Abstract

Measurements of the vacuum-ultraviolet (<80-nm) radiation produced by intense ultraviolet (248-nm) irradiation (1015–1016 W/cm2) of rare gases have revealed the copious presence of both harmonic radiation and fluorescence from excited levels. The highest harmonic observed was the seventeenth (14.6 nm) in Ne, the shortest wavelength ever produced by that means. Strong fluorescence was seen from ions of Ar, Kr, and Xe, with the shortest wavelengths observed being below 12 nm. Furthermore, radiation from inner-shell excited configurations in Xe, specifically the 4d95s5p → 4d105s manifold of Xe7+ at ~17.7 nm, was detected. These experimental findings, in alliance with other studies concerning multielectron processes, give evidence for a role of electron correlations in a direct nonlinear process of inner-shell excitation.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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1986

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, H. Egger, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1084 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Buck, H. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4854 (1986); D. R. Worsnop, S. J. Buelow, D. R. Herserbach, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 4506 (1984); U. Buck, H. Meyer, H. Pauly, in Flow in Real Fluids, G. B. A. Meier, F. Obermeier, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 170; U. Buck, H. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 109 (1984); A. Van Deursan, A. Van Lumig, J. Reuss, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 18, 129 (1975); U. Buek, A. Meyer, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 88, 254 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Wendin, L. Jönsson, A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1241 (1986); A. L’Huillier, L. Jönsson, G. Wendin, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3938 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3891 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Howald, D. C. Gregory, R. A. Phaneuf, D. H. Crandall, M. S. Pindzola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1675 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szöke, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 720 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Clark, M. G. Littman, R. Miles, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, E. Valeo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1490 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

1983

J. Bokor, P. H. Bucksbaum, R. R. Freeman, Opt. Lett. 8, 217 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Blackburn, P. K. Carroll, J. Costello, G. O’Sullivan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1325 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jones, E. Källne, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 317 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. Sugar, V. Kaufman, Phys. Scr. 26, 419 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Bates, A. E. Kingston, R. W. P. McWhirter, Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 267, 297 (1982); Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 270, 155 (1962).

M.-C. Buchet-Poulizac, J.-P. Buchet, P. Ceyzeriat, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 202, 13 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

M. Rothschild, W. Gornik, J. Zavelovich, C. K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3794 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothschild, J. Zavelovich, W. Gornik, C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Commun. 39, 316 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman, J. Sugar, Phys. Scr. 24, 738 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 21, 771 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Kelly, S. L. Carter, Phys. Scr. 21, 448 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Krystautas, J. Sugar, J. R. Roberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1726 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. R. Roberts, E. J. Krystautas, J. Sugar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1620 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Gosselin, J. A. O’Neill, J. A. Kernahan, K. E. Donnelly, R. L. Brooks, Phys. Scr. 20, 151 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. B 11, 1105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K.-T. Chang, Y.-K. Kim, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 547 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Curtis, D. G. Ellis, J. Phys. B 11, L543 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Van der Wiel, T. N. Chang, J. Phys. B 11, L125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, A. Ridgeley, G. E. Bromage, Phys. Scr. 18, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. P. Connerade, D. H. Tracy, J. Phys. B 10, L235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Knystautas, R. Drouin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 551 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1975

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. B 8, 3069 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 341 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. A 5, 1221 (1972); J. Phys. A 9, 1797 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. A 5, 506 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. U. Datla, H. J. Kunze, D. Petrini, Phys. Rev. A 6, 38 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kennedy, S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 5, 227 (1972); J. B. West, P. R. Woodruff, K. Codling, R. G. Houlgate, J. Phys. B 9, 407 (1976); G. R. Wight, M. J. Van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 10, 601 (1977); D. M. P. Holland, K. Codling, J. B. West, G. V. Marr, J. Phys. B 12, 2465 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2261 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2263 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

G. Wendin, J. Phys. B 3, 455, 466 (1970); J. Phys. B 4, 1080 (1971); J. Phys. B 5, 110 (1972); J. Phys. B 6, 42 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, M. G. Hobby, J. Phys. B 2, 798 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. 155, 26 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1963

L. I. Schiff, Phys. Rev. 132, 2194 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aksela, A.

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksela, H.

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksela, S.

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amusia, M. Ya.

M. Ya. Amusia, N. A. Cherepkov, in Case Studies in Atomic Physics 5, E. W. McDaniel, M. R. McDowell, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), p. 47.

M. Ya. Amusia, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1981), Vol. 17, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Ansbacher, W.

Bancroft, G. M.

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkin, S.

S. Bashkin, J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Level and Grotrian Diagrams (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975–1982), Vols. 1–4 and addenda.

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, A. E. Kingston, R. W. P. McWhirter, Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 267, 297 (1982); Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 270, 155 (1962).

D. R. Bates, A. Dalgarno, in Atomic and Molecular Processes, D. R. Bates, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

Becker, U.

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3891 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

U. Becker, R. Hölzel, H. G. Kerkhoff, B. Langer, D. Szostak, R. Wehlitz, “Zerfälle der Xe 4d→ np Anregungen: resonante Auger und Doppel-Auger-Prozesse,” Bericht (BESSY, Berlin, 1984).

Berry, H. G.

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, H. G. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 21, 771 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Blackburn, J.

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965).

Bokor, J.

Boyer, K.

A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1490 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming, A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

Bromage, G. E.

B. C. Fawcett, A. Ridgeley, G. E. Bromage, Phys. Scr. 18, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, R. L.

E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Gosselin, J. A. O’Neill, J. A. Kernahan, K. E. Donnelly, R. L. Brooks, Phys. Scr. 20, 151 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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Buchet, J.-P.

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A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming, A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

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A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
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U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

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U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

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A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
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U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

M. H. R. Hutchinson, I. A. McIntyre, G. W. Gibson, C. K. Rhodes, “Measurement of 248 nm subpicosecond pulse radiations by two-photon fluorescence of xenon dimers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

McPherson, A.

A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
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T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming, A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

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R. Engleman, D. B. Thomson, D. A. Monaghan, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from argon, krypton, and xenon in a radial-viewed theta pinch,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1976).
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E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Gosselin, J. A. O’Neill, J. A. Kernahan, K. E. Donnelly, R. L. Brooks, Phys. Scr. 20, 151 (1979).
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S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
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R. L. Kelly, L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 angstroms,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1983).

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A. M. Howald, D. C. Gregory, R. A. Phaneuf, D. H. Crandall, M. S. Pindzola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1675 (1986).
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T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
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R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).
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A. Szöke, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 720 (1986).
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U. Johann, T. S. Luk, H. Egger, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1084 (1986).
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T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
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A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of pulsed-gas jet and spectrometer–detector assembly used in studies of emitted radiation. The laser was operated to produce 3–10 mJ of energy with a pulse width of ~1 psec. Typical background pressures are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A plot of the relative energy-conversion efficiency for harmonic generation in Ne shows a sharp change in slope between the ninth and eleventh harmonics. The arrow indicates the energy at which a 2s electron in the neutral becomes excited. For the seventh harmonic, the typical error bar is shown. The efficiency of the thirteenth harmonic is ~2 × 10−11.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A section of the Kr spectrum near 30 nm illustrates identified features from Kr7+ and unidentified lines of comparable strength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Xe spectrum illustrating the characteristic emissions produced by 248-nm radiation at an intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 with a pulse length of ~1 psec. Features involving transitions in Xe7+ and Xe8+ are shown along with a group of unidentified lines. The tick marks indicate the positions of the transitions in the 4d95s5p → 4d105s manifold of Xe7+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Partial Grotrian diagram of Xe7+ indicating the experimentally observed transitions. Excited states involving excitation of either the 5s electron or a 4d electron are evident. Dashed lines, not observed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Kr7+ spectrum illustrating the presence of both the ~20-nm 5d → 4p transitions and the 5p → 4s lines at ~18.2 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Grotrian diagram for the n = 4 and n = 5 levels of Kr7+ illustrating the observed transitions below 50 nm. The transitions indicated by the dashed lines determine the 5d lifetime.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Harmonic Production and Maximum Charge States Observed in the Rare Gases with 248-nm Radiation at an Intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 and a Pulse Length of ~1 psec

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimated Values of Several Harmonic Scattering Cross Sections σN for the Rare Gases Observed with 248-nm Radiation at an Intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 and a Pulse Length of ~1 psec

Tables Icon

Table 3 Main Properties of the Fluorescence Observed from Ar, Kr, and Xe with 248-nm Radiation at an Intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 and a Pulse Length of ~1 psec

Tables Icon

Table 4 Tabulation of Approximate Values of Observed Cross Sections σN for Fluorescence, Assuming That Excitation Occurs by the Direct Process (3) or (4)

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N γ + X X q + + q e - + γ
N γ ( ω ) + X γ ( N ω ) + X ,
N γ + X q + ( X q + ) *
σ N γ av > σ F > σ N             ( N > 7 )
σ F σ N γ av ~ 1 × 10 - 4
e - + X e 6 + X e 9 + + 4 e - ,
γ + X e ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 6 ) X e 2 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 2 5 p 5 ) + 2 e - ,
N γ + X e ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 6 ) X e 2 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 2 5 p 5 ) + 2 e -
N γ + X e 3 + ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 3 ) X e 5 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 2 5 p 2 ) + 2 e -
N γ + X e 5 + ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p ) X e 7 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 5 p ) + 2 e - .

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