Abstract

A simple but elegant spectroscopic technique using two narrow-band dye lasers has been demonstrated for analyzing single-color resonant multi-photon-ionization spectra of atoms. This technique provides a direct identification of the starting level of the multi-photon-ionization pathway. This method can also be used to determine intermediate levels, which play an important role in the ionization process. Some typical results for uranium are presented.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. S. Hurst, Anal. Chem. 53, 1448 (1981).
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  3. V. S. Letokhov, Nonlinear Laser Chemistry, Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 93 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Capelle, J. P. Young, D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 445 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4794 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. K. Mago, B. Lal, A. K. Roy, P. R. K. Rao, S. D. Sharma, J. Phys. B 20, 6531 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. K. G. Manohar, K. Dasgupta, B. M. Suri, D. D. Bhawalkar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 920 (1986).
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  14. M. Broglia, F. Catoni, P. Zampetti, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 44, 479 (1983).
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1987

1986

K. G. Manohar, K. Dasgupta, B. M. Suri, D. D. Bhawalkar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 920 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4794 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. Broglia, F. Catoni, P. Zampetti, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 44, 479 (1983).

1981

G. S. Hurst, Anal. Chem. 53, 1448 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

Bajaj, P. N.

Bhawalkar, D. D.

K. G. Manohar, K. Dasgupta, B. M. Suri, D. D. Bhawalkar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 920 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Blaise, J. E.

Bonn, J.

U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Broglia, M.

M. Broglia, F. Catoni, P. Zampetti, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 44, 479 (1983).

Capelle, G. A.

Catoni, F.

M. Broglia, F. Catoni, P. Zampetti, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 44, 479 (1983).

Chakroborti, P. K.

Dasgupta, K.

Donohue, D. L.

G. A. Capelle, J. P. Young, D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4794 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Engleman, R.

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, R. Engleman, Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980);H. M. Crosswhite, in Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry, 8th ed., Uranium suppl., Vol. A5, Spectra, K. C. Buschback, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 1–68.

Hertmann, G.

P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, G. S.

G. S. Hurst, Anal. Chem. 53, 1448 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, R. Engleman, Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980);H. M. Crosswhite, in Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry, 8th ed., Uranium suppl., Vol. A5, Spectra, K. C. Buschback, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 1–68.

Kluge, H.-J.

U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, S. D.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kroenert, U.

U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lal, B.

V. K. Mago, B. Lal, A. K. Roy, P. R. K. Rao, S. D. Sharma, J. Phys. B 20, 6531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, Nonlinear Laser Chemistry, Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Mago, V. K.

V. K. Mago, B. Lal, A. K. Roy, P. R. K. Rao, S. D. Sharma, J. Phys. B 20, 6531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, K. G.

McKown, H. S.

D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, B. A.

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, R. Engleman, Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980);H. M. Crosswhite, in Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry, 8th ed., Uranium suppl., Vol. A5, Spectra, K. C. Buschback, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 1–68.

Payne, M. G.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Peuser, P.

P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, C. A.

D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Radziemski, L. J.

Rao, P. R. K.

Rimke, H.

P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A. K.

V. K. Mago, B. Lal, A. K. Roy, P. R. K. Rao, S. D. Sharma, J. Phys. B 20, 6531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ruster, W.

U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sattelberger, P.

P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. D.

V. K. Mago, B. Lal, A. K. Roy, P. R. K. Rao, S. D. Sharma, J. Phys. B 20, 6531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. H.

G. A. Capelle, J. P. Young, D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4794 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Suri, B. M.

Talukdar, R. K.

Trautmann, N.

P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wallmeroth, K.

U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. P.

G. A. Capelle, J. P. Young, D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4794 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 93 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zampetti, P.

M. Broglia, F. Catoni, P. Zampetti, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 44, 479 (1983).

Anal. Chem.

D. L. Donohue, D. H. Smith, J. P. Young, H. S. McKown, C. A. Pritchard, Anal. Chem. 56, 379 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hurst, Anal. Chem. 53, 1448 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

U. Kroenert, J. Bonn, H.-J. Kluge, W. Ruster, K. Wallmeroth, Appl. Phys. B 38, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Peuser, G. Hertmann, H. Rimke, P. Sattelberger, N. Trautmann, Appl. Phys. B 38, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Chem. Phys.

D. L. Donohue, J. P. Young, D. H. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4794 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq.

M. Broglia, F. Catoni, P. Zampetti, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 44, 479 (1983).

J. Phys. B

V. K. Mago, B. Lal, A. K. Roy, P. R. K. Rao, S. D. Sharma, J. Phys. B 20, 6531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. G. Manohar, K. Dasgupta, B. M. Suri, D. D. Bhawalkar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 920 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. S. Letokhov, Nonlinear Laser Chemistry, Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1983).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, R. Engleman, Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980);H. M. Crosswhite, in Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry, 8th ed., Uranium suppl., Vol. A5, Spectra, K. C. Buschback, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 1–68.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Pump-probe excitation scheme to identify starting level of a.SC multi-photon-ionization spectrum. (b) Excitation scheme to identify intermediate levels involved in the ionization pathway. S is the starting level and IA–IE are the intermediate levels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the two-color photoionization experimental setup: CVL, copper-vapor laser; DL-1, dye laser 1; DL-2, dye laser 2; WS, wavelength stabilizer; FPI, Fabry-Perot interferometer; PD, photodiode; QMA, quadrupole mass analyzer; C, chopper; CH, channeltron; HCL, uranium hollow-cathode lamp; HT, high-voltage dc power supply; BC, boxcar integrator; LA, lock-in amplifier; REC, three-pen recorder; P1, P2, P3, P4, prisms; BS, beam splitter; L1, L2, lenses; REF, reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SC ionization spectrum of uranium. (b) Two-color ionization spectrum of uranium with DL-1 locked to U i line at 575.8 nm, which corresponds to the transition from the 5L7 ground state of uranium to the 7L6 level at 17 361.89 cm−1; DL-2 was scanned, (c) Optogalvanic spectrum of uranium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SC ionization spectrum of uranium. (b) Two-color ionization spectrum of uranium with DL-1 locked to U i line at 569.1 nm, which corresponds to the transition from the 620.32-cm−1 (5K5) metastable level to the level at 18 185.99 cm−1(J = 4); DL-2 was scanned. (c) Optogalvanic spectrum of uranium.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Some Examples for Elucidating the Ionization Pathways in the SC RIS of Uranium

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