Abstract

A technique for producing phase-related picosecond optical pulses is described. A sequence of two phase-related pulses, well separated in time, is applied to the D1 line in Na vapor. When the phase between the two pulses is scanned, oscillations in the incoherent fluorescence are observed. This demonstrates the well-defined phase relationship between the pulses. Measuring the amplitude of the oscillations as a function of pulse separation yields the Na optical coherence decay. A beat arising from the ground-state hyperfine splitting is observed, and the results agree well with calculation.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. J. Eichler, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. D. Dlott, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 37, 157–187 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism (Oxford U. Press, London, 1961).
  4. M. Mehring, Principles of High-Resolution NMR in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. R. Narasimhan, D. W. Pack, and M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 287–293 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Burns, W. K. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, in Spectroscopy and Excitation Dynamics of Condensed Molecular Systems, V. M. Agranovich and R. M. Hochstrasser, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983).
  11. E. T. Sleva, I. M. Xavier, and A. H. Zewail, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 483–487 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Golub, Y. S. Bai, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. A 37, 119–124 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 197–202 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. H. Zewail, T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and D. E. Godar, Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 256–261 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Mukherjee, N. Mukherjee, J.-C. Diels, and G. Arzumanyan, in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
  17. F. Spano, M. Haner, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 135, 97–102 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. S. Warren and M. Haner, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. D. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988).
  19. W. S. Warren and M. S. Silver, in Advances in Magnetic Resonance (Academic, London, 1988), Vol. 12.
  20. E.g., L. J. Rothberg and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 820–830 (1984);T. Mossberg, A. Flusberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1523–1526 (1977);A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 305–308 (1978);J. E. Rothenberg and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 10, 22–24 (1985);T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370–5391 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. Breiland, C. Harris, and A. Pines, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 158–161 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. S. Warren and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2279–2297 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).
  24. L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance in Two-Level Atoms (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  25. R. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49–52 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. P. Kibble, G. Copley, and L. Krause, Phys. Rev. 153, 9–12 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (3)

J. E. Golub, Y. S. Bai, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. A 37, 119–124 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Narasimhan, D. W. Pack, and M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

F. Spano, M. Haner, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 135, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1984 (1)

E.g., L. J. Rothberg and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 820–830 (1984);T. Mossberg, A. Flusberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1523–1526 (1977);A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 305–308 (1978);J. E. Rothenberg and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 10, 22–24 (1985);T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370–5391 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

W. S. Warren and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2279–2297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 197–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. H. Zewail, T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and D. E. Godar, Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 256–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

W. Breiland, C. Harris, and A. Pines, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 158–161 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

B. P. Kibble, G. Copley, and L. Krause, Phys. Rev. 153, 9–12 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49–52 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Abella, I. D.

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abragam, A.

A. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism (Oxford U. Press, London, 1961).

Allen, L.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance in Two-Level Atoms (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Arzumanyan, G.

M. Mukherjee, N. Mukherjee, J.-C. Diels, and G. Arzumanyan, in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Bai, Y. S.

J. E. Golub, Y. S. Bai, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. A 37, 119–124 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, M.

M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

E.g., L. J. Rothberg and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 820–830 (1984);T. Mossberg, A. Flusberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1523–1526 (1977);A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 305–308 (1978);J. E. Rothenberg and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 10, 22–24 (1985);T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370–5391 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breiland, W.

W. Breiland, C. Harris, and A. Pines, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 158–161 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Broer, M. M.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burns, M. J.

M. J. Burns, W. K. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, in Spectroscopy and Excitation Dynamics of Condensed Molecular Systems, V. M. Agranovich and R. M. Hochstrasser, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983).

Copley, G.

B. P. Kibble, G. Copley, and L. Krause, Phys. Rev. 153, 9–12 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.-C.

M. Mukherjee, N. Mukherjee, J.-C. Diels, and G. Arzumanyan, in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Dlott, D. D.

D. D. Dlott, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 37, 157–187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance in Two-Level Atoms (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Fayer, M. D.

L. R. Narasimhan, D. W. Pack, and M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feynman, R.

R. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49–52 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Flusberg, A. M.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Godar, D. E.

A. H. Zewail, T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and D. E. Godar, Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 256–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Golding, B.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Golub, J. E.

J. E. Golub, Y. S. Bai, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. A 37, 119–124 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grieneisen, H. E.

H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Haner, M.

F. Spano, M. Haner, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 135, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Warren and M. Haner, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. D. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988).

Harris, C.

W. Breiland, C. Harris, and A. Pines, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 158–161 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, S. R.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Hegarty, J.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49–52 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. E.

T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 197–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Zewail, T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and D. E. Godar, Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 256–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kachru, R.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kibble, B. P.

B. P. Kibble, G. Copley, and L. Krause, Phys. Rev. 153, 9–12 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Krause, L.

B. P. Kibble, G. Copley, and L. Krause, Phys. Rev. 153, 9–12 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kurnit, N. A.

H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Littau, K. A.

M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. K.

M. J. Burns, W. K. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, in Spectroscopy and Excitation Dynamics of Condensed Molecular Systems, V. M. Agranovich and R. M. Hochstrasser, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983).

MacChesney, J. B.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mehring, M.

M. Mehring, Principles of High-Resolution NMR in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

J. E. Golub, Y. S. Bai, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. A 37, 119–124 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, M.

M. Mukherjee, N. Mukherjee, J.-C. Diels, and G. Arzumanyan, in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Mukherjee, N.

M. Mukherjee, N. Mukherjee, J.-C. Diels, and G. Arzumanyan, in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Narasimhan, L. R.

M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Narasimhan, D. W. Pack, and M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nesmeyanov, A. N.

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).

Orlowski, T. E.

T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 197–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Zewail, T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and D. E. Godar, Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 256–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pack, D. W.

L. R. Narasimhan, D. W. Pack, and M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pines, A.

W. Breiland, C. Harris, and A. Pines, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 158–161 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

E.g., L. J. Rothberg and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 820–830 (1984);T. Mossberg, A. Flusberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1523–1526 (1977);A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 305–308 (1978);J. E. Rothenberg and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 10, 22–24 (1985);T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370–5391 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlossberg, H. R.

H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Silver, M. S.

W. S. Warren and M. S. Silver, in Advances in Magnetic Resonance (Academic, London, 1988), Vol. 12.

Simpson, J. R.

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sleva, E. T.

Spano, F.

F. Spano, M. Haner, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 135, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, F. L.

R. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49–52 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

F. Spano, M. Haner, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 135, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Warren and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2279–2297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Warren and M. Haner, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. D. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988).

W. S. Warren and M. S. Silver, in Advances in Magnetic Resonance (Academic, London, 1988), Vol. 12.

Xavier, I. M.

Zewail, A. H.

E. T. Sleva, I. M. Xavier, and A. H. Zewail, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 483–487 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Warren and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2279–2297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 197–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Zewail, T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and D. E. Godar, Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 256–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Burns, W. K. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, in Spectroscopy and Excitation Dynamics of Condensed Molecular Systems, V. M. Agranovich and R. M. Hochstrasser, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983).

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. D. Dlott, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 37, 157–187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. E. Grieneisen, J. Goldhar, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, and H. R. Schlossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 559–562 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Spano, M. Haner, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 135, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 197–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Zewail, T. E. Orlowski, K. E. Jones, and D. E. Godar, Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 256–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Narasimhan, D. W. Pack, and M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49–52 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Berg, C. A. Walsh, L. R. Narasimhan, K. A. Littau, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1564–1587 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Warren and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2279–2297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. P. Kibble, G. Copley, and L. Krause, Phys. Rev. 153, 9–12 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

E.g., L. J. Rothberg and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 820–830 (1984);T. Mossberg, A. Flusberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1523–1526 (1977);A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, R. Kachru, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 305–308 (1978);J. E. Rothenberg and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 10, 22–24 (1985);T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, and M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370–5391 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Golub, Y. S. Bai, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. A 37, 119–124 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. M. Broer, B. Golding, J. R. Simpson, and J. B. MacChesney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Breiland, C. Harris, and A. Pines, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 158–161 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance in Two-Level Atoms (Wiley, New York, 1975).

A. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism (Oxford U. Press, London, 1961).

M. Mehring, Principles of High-Resolution NMR in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Burns, W. K. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, in Spectroscopy and Excitation Dynamics of Condensed Molecular Systems, V. M. Agranovich and R. M. Hochstrasser, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983).

W. S. Warren and M. Haner, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. D. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1988).

W. S. Warren and M. S. Silver, in Advances in Magnetic Resonance (Academic, London, 1988), Vol. 12.

M. Mukherjee, N. Mukherjee, J.-C. Diels, and G. Arzumanyan, in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser and experimental setup. A frequency-doubled acousto-optically Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pumps a cavity-dumped dye laser. The dye-laser pulses are split into two equal pieces, one of which is run down a delay line. The beams are recombined before the Na sample cell. Small portions of each beam are picked off, made time coincident, and recombined to make an interference pattern. This interference pattern, along with a picked-off intensity reference beam, allows the feedback electronics to stabilize the phase between the two pulses and the intensity fluctuations of the dye laser. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PD’s, photodiodes; PT, phototube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fluorescence data from a two-pulse sequence as a function of relative phase. The delay between the two pulses was 107 psec. These data demonstrate the well-defined, scannable phase relationship between the pulses. The units of fluorescence are arbitrary. (b) Same as (a) but with a delay of 200 psec. The FID has reduced the intensity of the fluorescence oscillations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average peak-null fluorescence difference as a function of delay between pulses. The pulse areas are 0.5π. The solid curves are a calculation based on the Na absorption spectrum and the laser bandwidth. The units of fluorescence are arbitrary. (b) Same as (a) but with pulse area of 1.2π. It can be seen that the data are qualitatively the same.

Equations (12)

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Δ ω = ω ω 0
ω 1 = μ E / .
θ = [ ( Δ ω ) 2 + ω 1 2 ] 1 / 2 t ω eff t
ξ = tan 1 ( ω 1 / Δ ω ) if Δ ω > 0 , ξ = π + tan 1 ( ω 1 / Δ ω ) if Δ ω < 0 .
ρ ( 0 ) = [ 0 0 0 1 ] .
ρ ( t 1 , Δ ω ) = [ sin 2 [ θ ( Δ ω ) / 2 ] i / 2 sin [ θ ( Δ ω ) ] exp ( i Δ ω t 1 ) i / 2 sin [ θ ( Δ ω ) ] exp ( i Δ ω t 1 ) cos 2 [ θ ( Δ ω ) / 2 ] ] .
ρ ( t 2 , Δ ω ) = [ sin 2 [ θ ( Δ ω ) / 2 ] i / 2 sin [ θ ( Δ ω ) ] exp ( i Δ ω t 2 ) i / 2 sin [ θ ( Δ ω ) ] exp ( i Δ ω t 2 ) cos 2 [ θ ( Δ ω ) / 2 ] ] .
ρ 11 ( t 3 , Δ ω ) = ½ sin 2 [ θ ( Δ ω ) ] [ 1 + cos ( φ Δ ω τ ) ] .
ρ 11 ( t 3 , Δ ω ) = [ θ 2 ( Δ ω ) / 2 ] [ 1 + cos ( φ Δ ω τ ) ] .
ρ 11 ( t 3 , Δ ω ) I ( Δ ω ) [ 1 + cos ( φ Δ ω τ ) ] .
F ( τ , φ ) = A exp [ ω L 2 / 2 ( σ I 2 + σ L 2 ) ] × { 1 + exp [ τ 2 σ I 2 σ L 2 / 2 ( σ I 2 + σ L 2 ) ] × cos [ φ ω L τ σ I 2 / ( σ I 2 + σ L 2 ) ] } .
F ( τ , φ ) = A ( 1 + exp [ τ 2 σ I 2 σ L 2 / 2 ( σ I 2 + σ L 2 ) ] × { 0.625 cos [ φ ω L τ σ I 2 / ( σ I 2 + σ L 2 ) ] × 0.375 cos [ φ ω L τ σ I 2 / ( σ I 2 + σ L 2 ) ] } ) .

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