J. Willis, J. C. Johnson, “Raman and electrooptic properties of potassium titanate phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4136 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. E. Gier, “Kx Rb1−x TiOPO4: a new nonlinear optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

I. Tordjman, R. Masse, J. C. Guitel, “Structure cristalline du monophosphate KTiPO5,” Z. Kristallogr. 139, 103 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

L. L. Chase, R. Adair, S. A. Payne, “Influence of structure and composition of the third-order susceptibility of inorganic optical materials,” Mat. Res. Soc. EA-12, 13 (1987).

Ahmed, F.

J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akhmanov, S. A.

A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrovskii, A. L.

A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anthon, D. W.

D. W. Anthon, C. D. Crowder, “Wavelength dependent phase matching in KTP,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2650 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arweiler, C. B.

J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Badan, J.

Baer, T.

T. Baer, “Frequency-doubled, diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 610, 45 (1986).

Ballman, A. A.

A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, J.-C.

W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Belt, R.

Y. S. Liu, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “High-average-power intracavity second-harmonic generation using KTiOPO4in an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator at 5 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 9, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Liu, L. Drafall, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “Nonlinear optical phase-matching properties of KTiOPO4,” (General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., 1982).

Belt, R. F.

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, R. A. Laudise, “Low temperature hydrothermal growth of KTiOPO4(KTP),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 968, 100 (1988).

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, Y. S. Liu, “KTP as a harmonic generator for Nd:YAG lasers,” Laser Focus 21, 110 (1985).

G. Gashurov, R. F. Belt, “Growth of KTP,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers for Remote Sensing, R. L. Byer, E. K. Gustafson, R. Frebino, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 119.
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, M. Roelofs, “KTiOPO4(KTP): a new material for optical waveguide applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 160 (1989).

H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, “Index of refraction measurements and parametric generation in hydrothermally-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3314 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. E. Gier, “Kx Rb1−x TiOPO4: a new nonlinear optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, T. D. Gier, U.S. Patent3,949,323 (April6, 1976).

J. D. Bierlein, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in KTiOPO4waveguides,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Advanced Materials (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1989).

Bjorklund, G. C.

W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bordui, P. F.

P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, L. H.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brown, H.

A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cai, D. F.

D. F. Cai, Z. T. Yang, “Investigation on some properties of KTiOPO4crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 79, 974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Caporaso, A. J.

R. A. Laudise, R. J. Cava, A. J. Caporaso, “Phase relations, solubility and growth of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTP,” J. Crystal Growth 74, 275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cava, R. J.

R. A. Laudise, R. J. Cava, A. J. Caporaso, “Phase relations, solubility and growth of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTP,” J. Crystal Growth 74, 275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

L. L. Chase, R. Adair, S. A. Payne, “Influence of structure and composition of the third-order susceptibility of inorganic optical materials,” Mat. Res. Soc. EA-12, 13 (1987).

Chouinard, M. P.

D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).

Clark, J. H.

D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Crowder, C. D.

D’yakov, V. A.

A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, L.

H. Vanherzeele, L. De Vos, P. Muys, “Tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled high power cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P65 (1986).

Dentz, D.

Y. S. Liu, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “High-average-power intracavity second-harmonic generation using KTiOPO4in an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator at 5 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 9, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Liu, L. Drafall, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “Nonlinear optical phase-matching properties of KTiOPO4,” (General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., 1982).

Drafall, L.

Y. S. Liu, L. Drafall, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “Nonlinear optical phase-matching properties of KTiOPO4,” (General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., 1982).

Driscoll, T. A.

Eckardt, R. C.

Eggleston, J. M.

S. E. Moody, J. M. Eggleston, J. F. Seamans, “Long-pulse second harmonic generation in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 335 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, C.

S. Reynaud, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, “Quantum fluctuations in a two-mode parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1520 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahlen, T. S.

P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “20-W average-power KTP intracavity-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1066 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “Half watt average power at 25 kHz from fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1636 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Yao, T. S. Fahlen, “Calculations of optimum phase match parameters for the biaxial crystal KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Fan, Y. X.

Feigelson, R. S.

Ferretti, A.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, M. Roelofs, “KTiOPO4(KTP): a new material for optical waveguide applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 160 (1989).

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gashurov, G.

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, R. A. Laudise, “Low temperature hydrothermal growth of KTiOPO4(KTP),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 968, 100 (1988).

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, Y. S. Liu, “KTP as a harmonic generator for Nd:YAG lasers,” Laser Focus 21, 110 (1985).

G. Gashurov, R. F. Belt, “Growth of KTP,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers for Remote Sensing, R. L. Byer, E. K. Gustafson, R. Frebino, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 119.
[CrossRef]

Giacobino, E.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reynaud, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, “Quantum fluctuations in a two-mode parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1520 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gier, T. D.

J. D. Bierlein, T. D. Gier, U.S. Patent3,949,323 (April6, 1976).

Gier, T. E.

F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. E. Gier, “Kx Rb1−x TiOPO4: a new nonlinear optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Gier, F. C. Zumsteg, “KTP crystals for second harmonic generation,” written for contract F33615-77-C-1131 (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Del., November1978).

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, B.

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, V. L.

D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).

Guitel, J. C.

I. Tordjman, R. Masse, J. C. Guitel, “Structure cristalline du monophosphate KTiPO5,” Z. Kristallogr. 139, 103 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Guthals, D. M.

D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. R.

Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).

Heidmann, A.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hon, D. T.

D. T. Hon, “High average power, efficient second harmonic generation,” in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1979), Vol. 3, p. 421.

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, W. Y.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. Q.

Huang, C. E.

Huth, G.

G. Huth, D. Kuizenga, “Green light from doubled Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Optron. 6, 59 (1987).

Jacco, J. C.

P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jaso, M.

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).

Johnson, J. C.

Kaiser, W.

A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, “Generation of tunable picosecond light pulses covering the frequency range between 2,700 and 32,000 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. 23, 113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Second harmonic and sum-frequency generation to 4950 and 4589 Å in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 3 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kortz, P.

P. Kortz, Adlas GmbH, Lubeck, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication).

Kuizenga, D.

G. Huth, D. Kuizenga, “Green light from doubled Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Optron. 6, 59 (1987).

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laubacher, D. B.

D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).

Laudise, R. A.

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, R. A. Laudise, “Low temperature hydrothermal growth of KTiOPO4(KTP),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 968, 100 (1988).

R. A. Laudise, R. J. Cava, A. J. Caporaso, “Phase relations, solubility and growth of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTP,” J. Crystal Growth 74, 275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ledoux, I.

Lenth, W.

W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liou, J.-Y.

D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).

Liu, X. Y.

Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).

Liu, Y. S.

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, Y. S. Liu, “KTP as a harmonic generator for Nd:YAG lasers,” Laser Focus 21, 110 (1985).

Y. S. Liu, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “High-average-power intracavity second-harmonic generation using KTiOPO4in an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator at 5 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 9, 76 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Liu, L. Drafall, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “Nonlinear optical phase-matching properties of KTiOPO4,” (General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., 1982).

Liui, Y. G.

Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).

Loehr, T. M.

Loiacono, G. M.

G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, “Observations of complex domain walls in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1498 (1988); V. I. Voronkova, R. S. Gvozdover, V. K. Vanovskii, “Ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4and RbTiOPO4crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Masse, R.

I. Tordjman, R. Masse, J. C. Guitel, “Structure cristalline du monophosphate KTiPO5,” Z. Kristallogr. 139, 103 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Massey, G. A.

Mizell, G.

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Moody, S. E.

S. E. Moody, J. M. Eggleston, J. F. Seamans, “Long-pulse second harmonic generation in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 335 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Muys, P.

H. Vanherzeele, L. De Vos, P. Muys, “Tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled high power cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P65 (1986).

Nathel, H.

D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

L. L. Chase, R. Adair, S. A. Payne, “Influence of structure and composition of the third-order susceptibility of inorganic optical materials,” Mat. Res. Soc. EA-12, 13 (1987).

Perkins, P. E.

Potasek, M. J.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pryalkin, V. I.

A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reynaud, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, “Quantum fluctuations in a two-mode parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1520 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rice, C. E.

A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Roelofs, M.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, M. Roelofs, “KTiOPO4(KTP): a new material for optical waveguide applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 160 (1989).

Schellenberg, F. M.

W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seamans, J. F.

S. E. Moody, J. M. Eggleston, J. F. Seamans, “Long-pulse second harmonic generation in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 335 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seilmeier, A.

A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, “Generation of tunable picosecond light pulses covering the frequency range between 2,700 and 32,000 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. 23, 113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

D. Z. Shen, C. E. Huang, “A new nonlinear optical crystal KTP,” Prog. Crystal Growth Characterization 11, 269 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolzenberger, R. A.

G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, “Observations of complex domain walls in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1498 (1988); V. I. Voronkova, R. S. Gvozdover, V. K. Vanovskii, “Ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4and RbTiOPO4crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R. E.

Tordjman, I.

I. Tordjman, R. Masse, J. C. Guitel, “Structure cristalline du monophosphate KTiPO5,” Z. Kristallogr. 139, 103 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

H. Vanherzeele, “Optical parametric conversion of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(13), P87 (1988).

H. Vanherzeele, “Optimization of a cw mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3608 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, “Index of refraction measurements and parametric generation in hydrothermally-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3314 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vanherzeele, L. De Vos, P. Muys, “Tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled high power cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P65 (1986).

Voronkova, V. I.

V. K. Yanovskii, V. I. Voronkova, “Ferroelectric phase transitions and properties of crystals of the KTiOPO4family,” Phys. Status Solidi A 93, 665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Willis, L. J.

Wyat, P. H.

D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).

Xu, B.

Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).

Yang, Z. T.

D. F. Cai, Z. T. Yang, “Investigation on some properties of KTiOPO4crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 79, 974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yanovskii, V. K.

V. K. Yanovskii, V. I. Voronkova, “Ferroelectric phase transitions and properties of crystals of the KTiOPO4family,” Phys. Status Solidi A 93, 665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. Q.

J. Q. Yao, T. S. Fahlen, “Calculations of optimum phase match parameters for the biaxial crystal KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yurke, B.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zola, J. J.

P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zumsteg, F. C.

H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, “Index of refraction measurements and parametric generation in hydrothermally-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3314 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. E. Gier, “Kx Rb1−x TiOPO4: a new nonlinear optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Zumsteg, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (personal communicaton).

T. E. Gier, F. C. Zumsteg, “KTP crystals for second harmonic generation,” written for contract F33615-77-C-1131 (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Del., November1978).

Zyss, J.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, “Generation of tunable picosecond light pulses covering the frequency range between 2,700 and 32,000 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. 23, 113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, “Observations of complex domain walls in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1498 (1988); V. I. Voronkova, R. S. Gvozdover, V. K. Vanovskii, “Ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4and RbTiOPO4crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Lasers (1)

Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

K. Kato, “Second harmonic and sum-frequency generation to 4950 and 4589 Å in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 3 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “Half watt average power at 25 kHz from fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1636 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Moody, J. M. Eggleston, J. F. Seamans, “Long-pulse second harmonic generation in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 335 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Q. Yao, T. S. Fahlen, “Calculations of optimum phase match parameters for the biaxial crystal KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. E. Gier, “Kx Rb1−x TiOPO4: a new nonlinear optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Crystal Growth (5)

R. A. Laudise, R. J. Cava, A. J. Caporaso, “Phase relations, solubility and growth of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTP,” J. Crystal Growth 74, 275 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Cai, Z. T. Yang, “Investigation on some properties of KTiOPO4crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 79, 974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

H. Vanherzeele, L. De Vos, P. Muys, “Tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled high power cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P65 (1986).

H. Vanherzeele, “Optical parametric conversion of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(13), P87 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Laser Focus (1)

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, Y. S. Liu, “KTP as a harmonic generator for Nd:YAG lasers,” Laser Focus 21, 110 (1985).

Lasers Optron. (1)

G. Huth, D. Kuizenga, “Green light from doubled Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Optron. 6, 59 (1987).

Mat. Res. Soc. (1)

L. L. Chase, R. Adair, S. A. Payne, “Influence of structure and composition of the third-order susceptibility of inorganic optical materials,” Mat. Res. Soc. EA-12, 13 (1987).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

V. K. Yanovskii, V. I. Voronkova, “Ferroelectric phase transitions and properties of crystals of the KTiOPO4family,” Phys. Status Solidi A 93, 665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (4)

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, M. Roelofs, “KTiOPO4(KTP): a new material for optical waveguide applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 160 (1989).

D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).

R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, R. A. Laudise, “Low temperature hydrothermal growth of KTiOPO4(KTP),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 968, 100 (1988).

T. Baer, “Frequency-doubled, diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 610, 45 (1986).

Prog. Crystal Growth Characterization (1)

D. Z. Shen, C. E. Huang, “A new nonlinear optical crystal KTP,” Prog. Crystal Growth Characterization 11, 269 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kristallogr. (1)

I. Tordjman, R. Masse, J. C. Guitel, “Structure cristalline du monophosphate KTiPO5,” Z. Kristallogr. 139, 103 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

G. Gashurov, R. F. Belt, “Growth of KTP,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers for Remote Sensing, R. L. Byer, E. K. Gustafson, R. Frebino, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 119.
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, T. D. Gier, U.S. Patent3,949,323 (April6, 1976).

F. C. Zumsteg, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (personal communicaton).

T. E. Gier, F. C. Zumsteg, “KTP crystals for second harmonic generation,” written for contract F33615-77-C-1131 (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Del., November1978).

Y. S. Liu, L. Drafall, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “Nonlinear optical phase-matching properties of KTiOPO4,” (General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., 1982).

D. T. Hon, “High average power, efficient second harmonic generation,” in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1979), Vol. 3, p. 421.

P. Kortz, Adlas GmbH, Lubeck, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication).

See, e.g., D. A. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena IV, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984); G. R. Fleming, A. E. Siegman, eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena V (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Hellwege, ed., Landolt–Bornstein Tables, Nonlinear Dielectric Susceptibilities (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), Vol. 2, Group 3, Sec. 6.; Sellmeier equations in this reference are constructed from only a limited refractive-index data set from Ref. 2 for hydrothermally grown KTP.

J. D. Bierlein, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in KTiOPO4waveguides,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Advanced Materials (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1989).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

KTP crystal structure: (a) ac projection, (b) ab projection. Shaded elements are the Ti octahedra, open elements are the P tetrahedra, and open circles are the K. The short Ti–O bond is are shown as bold lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Natural KTP crystal morphology.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG phase-matching curves for propagation in the three principal planes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase-matching angles for difference-frequency mixing between a tunable dye laser and the 1.053-μm radiation of a Nd:YLF laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Alternatively, SHG can be used in KTP for upconverting IR radiation with a wavelength in the range 1–3.4 μm, as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angle-tuning curve in the xz plane for a KTP parametric generator pumped by a 1.053-μm beam.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angle tuning curves in (a) the xy plane, (b) the yz plane, and (c) the xz plane for a KTP parametric generator pumped by the second harmonic of a Nd:YLF laser (526 nm). The dots in (b) and (c) represent the experimental data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Single-pass amplification at 630 nm in a 20-mm-long KTP crystal, pumped by 526 nm as a function of pump energy. The squares represent the experimental data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Frequency dependence of dielectric constants 33′ and 33″ for (F) flux-grown and (H) low-temperature hydrothermally grown KTP.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Depth profile for Rb ion exchange in KTP.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Top view of a TI-exchanged channel waveguide in KTP.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

End view of a Ba/Rb-exchanged channel waveguide in KTP.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Nonlinear-Optical and Thermal Properties of KTP

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Table 2 Sellmeier Equation Coefficients

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Table 3 Electro-Optic and Dielectric Constants of KTP

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Table 4 Electro-Optic Modulator Materials

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Table 5 Electro-Optic Waveguide Materials

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Table 6 Ion-Exchanged Waveguides in KTiOPO4

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Table 7 Effect of Divalent Ion on KTP Waveguide Properties (Rb+/M++ Ion Exchange, 300°C, 2 h)

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 = A + B / [ 1 - ( C / λ ) 2 ] - D λ 2 ,
d eff ( I I ) ( d 24 - d 15 ) sin 2 ϕ sin 2 θ - ( d 15 sin 2 ϕ + d 24 cos 2 ϕ ) sin θ .
λ dye - 1 - λ YLF - 1 = λ IR - 1 ,
λ IR - 1 + λ dye - 1 = λ VIS - 1 .
λ YLF - 1 = λ s - 1 + λ i - 1 ,
G = cosh 2 ( l Γ ) ,
Γ = ( 8 π 2 I p n s n i n p c 0 λ s λ i ) 1 / 2 d eff .
G = ¼ exp ( 2 l Γ ) .
r c 1 = r 33 - ( n 1 / n 3 ) 3 r 13
r c 2 = r 33 - ( n 2 / n 3 ) 3 r 23

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