Abstract

Measurements of the Fresnel drag in moving glass media were performed using a passive ring-resonator method. The effective drag coefficient was measured for various glass samples of different indices of refraction and dispersions. When we averaged 15 separate measurements, we obtained overall agreement with theory that was well within our ±2.8 × 10−4 measurement uncertainty, thus providing, to our knowledge, the most accurate verification of Fresnel drag thus far.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Newman, G. W. Ford, A. Rich, and E. Sweetman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1355 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. A. Sanders, M. G. Prentiss, and S. Ezekiel, Opt. Lett. 6, 569 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. Fizeau, Ann. Chim. Phys. 57, 385 (1859).
  4. H. R. Bilger and A. T. Zavodny, Phys. Rev. A 5, 591 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Zeeman, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 22, 469, 512 (1920); P. Zeeman, W. De Groot, A. Snethlage, and G. C. Dibbetz, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 23, 1402 (1922).
  6. W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964); G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 500 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. R. Bilger and W. K. Stowell, Phys. Rev. A 16, 313 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. F. Parks and J. T. Dowell, Phys. Rev. A 9, 565 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. A. Lorentz, Versuch einer Theorie der elektoschen und optisher Erscheinungen in bewegten korpern (Brill, Leiden, Germany, 1895), p. 101.
  10. I. H. Malitson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  11. Special Optics, Little Falls, New Jersey.
  12. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  13. As noted later, because the perimeter P depends on L, Δf is linearly dependent on L/P rather than on L itself.
  14. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th ed. (CRC, Cleveland, 1977), p. 224.
  15. G. R. Hanes and K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969).
    [Crossref]

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

D. Newman, G. W. Ford, A. Rich, and E. Sweetman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1355 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

H. R. Bilger and W. K. Stowell, Phys. Rev. A 16, 313 (1977).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

W. F. Parks and J. T. Dowell, Phys. Rev. A 9, 565 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

H. R. Bilger and A. T. Zavodny, Phys. Rev. A 5, 591 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

G. R. Hanes and K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964); G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 500 (1970).
[Crossref]

1920 (1)

P. Zeeman, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 22, 469, 512 (1920); P. Zeeman, W. De Groot, A. Snethlage, and G. C. Dibbetz, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 23, 1402 (1922).

1859 (1)

H. Fizeau, Ann. Chim. Phys. 57, 385 (1859).

Baird, K. M.

G. R. Hanes and K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969).
[Crossref]

Bilger, H. R.

H. R. Bilger and W. K. Stowell, Phys. Rev. A 16, 313 (1977).
[Crossref]

H. R. Bilger and A. T. Zavodny, Phys. Rev. A 5, 591 (1972).
[Crossref]

Dowell, J. T.

W. F. Parks and J. T. Dowell, Phys. Rev. A 9, 565 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ezekiel, S.

Fizeau, H.

H. Fizeau, Ann. Chim. Phys. 57, 385 (1859).

Ford, G. W.

D. Newman, G. W. Ford, A. Rich, and E. Sweetman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1355 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hanes, G. R.

G. R. Hanes and K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969).
[Crossref]

Lorentz, H. A.

H. A. Lorentz, Versuch einer Theorie der elektoschen und optisher Erscheinungen in bewegten korpern (Brill, Leiden, Germany, 1895), p. 101.

Macek, W. M.

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964); G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 500 (1970).
[Crossref]

Malitson, I. H.

Newman, D.

D. Newman, G. W. Ford, A. Rich, and E. Sweetman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1355 (1978).
[Crossref]

Parks, W. F.

W. F. Parks and J. T. Dowell, Phys. Rev. A 9, 565 (1974).
[Crossref]

Prentiss, M. G.

Rich, A.

D. Newman, G. W. Ford, A. Rich, and E. Sweetman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1355 (1978).
[Crossref]

Salamon, R. M.

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964); G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 500 (1970).
[Crossref]

Sanders, G. A.

Schneider, J. R.

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964); G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 500 (1970).
[Crossref]

Stowell, W. K.

H. R. Bilger and W. K. Stowell, Phys. Rev. A 16, 313 (1977).
[Crossref]

Sweetman, E.

D. Newman, G. W. Ford, A. Rich, and E. Sweetman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1355 (1978).
[Crossref]

Zavodny, A. T.

H. R. Bilger and A. T. Zavodny, Phys. Rev. A 5, 591 (1972).
[Crossref]

Zeeman, P.

P. Zeeman, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 22, 469, 512 (1920); P. Zeeman, W. De Groot, A. Snethlage, and G. C. Dibbetz, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 23, 1402 (1922).

Ann. Chim. Phys. (1)

H. Fizeau, Ann. Chim. Phys. 57, 385 (1859).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. M. Macek, J. R. Schneider, and R. M. Salamon, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2556 (1964); G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 500 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Metrologia (1)

G. R. Hanes and K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

H. R. Bilger and A. T. Zavodny, Phys. Rev. A 5, 591 (1972).
[Crossref]

H. R. Bilger and W. K. Stowell, Phys. Rev. A 16, 313 (1977).
[Crossref]

W. F. Parks and J. T. Dowell, Phys. Rev. A 9, 565 (1974).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Newman, G. W. Ford, A. Rich, and E. Sweetman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1355 (1978).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam (1)

P. Zeeman, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 22, 469, 512 (1920); P. Zeeman, W. De Groot, A. Snethlage, and G. C. Dibbetz, Proc. R. Acad. Amsterdam 23, 1402 (1922).

Other (5)

H. A. Lorentz, Versuch einer Theorie der elektoschen und optisher Erscheinungen in bewegten korpern (Brill, Leiden, Germany, 1895), p. 101.

Special Optics, Little Falls, New Jersey.

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

As noted later, because the perimeter P depends on L, Δf is linearly dependent on L/P rather than on L itself.

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th ed. (CRC, Cleveland, 1977), p. 224.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fresnel drag in a solid medium with moving boundaries.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup (see text for a complete discussion).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fresnel-Drag Data

Equations (12)

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u = c n ( λ 0 ) + v α ,
α = [ 1 - 1 n 2 ( λ 0 ) - λ 0 n 2 ( λ 0 ) n λ | λ = λ 0 ] .
t m + = L + v t m + u .
Δ t + = t m + - L n c - v t m + c ,
Δ t + = L v c 2 n 2 ( α - 1 + 1 n ) .
Δ P = 2 c Δ t + = 2 L v c α ,
α = n - 1 - λ 0 n λ | λ = λ 0 = n 2 ( α - 1 + 1 n )
Δ f = f CW - f CCW = - f Δ P P ,
Δ f = - 2 L v P λ 0 α ,
Δ f = - 2 L v P λ 0 cos ϕ α ,
α n n a - cos ( θ - ϕ ) - λ 0 n a n λ ( 1 - tan 2 ϕ )
P = P 0 + ( n - n a ) L / cos ϕ ,

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