Abstract

Growth and fabrication of commercial BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals are described. Crystals grown from two different titanium dioxide sources and annealed in oxygen partial pressures between 1 and 10−17 atm were characterized by chemical analysis, optical absorption spectra, and two-beam coupling gain. Equal mixtures of the two starting materials yielded crystals with the highest photorefractive gain, whereas the extremes either were inactive or exhibited photochromic damage. Reduction of the inactive crystals below 10−11 atm of oxygen yielded a tenfold increase in photorefractive carrier density related to a sharp absorption peak at 450 nm tentatively assigned to a nickel–oxygen-vacancy complex.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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