Abstract

We report time-resolved studies of transient gratings in room-temperature GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures made using a subpicosecond laser system. Forward-traveling and counterpropagating four-wave mixing geometries produced carrier modulation either parallel or perpendicular to the quantum wells such that the highly anisotropic carrier diffusion could be monitored. Carrier heating and cross-well transport was monitored and geometrical control of the diffusion and resulting four-wave mixing time constant demonstrated. Measured diffraction efficiencies gave the refractive-index change of the order of Δn ~ 0.02 at the onset of saturation of the heavy-hole exciton nonlinearity. Implications for refractive optical bistability are discussed through a determination of the limiting conditions for switching.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Room-temperature excitonic nonlinear optical effects in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1155–1173 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical properties of GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well material: phenomena and applications,” Opt. Eng. 24, 556–564 (1985).
  3. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Nonlinear optics with a diode laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 477–479 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, “Optical nonlinearity, bistability, and signal processing in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1215–1227 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, D. A. B. Miller, “Mode locking of semiconductor diode lasers using saturable excitonic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “The geometrical dependence of transient optical nonlinearities in multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. (Paris) C7 49, 237–240 (1988).
  13. R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “Orientational dependence of degenerate four-wave mixing in multiple-quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 868–870 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Theory of transient excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601–6609 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).
  18. Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Dawson, Philips Research Laboratories, Redhill, UK (personal communication).
  22. H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 137.
  23. D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Optical bistability due to increasing absorption,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162–164 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Miller, G. Steward, P. Blood, K. Woodbridge, “Thermally induced optical bistability at room temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Acta 33, 387–396 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. J. Elliot, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 6, 1384–1389 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Haug, S. Schmitt-Rink, “Electron theory of the optical properties of laser-excited semiconductors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 3–100 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Shinada, S. Sugano, “Interband optical transitions in extremely anisotropic semiconductors. I: Bound and unbound exciton absorption,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1936–1946 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. L. Greene, K. K. Bajaj, “Binding energy of Wannier excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 45, 831–835 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Rorison, D. C. Herbert, “Oscillator strengths for excitons in quantum wells: free and bound to impurities,” Superlat. Microstruct. 1, 423–426 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, “Excitons and electron–hole plasma in quasi-two-dimensional systems,” J. Lumin. 30, 585–596 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Stern, “Polarizability of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 546–548 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Lee, H. N. Spector, P. Melman, “Binding energy of the screened exciton in two dimensional systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1893–1897 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. C. Hutchings, “Theory of nonlinear refraction and optical bistability in semiconductors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, 1988).
  35. H. J. Eichler, F. Massman, “Diffraction efficiency and decay times for free-carrier gratings in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3237–3242 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. K. Jain, R. C. Lind, “Degenerate four wave mixing in semiconductor doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 647–653 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  38. D. A. B. Miller, “Refractive Fabry–Perot bistability with linear absorption: theory of operation and cavity optimization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 306–311 (1984).
  39. B. S. Wherrett, “Fabry–Perot bistable cavity optimization on reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 646–651 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  40. B. S. Wherrett, D. Hutchings, D. Russell, “Optically bistable interference filters: optimization considerations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 351–362 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  41. P. K. Milsom, A. Miller, “Saturating refractive nonlinearities and optical bistability—implications for excitonic switching,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  42. E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability in a lossy saturating cavity,” post-deadline paper presented at Optical Bistability IV meeting, Aussois, France, March 1988.

1988

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “The geometrical dependence of transient optical nonlinearities in multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. (Paris) C7 49, 237–240 (1988).

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “Orientational dependence of degenerate four-wave mixing in multiple-quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 868–870 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

B. S. Wherrett, D. Hutchings, D. Russell, “Optically bistable interference filters: optimization considerations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 351–362 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Miller, G. Steward, P. Blood, K. Woodbridge, “Thermally induced optical bistability at room temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Acta 33, 387–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Theory of transient excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601–6609 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical properties of GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well material: phenomena and applications,” Opt. Eng. 24, 556–564 (1985).

J. Lee, H. N. Spector, P. Melman, “Binding energy of the screened exciton in two dimensional systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1893–1897 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rorison, D. C. Herbert, “Oscillator strengths for excitons in quantum wells: free and bound to impurities,” Superlat. Microstruct. 1, 423–426 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, “Excitons and electron–hole plasma in quasi-two-dimensional systems,” J. Lumin. 30, 585–596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Room-temperature excitonic nonlinear optical effects in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1155–1173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, “Optical nonlinearity, bistability, and signal processing in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1215–1227 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, D. A. B. Miller, “Mode locking of semiconductor diode lasers using saturable excitonic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Optical bistability due to increasing absorption,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162–164 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Refractive Fabry–Perot bistability with linear absorption: theory of operation and cavity optimization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 306–311 (1984).

B. S. Wherrett, “Fabry–Perot bistable cavity optimization on reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 646–651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug, S. Schmitt-Rink, “Electron theory of the optical properties of laser-excited semiconductors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 3–100 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Greene, K. K. Bajaj, “Binding energy of Wannier excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 45, 831–835 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Jain, R. C. Lind, “Degenerate four wave mixing in semiconductor doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 647–653 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Nonlinear optics with a diode laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 477–479 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

H. J. Eichler, F. Massman, “Diffraction efficiency and decay times for free-carrier gratings in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3237–3242 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1967

F. Stern, “Polarizability of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 546–548 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

M. Shinada, S. Sugano, “Interband optical transitions in extremely anisotropic semiconductors. I: Bound and unbound exciton absorption,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1936–1946 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1957

R. J. Elliot, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 6, 1384–1389 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Bajaj, K. K.

R. L. Greene, K. K. Bajaj, “Binding energy of Wannier excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 45, 831–835 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Banyai, L.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blood, P.

A. Miller, G. Steward, P. Blood, K. Woodbridge, “Thermally induced optical bistability at room temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Acta 33, 387–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Room-temperature excitonic nonlinear optical effects in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1155–1173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Theory of transient excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601–6609 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical properties of GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well material: phenomena and applications,” Opt. Eng. 24, 556–564 (1985).

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Nonlinear optics with a diode laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 477–479 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chivez-Pirson, A.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Craig, D. W.

R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Crust, D. W.

R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “The geometrical dependence of transient optical nonlinearities in multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. (Paris) C7 49, 237–240 (1988).

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “Orientational dependence of degenerate four-wave mixing in multiple-quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 868–870 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

P. Dawson, Philips Research Laboratories, Redhill, UK (personal communication).

Derstine, M.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, F. Massman, “Diffraction efficiency and decay times for free-carrier gratings in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3237–3242 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eilenberger, D. J.

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ell, C.

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, “Excitons and electron–hole plasma in quasi-two-dimensional systems,” J. Lumin. 30, 585–596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, R. J.

R. J. Elliot, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 6, 1384–1389 (1957).
[CrossRef]

English, J. H.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability in a lossy saturating cavity,” post-deadline paper presented at Optical Bistability IV meeting, Aussois, France, March 1988.

Gibbs, H. M.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, “Optical nonlinearity, bistability, and signal processing in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1215–1227 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 137.

Gossard, A. C.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Optical bistability due to increasing absorption,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162–164 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Nonlinear optics with a diode laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 477–479 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Greene, R. L.

R. L. Greene, K. K. Bajaj, “Binding energy of Wannier excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 45, 831–835 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haug, H.

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug, S. Schmitt-Rink, “Electron theory of the optical properties of laser-excited semiconductors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 3–100 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herbert, D. C.

J. M. Rorison, D. C. Herbert, “Oscillator strengths for excitons in quantum wells: free and bound to impurities,” Superlat. Microstruct. 1, 423–426 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchings, D.

Hutchings, D. C.

D. C. Hutchings, “Theory of nonlinear refraction and optical bistability in semiconductors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, 1988).

Jain, R. K.

Jeffery, A. D.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jewell, J. L.

S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, H. N. Spector, P. Melman, “Binding energy of the screened exciton in two dimensional systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1893–1897 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lind, R. C.

Manning, R. J.

R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “The geometrical dependence of transient optical nonlinearities in multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. (Paris) C7 49, 237–240 (1988).

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “Orientational dependence of degenerate four-wave mixing in multiple-quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 868–870 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massman, F.

H. J. Eichler, F. Massman, “Diffraction efficiency and decay times for free-carrier gratings in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3237–3242 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Melman, P.

J. Lee, H. N. Spector, P. Melman, “Binding energy of the screened exciton in two dimensional systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1893–1897 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “The geometrical dependence of transient optical nonlinearities in multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. (Paris) C7 49, 237–240 (1988).

R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “Orientational dependence of degenerate four-wave mixing in multiple-quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 868–870 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miller, G. Steward, P. Blood, K. Woodbridge, “Thermally induced optical bistability at room temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Acta 33, 387–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Milsom, A. Miller, “Saturating refractive nonlinearities and optical bistability—implications for excitonic switching,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Miller, D. A. B.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Theory of transient excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601–6609 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Room-temperature excitonic nonlinear optical effects in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1155–1173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, D. A. B. Miller, “Mode locking of semiconductor diode lasers using saturable excitonic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical properties of GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well material: phenomena and applications,” Opt. Eng. 24, 556–564 (1985).

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Refractive Fabry–Perot bistability with linear absorption: theory of operation and cavity optimization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 306–311 (1984).

D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Optical bistability due to increasing absorption,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162–164 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Nonlinear optics with a diode laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 477–479 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Milsom, P. K.

P. K. Milsom, A. Miller, “Saturating refractive nonlinearities and optical bistability—implications for excitonic switching,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Morgan, R. A.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morhange, J. F.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olbright, G. R.

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ovadia, S.

S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passner, A.

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, “Optical nonlinearity, bistability, and signal processing in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1215–1227 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).

Rhee, B. K.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rorison, J. M.

J. M. Rorison, D. C. Herbert, “Oscillator strengths for excitons in quantum wells: free and bound to impurities,” Superlat. Microstruct. 1, 423–426 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Russell, D.

Sarid, D.

S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).

Schmitt-Rink, S.

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, “Excitons and electron–hole plasma in quasi-two-dimensional systems,” J. Lumin. 30, 585–596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Theory of transient excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601–6609 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug, S. Schmitt-Rink, “Electron theory of the optical properties of laser-excited semiconductors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 3–100 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinada, M.

M. Shinada, S. Sugano, “Interband optical transitions in extremely anisotropic semiconductors. I: Bound and unbound exciton absorption,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1936–1946 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, D. A. B. Miller, “Mode locking of semiconductor diode lasers using saturable excitonic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. S.

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, D. A. B. Miller, “Mode locking of semiconductor diode lasers using saturable excitonic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical properties of GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well material: phenomena and applications,” Opt. Eng. 24, 556–564 (1985).

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Nonlinear optics with a diode laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 477–479 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Spector, H. N.

J. Lee, H. N. Spector, P. Melman, “Binding energy of the screened exciton in two dimensional systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1893–1897 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stern, F.

F. Stern, “Polarizability of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 546–548 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Steward, G.

A. Miller, G. Steward, P. Blood, K. Woodbridge, “Thermally induced optical bistability at room temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Acta 33, 387–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, S.

M. Shinada, S. Sugano, “Interband optical transitions in extremely anisotropic semiconductors. I: Bound and unbound exciton absorption,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1936–1946 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tai, K.

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tarng, S. S.

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. T.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Warren, M.

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weigmann, W.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Optical bistability due to increasing absorption,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162–164 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinberger, D. A.

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

B. S. Wherrett, D. Hutchings, D. Russell, “Optically bistable interference filters: optimization considerations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 351–362 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, “Fabry–Perot bistable cavity optimization on reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 646–651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Nonlinear optics with a diode laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 477–479 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Woodbridge, K.

R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “The geometrical dependence of transient optical nonlinearities in multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. (Paris) C7 49, 237–240 (1988).

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “Orientational dependence of degenerate four-wave mixing in multiple-quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 13, 868–870 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miller, G. Steward, P. Blood, K. Woodbridge, “Thermally induced optical bistability at room temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Acta 33, 387–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature excitonic optical bistability in a GaAs-GaAlAs superlattice etalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221–222 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. T. Tsang, “Large room-temperature optical nonlinearity in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679–681 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Degenerate four wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925–927 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, B. K. Rhee, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Direct measurement of dispersive nonlinearities in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1505–1507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, R. A. Morgan, A. Chivez-Pirson, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, M. Derstine, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, W. Wiegmann, “Measurement of room-temperature band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells and bulk GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1201–1203 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, M. Warren, G. R. Olbright, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, T. Venkatesan, J. S. Smith, A. Yariv, “Streak-camera observation of 200-ps recovery of an optical gate in a windowless GaAs étalon array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 754–756 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. A. B. Miller, “Refractive Fabry–Perot bistability with linear absorption: theory of operation and cavity optimization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 306–311 (1984).

B. S. Wherrett, “Fabry–Perot bistable cavity optimization on reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 646–651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Lee, H. N. Spector, P. Melman, “Binding energy of the screened exciton in two dimensional systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1893–1897 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, F. Massman, “Diffraction efficiency and decay times for free-carrier gratings in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3237–3242 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, “Excitons and electron–hole plasma in quasi-two-dimensional systems,” J. Lumin. 30, 585–596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

R. J. Manning, D. W. Crust, D. W. Craig, A. Miller, K. Woodbridge, “Transient grating studies in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 541–551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, D. A. B. Miller, “Mode locking of semiconductor diode lasers using saturable excitonic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Jain, R. C. Lind, “Degenerate four wave mixing in semiconductor doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 647–653 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. (Paris) C7

R. J. Manning, A. Miller, D. W. Crust, K. Woodbridge, “The geometrical dependence of transient optical nonlinearities in multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. (Paris) C7 49, 237–240 (1988).

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

M. Shinada, S. Sugano, “Interband optical transitions in extremely anisotropic semiconductors. I: Bound and unbound exciton absorption,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1936–1946 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

A. Miller, G. Steward, P. Blood, K. Woodbridge, “Thermally induced optical bistability at room temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Acta 33, 387–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical properties of GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well material: phenomena and applications,” Opt. Eng. 24, 556–564 (1985).

S. Ovadia, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, “Evidence that room temperature optical bistability is excitonic in both bulk and multiple quantum well gallium arsenide,” Opt. Eng. 24, 565–568 (1985).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

R. J. Elliot, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 6, 1384–1389 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Theory of transient excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601–6609 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Weigmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of resonantly excited excitons in room-temperature GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1306–1309 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chivez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. F. Morhange, A. D. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446–2449 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stern, “Polarizability of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 546–548 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

H. Haug, S. Schmitt-Rink, “Electron theory of the optical properties of laser-excited semiconductors,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 3–100 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

R. L. Greene, K. K. Bajaj, “Binding energy of Wannier excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 45, 831–835 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Superlat. Microstruct.

J. M. Rorison, D. C. Herbert, “Oscillator strengths for excitons in quantum wells: free and bound to impurities,” Superlat. Microstruct. 1, 423–426 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Dawson, Philips Research Laboratories, Redhill, UK (personal communication).

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 137.

D. C. Hutchings, “Theory of nonlinear refraction and optical bistability in semiconductors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, 1988).

P. K. Milsom, A. Miller, “Saturating refractive nonlinearities and optical bistability—implications for excitonic switching,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability in a lossy saturating cavity,” post-deadline paper presented at Optical Bistability IV meeting, Aussois, France, March 1988.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Low-power transmission of sample KLB269. The lh and hh excitons are clearly resolved at 818 and 828 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for the excite–probe and forward-traveling transient grating measurements. Beam-splitter reflectivities: BS1, 25%; BS2, 50%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in transmission, ΔT, as a function of power at 827.6 nm, the peak of the hh exciton in sample KLB257.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of In R, where R is the ratio of transmission just after zero delay to just before zero delay, versus the cavity-dumper setting in multiples, S, of the round-trip time, τc. Δ = 2c.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coherence width measurements for ~1-psec-duration pulses, measured by four-waves mixing in sample KLB257 at 829.5 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Forward-traveling transient grating configuration illustrating the modulation of the excess carriers along the walls.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength dependence of (a) the low-power transmission T, (b) the differential transmission ΔT, and (c) the diffracted probe efficiency η for sample KLB257, with an average power of ~230 μW per excite arm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavelength dependence of (a) σeh as deduced from the differential absorption, (b) neh calculated using a Kramers–Kronig analysis, and (c) the predicted diffraction efficiency η when these values are used.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffraction efficiency as a function of carrier density at the fringe maximum measured in sample KLB269 at the wavelength for maximum diffraction efficiency, 829.5 nm. Experimentally measured values are shown as open triangles with carrier densities deduced from absorption measurements. The solid curve is a theoretical calculation that takes account of screening and phase space filling (see text).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Wavelength dependence of diffraction efficiency at 2 mW per excite arm showing both hh and lh exciton contributions (sample KLB257).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Diffraction efficiency versus time for three grating spacings Λ by altering the angle of the excite beams ϕ (sample KLB257). Λ = □, 3.13; ○, 4.76; ◇, 6.7 μm. All data were taken for a wavelength of 829.5 nm for maximum diffraction efficiency.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured decay rates of diffracted signal against 8π22 for both samples; □, KLB257; ○, KLB269. The intercept for sample KLB2S7 gives an excess carrier lifetime of 4 nsec.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Counterpropagating transient grating configuration illustrating the modulation of the excess carriers across the wells and (b) an illustration of how the quantum wells are positioned relative to the standing-wave intensity maxima at some rotation of the sample, θ, in (a).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Diffracted signal decay rates measured in the counter-propagating configuration for different rotations θ of sample KLB269 from the normal.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Decay rates as a function of angle. The solid line gives the predicted rate for purely intrawell diffusion from the forward-traveling measurements.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) Minimized refractive-index change necessary for optical bistability in a Fabry–Perot étalon versus front- and back-mirror reflectivities (RF, RB: 0 → 1). (b) The corresponding dependence of Dact.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Magnitude of the figure of merit, Δn/αλ, for the condition when the exciton is nearly completely bleached as given in Figs. 7 and 8.

Equations (29)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ α = σ eh N ,
Δ n = n eh N ,
Λ = λ / 2 sin φ .
sin γ = λ / Λ .
η = | J 1 ( 2 π n eh λ + i σ eh 2 ) N l α | 2 exp ( - α l ) ,
l α = 1 - exp ( - α l ) α .
η = ( π n eh N l α λ ) 2 exp ( - α l ) .
n eh ( ω ) = c π 0 σ eh ( ω ) d ( ω ) ( ω ) 2 - ( ω ) 2 ,
χ 1 s ( ω ) = - 8 π | e p vc m 0 ω | 2 Ψ 1 s ( r = 0 ) 2 1 ω - ω 1 s + i γ 1 s ,
V s ( r ) = - e 2 [ 1 r - κ s d q J 0 ( q r ) q + κ s ] ,
κ s = 2 a 0 i bands m i μ [ 1 - exp ( - 2 π μ m i R y k b T a 0 2 N i 2 D ) ] ,
δ f screening = - 4 π R y k b T a 0 2 N 2 D .
Ψ 1 s ( r = 0 ) 2 | empty states d 2 k ( 2 π ) 2 Φ 1 s ( k ) | 2 ,
Φ 1 s ( k ) = 2 π a 0 [ 1 + ( a 0 k / 2 ) 2 ] 3 / 2 .
η exp ( - 2 Γ t ) .
N ( x , t ) t = D a 2 N ( x , t ) - N ( x , t ) τ R .
N ( x , t ) = N ( 0 , 0 ) [ ½ + ½ cos ( 2 π x / Λ ) exp ( - t / τ D ) ] exp ( - t / τ R ) .
Γ = 1 τ D + 1 τ R = 4 π 2 D a Λ 2 + 1 τ R .
Γ = 4 π 2 D a sin 2 θ n 2 Λ 2 + 1 τ + 1 τ R ,
I t I cav ,
I i I cav [ 1 + F sin 2 ϕ ] ,
F = 4 R α / ( 1 - R α ) 2
R α = R F R B exp ( - α D ) ,
D optm = ( 2 - R F - R B ) / 4 α .
ϕ = 2 π ( n 0 av D tot + n 2 D act I cav ) / λ ,
Δ n c = λ 2 π D act 2 [ 3 ( F + 2 ) - ( 3 F + 2 ) 2 - 8 F ] 4 [ ( F + 2 ) ( 3 F + 2 ) 2 - 8 F - 3 F 2 - 4 F - 4 ] 1 / 2 .
Δ n c = λ π D act 1 3 F .
( Δ n c min ) absol = 3 α λ 6 π .
Δ n sat α λ > 3 6 π .

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