Abstract

We report on two experiments involving polarization competition in a quasi-isotropic 3.39-μm He–Ne laser. In one, competition between externally determined polarization modes yields a crenellated line shape, except for small frequency ranges where residual anisotropies become important. In the second experiment, the internal anisotropies are determined and controlled by a tilted internal talon. Here, dips and peaks are observed in the intensity output of the laser.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. The polarization flip between two modes was first observed on the 1.15-μ m line of Ne by W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic field. II. Experiments,” Phys. Rev. 141, 237 (1966); it was also observed on the 632.8-nm line of Ne by E. Yu. Andreyeva, K. D. Teryokhin, S. A. Fridrikhov, “Polarization of radiation from a single frequency He–Ne laser,” Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 809 (1969) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 441 (1969)]. These two lines are naturally linearly polarized. The flip between two circular modes has also been observed on the 1.52-μ m line of Ne in a magnetic field by R. L. Fork, W. J. Tomlinson, L. J. Heilos, “Hysteresis in an He–Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 162 (1966). Polarization flips have also been observed in diode lasers by Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, “Polarization bistability in semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 16 (1985); N. K. Dutta, D. C. Craft, “Effect of stress on the polarization of stimulated emission from injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 65 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Stephan, D. Hugon, “Light polarization of a quasi-isotropic laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 703 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. We use reflectance amplitude rather than reflectivity and ignore any unimportant phase factors.
  4. We have computed the effect of the feedback on the round-trip phase change and verified that it has a negligible effect on the net gain of the laser in our experiment. The feedback is thus equivalent to a change in the reflectance of the laser mirror. This is true only for weak feedback.
  5. The first curve recorded in the sequence described here was the crenellated line shape of Fig. 2(b), obtained with a pressure of 0.8 Torr in order to display the Lamb dip. The pressure was then set at 1.25 Torr for the other curves.
  6. We now use d as a subscript to identify the single external cavity formed by the detector.
  7. G. Stephan, B. Aissoui, A. Kellou, “A flip flop interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 458 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Liu, “Digital optical processing with polarization bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298 (1985).
  9. P. Esherick, A. Owyoung, “Polarization feedback stabilization of an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser for spectroscopic application,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 41 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1985 (2)

J. M. Liu, “Digital optical processing with polarization bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298 (1985).

G. Stephan, D. Hugon, “Light polarization of a quasi-isotropic laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

The polarization flip between two modes was first observed on the 1.15-μ m line of Ne by W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic field. II. Experiments,” Phys. Rev. 141, 237 (1966); it was also observed on the 632.8-nm line of Ne by E. Yu. Andreyeva, K. D. Teryokhin, S. A. Fridrikhov, “Polarization of radiation from a single frequency He–Ne laser,” Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 809 (1969) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 441 (1969)]. These two lines are naturally linearly polarized. The flip between two circular modes has also been observed on the 1.52-μ m line of Ne in a magnetic field by R. L. Fork, W. J. Tomlinson, L. J. Heilos, “Hysteresis in an He–Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 162 (1966). Polarization flips have also been observed in diode lasers by Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, “Polarization bistability in semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 16 (1985); N. K. Dutta, D. C. Craft, “Effect of stress on the polarization of stimulated emission from injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aissoui, B.

G. Stephan, B. Aissoui, A. Kellou, “A flip flop interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 458 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, W.

The polarization flip between two modes was first observed on the 1.15-μ m line of Ne by W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic field. II. Experiments,” Phys. Rev. 141, 237 (1966); it was also observed on the 632.8-nm line of Ne by E. Yu. Andreyeva, K. D. Teryokhin, S. A. Fridrikhov, “Polarization of radiation from a single frequency He–Ne laser,” Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 809 (1969) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 441 (1969)]. These two lines are naturally linearly polarized. The flip between two circular modes has also been observed on the 1.52-μ m line of Ne in a magnetic field by R. L. Fork, W. J. Tomlinson, L. J. Heilos, “Hysteresis in an He–Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 162 (1966). Polarization flips have also been observed in diode lasers by Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, “Polarization bistability in semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 16 (1985); N. K. Dutta, D. C. Craft, “Effect of stress on the polarization of stimulated emission from injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Esherick, P.

Hugon, D.

G. Stephan, D. Hugon, “Light polarization of a quasi-isotropic laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kannelaud, J.

The polarization flip between two modes was first observed on the 1.15-μ m line of Ne by W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic field. II. Experiments,” Phys. Rev. 141, 237 (1966); it was also observed on the 632.8-nm line of Ne by E. Yu. Andreyeva, K. D. Teryokhin, S. A. Fridrikhov, “Polarization of radiation from a single frequency He–Ne laser,” Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 809 (1969) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 441 (1969)]. These two lines are naturally linearly polarized. The flip between two circular modes has also been observed on the 1.52-μ m line of Ne in a magnetic field by R. L. Fork, W. J. Tomlinson, L. J. Heilos, “Hysteresis in an He–Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 162 (1966). Polarization flips have also been observed in diode lasers by Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, “Polarization bistability in semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 16 (1985); N. K. Dutta, D. C. Craft, “Effect of stress on the polarization of stimulated emission from injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kellou, A.

G. Stephan, B. Aissoui, A. Kellou, “A flip flop interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 458 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

J. M. Liu, “Digital optical processing with polarization bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298 (1985).

Owyoung, A.

Stephan, G.

G. Stephan, B. Aissoui, A. Kellou, “A flip flop interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 458 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Stephan, D. Hugon, “Light polarization of a quasi-isotropic laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. Stephan, B. Aissoui, A. Kellou, “A flip flop interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 458 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Liu, “Digital optical processing with polarization bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298 (1985).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

The polarization flip between two modes was first observed on the 1.15-μ m line of Ne by W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic field. II. Experiments,” Phys. Rev. 141, 237 (1966); it was also observed on the 632.8-nm line of Ne by E. Yu. Andreyeva, K. D. Teryokhin, S. A. Fridrikhov, “Polarization of radiation from a single frequency He–Ne laser,” Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 809 (1969) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 441 (1969)]. These two lines are naturally linearly polarized. The flip between two circular modes has also been observed on the 1.52-μ m line of Ne in a magnetic field by R. L. Fork, W. J. Tomlinson, L. J. Heilos, “Hysteresis in an He–Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 162 (1966). Polarization flips have also been observed in diode lasers by Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, “Polarization bistability in semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 16 (1985); N. K. Dutta, D. C. Craft, “Effect of stress on the polarization of stimulated emission from injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 65 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Stephan, D. Hugon, “Light polarization of a quasi-isotropic laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

We use reflectance amplitude rather than reflectivity and ignore any unimportant phase factors.

We have computed the effect of the feedback on the round-trip phase change and verified that it has a negligible effect on the net gain of the laser in our experiment. The feedback is thus equivalent to a change in the reflectance of the laser mirror. This is true only for weak feedback.

The first curve recorded in the sequence described here was the crenellated line shape of Fig. 2(b), obtained with a pressure of 0.8 Torr in order to display the Lamb dip. The pressure was then set at 1.25 Torr for the other curves.

We now use d as a subscript to identify the single external cavity formed by the detector.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the experimental setup for the first experiment: D, detector; Ps, Pl, rotatable calcite polarizers; Ms, 5% transmission mirror; Ml, 26% transmission mirror; W’s, antireflection-coated windows; Mg, plane gold mirror. (b) Sketch of the experimental setup for the second experiment: MH, totally reflective plane mirror; Ml, 26% transmission mirror; Wc, a rotatable uncoated étalon (window); Wd, a rotatable window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Laser intensity versus laser length observed without Ps [see Fig. 1(a)]. (b) Signal observed with Ps. The crenellated line shape is due to the light fed back from Mg. The periodicity of the polarization flips is c/2L, the intermode spacing of the long cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Signal observed when yl is rotated by 45 deg with respect to ys. ys is adjusted in order to maximize the peaks that occur when the cavity anisotropy overcomes that induced by the feedback (cos ϕ1 = 0); i.e., ys is parallel to yc, the preferred polarization of the bare laser. (b) Same as (a) but yl is inclined at 35° with respect to ys. (c) Detail of (a) (horizontal scale expanded by 10) showing the asymmetry of the peaks coming from a gradual change of polarization with frequency followed by a polarization flip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signals observed when the anisotropy induced by the light fed back from the detector overcomes that of the laser: he detector has been adjusted this time to be perpendicular to the beam. (a) Shows a large crenel due to the short-cavity feedback when the long cavity is blocked. (b) The same with both cavities acting. ys and yl are at 45 deg to each other. In general, it is the long cavity that imposes the polarization, except around cos ϕ1 = 0, where the short cavity takes over, giving a dip or a peak depending of the sign of s cos ϕs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signals observed with the arrangement sketched in Fig. 1(b). In this case competition between a deliberate laser anisotropy and a weak externally induced anisotropy leads to peaks and dips, depending on the phase of the feedback. The PZ was driven by a sinusoidal voltage that permits the observation of signals with increasing and decreasing frequencies. The hysteresis region between (a) two peaks, (b) two dips, or (c) and (d) a peak and a dip is displayed.

Equations (1)

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T exp ( i ϕ ) 1 - R exp ( i ϕ / 2 ) = ρ e i α .

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