Abstract

A nonlocal nonlinearity results when optically excited carriers move within the internal electric fields of depletion regions, causing field-dependent changes in absorption and/or refractive index. We review some recent experimental results and use these concepts in hetero-Schottky barriers and hetero-n-i-p-i structures. We show that extremely sensitive, rather large nonlinearities result.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 35, 221 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, Opt. Lett. 9, 356 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. M. Jokerst, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 897 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, A. Kost, E. Garmire, “Nonlinear absorption coefficient of GaAs doping superlattices,” submitted to J. Appl. Phys.
  8. T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 637 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Garmire, J. H. Marburger, S. D. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 320 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. N. Aleksandrov, M. I. Nemenov, B. S. Ryvkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 254 (1985).
  12. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1969), Chap. 8.
  14. See, for example, G. E. Stillman, C. M. Wolfe, “Avalanche photodiodes,” in Semiconductor and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 1370.
  15. B. O. Seraphin, N. Bottka, Phys. Rev. A 139, 560 (1965).
  16. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. S. Weiner, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 842 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1370 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. D. Poole, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1984).
  20. G. H. Dohler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1682 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Tharmalingam, Phys. Rev. 130, 2204 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).
  24. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  26. A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 118.
  27. E. Garmire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 769, 67 (1987).
  28. See, for example, J. A. Goldstone, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 910 (1984); E. Garmire, “Optical bistability without optical feedback,” in Laser Optics of Condensed Matter, J. L. Birman, H. Z. Cummins, A. A. Kaplyanskii, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. See, for example, B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 475 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

1988 (4)

N. M. Jokerst, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 897 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 637 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

1987 (3)

E. Garmire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 769, 67 (1987).

J. S. Weiner, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 842 (1987).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 475 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

G. H. Dohler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

S. N. Aleksandrov, M. I. Nemenov, B. S. Ryvkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 254 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1370 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (5)

See, for example, J. A. Goldstone, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 910 (1984); E. Garmire, “Optical bistability without optical feedback,” in Laser Optics of Condensed Matter, J. L. Birman, H. Z. Cummins, A. A. Kaplyanskii, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, Opt. Lett. 9, 356 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 35, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. Garmire, J. H. Marburger, S. D. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

B. O. Seraphin, N. Bottka, Phys. Rev. A 139, 560 (1965).

1963 (1)

K. Tharmalingam, Phys. Rev. 130, 2204 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrov, S. N.

S. N. Aleksandrov, M. I. Nemenov, B. S. Ryvkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 254 (1985).

Allen, S. D.

E. Garmire, J. H. Marburger, S. D. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, J. E.

T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
[CrossRef]

AuCoin, T. R.

T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bottka, N.

B. O. Seraphin, N. Bottka, Phys. Rev. A 139, 560 (1965).

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

J. S. Weiner, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 842 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Danner, A.

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 118.

Danner, A. D.

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 637 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, A. Kost, E. Garmire, “Nonlinear absorption coefficient of GaAs doping superlattices,” submitted to J. Appl. Phys.

Dapkus, P. D.

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 637 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, A. Kost, E. Garmire, “Nonlinear absorption coefficient of GaAs doping superlattices,” submitted to J. Appl. Phys.

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 118.

Dohler, G. H.

G. H. Dohler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 637 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

N. M. Jokerst, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 897 (1988).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 475 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 769, 67 (1987).

C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1370 (1985).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. A. Goldstone, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 910 (1984); E. Garmire, “Optical bistability without optical feedback,” in Laser Optics of Condensed Matter, J. L. Birman, H. Z. Cummins, A. A. Kaplyanskii, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, Opt. Lett. 9, 356 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garmire, J. H. Marburger, S. D. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 118.

A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, A. Kost, E. Garmire, “Nonlinear absorption coefficient of GaAs doping superlattices,” submitted to J. Appl. Phys.

E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Gibbs, H. M.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstone, J. A.

See, for example, J. A. Goldstone, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 910 (1984); E. Garmire, “Optical bistability without optical feedback,” in Laser Optics of Condensed Matter, J. L. Birman, H. Z. Cummins, A. A. Kaplyanskii, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, B. E.

T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hariz, A.

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Jeffery, A.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

N. M. Jokerst, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 897 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, M.

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. G.

See, for example, B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 475 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kost, A.

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 637 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 118.

A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, A. Kost, E. Garmire, “Nonlinear absorption coefficient of GaAs doping superlattices,” submitted to J. Appl. Phys.

Lee, H. C.

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Lee, Y. H.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marburger, J. H.

E. Garmire, J. H. Marburger, S. D. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

J. S. Weiner, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 842 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 35, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Morhange, J.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemenov, M. I.

S. N. Aleksandrov, M. I. Nemenov, B. S. Ryvkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 254 (1985).

Park, S. H.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pennise, C. A.

T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1370 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, Opt. Lett. 9, 356 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Poole, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1984).

Ryvkin, B. S.

S. N. Aleksandrov, M. I. Nemenov, B. S. Ryvkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 254 (1985).

Seraphin, B. O.

B. O. Seraphin, N. Bottka, Phys. Rev. A 139, 560 (1965).

Simpson, T. B.

T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 35, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stillman, G. E.

See, for example, G. E. Stillman, C. M. Wolfe, “Avalanche photodiodes,” in Semiconductor and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 1370.

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1969), Chap. 8.

Tharmalingam, K.

K. Tharmalingam, Phys. Rev. 130, 2204 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

J. S. Weiner, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 842 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 35, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, C. M.

See, for example, G. E. Stillman, C. M. Wolfe, “Avalanche photodiodes,” in Semiconductor and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 1370.

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Yao

A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

N. M. Jokerst, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 897 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, C. A. Pennise, B. E. Gordon, J. E. Anthony, T. R. AuCoin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 590 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 637 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, J. H. Marburger, S. D. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Weiner, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 842 (1987).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 475 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

H. C. Lee, A. Kost, M. Kawase, A. Hariz, P. D. Dapkus, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, E. Garmire, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1370 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Dohler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1462 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-20, 265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 35, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

K. Tharmalingam, Phys. Rev. 130, 2204 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. O. Seraphin, N. Bottka, Phys. Rev. A 139, 560 (1965).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. A. Goldstone, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 910 (1984); E. Garmire, “Optical bistability without optical feedback,” in Laser Optics of Condensed Matter, J. L. Birman, H. Z. Cummins, A. A. Kaplyanskii, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

E. Garmire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 769, 67 (1987).

A. Kost, M. Kawase, E. Garmire, A. D. Danner, H. C. Lee, P. D. Dapkus, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 943, 114 (1988).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. N. Aleksandrov, M. I. Nemenov, B. S. Ryvkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 254 (1985).

Other (7)

A. D. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, A. Kost, E. Garmire, “Nonlinear absorption coefficient of GaAs doping superlattices,” submitted to J. Appl. Phys.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1969), Chap. 8.

See, for example, G. E. Stillman, C. M. Wolfe, “Avalanche photodiodes,” in Semiconductor and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 1370.

C. D. Poole, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1984).

E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

A. Kost, E. Garmire, A. Danner, P. D. Dapkus, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 118.

A. Kost, E. Garmire, H. C. Lee, A. Hariz, Yao Zou, P. D. Dapkus, “Band edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantums,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of carrier-transport nonlinearity as it occurs in a hetero-Schottky barrier. The energies for the conduction band, Ec, and the valence band, Ev, are shown as a function of depth z in the top diagrams. The ionized donor distributions ND+ are shown in the middle, and the magnitudes of the internal electric field, E, in the lower diagrams. Cases with and without applied light are shown as the right-hand side and the left-hand side, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated absorption as a function of photon energy from the band gap for GaAs, calculated with and without an applied electric field using Ref. 14. This is the Franz–Keldysh effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric-field induced changes in (a) absorption and (b) refractive index calculated for bulk GaAs by Seraphin and Bottka.15

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurements of relative absorption of 94-Å MQW’s versus photon energy with and without an applied electric field.17

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric-field-induced change in absorption and calculated change in refractive index versus photon energy. The applied voltage is 6.5 × 104 V/cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Band filling nonlinearity in InAs. (a) Values of measured nonlinear refractive index, n2, and ratio of n2 to the linear absorption, α, plotted versus normalized photon energy18; (b) theoretical calculation19 for relative values of n2/α as a function of normalized photon energy for various free-carrier densities at 77 K. The top curve is the no-free-carrier case. The circles represent the experimental results plotted in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two examples of optically induced absorption change in a hetero-Schottky barrier. (a) Determined by pulse-shape changes using a pulsed 1.06-μm YAG laser and a 0.3-μm depletion region. (b) Determined from measuring peak height changes in a quasi-cw experiment with a 2-μm-thick depletion region.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Energy band diagram of the h-nipi. GaAs n regions 2700 Å thick with doping 2 × 1017 are sandwiched between transparent p regions 270 Å thick with 2 × 108 doping. When illuminated, the bands tend to flatten.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optically induced absorption changes in an h-nipi sample. (a) Experimental, with an input intensity of 280 mW/cm2, and (b) theoretical, with an internal electric-field change of 7.2 × 104 V/cm assumed.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optically induced refractive-index change as a function of wavelength in an h-nipi, using the Kramers–Kronig relation on Fig. 9(a). Incident intensity was 280 mW/cm2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Energy band structure of a MQW h-nipi. Three periods of the full p-i-n-i structure were included in the measured sample. When illuminated, the bands flatten, and the material approaches usual MQW’s.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Saturated absorption in a MQW h-nipi measured in the presence of 300 mW/cm2 of power, sufficient to flatten the bands, resulting in small internal fields. Exciton resonances corresponding to the n = 1 and n = 2 quantum wells are observed.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured saturated values in a MQW h-nipi of the change in absorption and change in refractive index calculated from the Kramers–Kronig relation at 375-W/cm2 pump intensity.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured absorption changes versus pump intensity at the exciton peak in the MQW h-nipi. The intensity at which the absorption change reaches half of its saturated value is 700 μW/cm2. The calculated index change at this intensity is 0.01.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Change in absorption coefficient of the MQW h-nipi as a function of wavelength for a variety of pump intensities, demonstrating how the carrier-transport nonlinearity approaches its saturation value. The slight shift in the peak wavelength with pump intensity is used to calculate carrier lifetimes.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) Measured energy shift of exciton absorption peaks as a function of pump intensity in a MQW h-nipi. (b) Electric-field dependence of the energy shift of exciton absorption peaks (from Ref. 23). By using this straight line versus the square of the electric field, an internal field can be inferred from an energy shift, which is plotted as the upper scale in (a).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Inferred carrier lifetimes as a function of input intensity in a MQW h-nipi structure.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Classification of Optical Nonlinearities

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Table 2 Comparison of Nonlinearities

Equations (3)

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Δ n ( h ν ) = c π P Δ α ( E ) d E E 2 - ( h ν ) 2 ,
A = Δ ( α L ) = α d ( I ) L d ( I ) + α u ( I ) L u ( I ) - α d ( 0 ) L d ( 0 ) - α u ( 0 ) L u ( 0 ) = Δ α d L d ( 0 ) + Δ α u L u ( 0 ) + Δ L [ α d ( I ) - α u ( I ) ] ,
τ = h ν L e [ E ( 0 ) - E ( I ) I ] ,

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