Abstract

Measurements of the vacuum-ultraviolet (<80-nm) radiation produced by intense ultraviolet (248-nm) irradiation (1015–1016 W/cm2) of rare gases have revealed the copious presence of both harmonic radiation and fluorescence from excited levels. The highest harmonic observed was the seventeenth (14.6 nm) in Ne, the shortest wavelength ever produced by that means. Strong fluorescence was seen from ions of Ar, Kr, and Xe, with the shortest wavelengths observed being below 12 nm. Furthermore, radiation from inner-shell excited configurations in Xe, specifically the 4d95s5p → 4d105s manifold of Xe7+ at ~17.7 nm, was detected. These experimental findings, in alliance with other studies concerning multielectron processes, give evidence for a role of electron correlations in a direct nonlinear process of inner-shell excitation.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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1986 (10)

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1084 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Clark, M. G. Littman, R. Miles, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, and E. Valeo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 321 (1986).
[Crossref]

U. Buck and H. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4854 (1986); D. R. Worsnop, S. J. Buelow, and D. R. Herserbach, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 4506 (1984); U. Buck, H. Meyer, and H. Pauly, in Flow in Real Fluids, G. B. A. Meier and F. Obermeier, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 170; U. Buck and H. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 109 (1984); A. Van Deursan, A. Van Lumig, and J. Reuss, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 18, 129 (1975); U. Buek and A. Meyer, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 88, 254 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. Wendin, L. Jönsson, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1241 (1986); A. L’Huillier, L. Jönsson, and G. Wendin, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3938 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, and H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, and H.-E. Wetzel, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3891 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Howald, D. C. Gregory, R. A. Phaneuf, D. H. Crandall, and M. S. Pindzola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1675 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, and K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Szöke and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 720 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

K. Boyer and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1490 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

1983 (4)

J. Bokor, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. R. Freeman, Opt. Lett. 8, 217 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Blackburn, P. K. Carroll, J. Costello, and G. O’Sullivan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1325 (1983).
[Crossref]

L. A. Jones and E. Källne, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 317 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (3)

M.-C. Buchet-Poulizac, J.-P. Buchet, and P. Ceyzeriat, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 202, 13 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. R. Bates, A. E. Kingston, and R. W. P. McWhirter, Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 267, 297 (1982); Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 270, 155 (1962).

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, Phys. Scr. 26, 419 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (3)

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, Phys. Scr. 24, 738 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Rothschild, W. Gornik, J. Zavelovich, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3794 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Rothschild, J. Zavelovich, W. Gornik, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Commun. 39, 316 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (3)

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, and H. G. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 21, 771 (1980).
[Crossref]

E. J. Krystautas, J. Sugar, and J. R. Roberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1726 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. P. Kelly and S. L. Carter, Phys. Scr. 21, 448 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

J. R. Roberts, E. J. Krystautas, and J. Sugar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1620 (1979).
[Crossref]

E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Gosselin, J. A. O’Neill, J. A. Kernahan, K. E. Donnelly, and R. L. Brooks, Phys. Scr. 20, 151 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (5)

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. B 11, 1105 (1978).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Chang and Y.-K. Kim, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 547 (1978).
[Crossref]

L. J. Curtis and D. G. Ellis, J. Phys. B 11, L543 (1978).
[Crossref]

M. J. Van der Wiel and T. N. Chang, J. Phys. B 11, L125 (1978).
[Crossref]

B. C. Fawcett, A. Ridgeley, and G. E. Bromage, Phys. Scr. 18, 315 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

J. P. Connerade and D. H. Tracy, J. Phys. B 10, L235 (1977).
[Crossref]

E. J. Knystautas and R. Drouin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 551 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

1975 (1)

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. B 8, 3069 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 341 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (4)

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. A 5, 1221 (1972); J. Phys. A 9, 1797 (1976).
[Crossref]

G. J. Pert, J. Phys. A 5, 506 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. U. Datla, H. J. Kunze, and D. Petrini, Phys. Rev. A 6, 38 (1972).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kennedy and S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 5, 227 (1972); J. B. West, P. R. Woodruff, K. Codling, and R. G. Houlgate, J. Phys. B 9, 407 (1976); G. R. Wight and M. J. Van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 10, 601 (1977); D. M. P. Holland, K. Codling, J. B. West, and G. V. Marr, J. Phys. B 12, 2465 (1979).
[Crossref]

1971 (2)

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2261 (1971).
[Crossref]

D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2263 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

G. Wendin, J. Phys. B 3, 455, 466 (1970); J. Phys. B 4, 1080 (1971); J. Phys. B 5, 110 (1972); J. Phys. B 6, 42 (1973).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, and M. G. Hobby, J. Phys. B 2, 798 (1969).
[Crossref]

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, and D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. 155, 26 (1967).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

L. I. Schiff, Phys. Rev. 132, 2194 (1963).
[Crossref]

Aksela, A.

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, and H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksela, H.

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, and K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, and H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksela, S.

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, and K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amusia, M. Ya.

M. Ya. Amusia and N. A. Cherepkov, in Case Studies in Atomic Physics 5, E. W. McDaniel and M. R. McDowell, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), p. 47.

M. Ya. Amusia, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates and B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1981), Vol. 17, p. 1.
[Crossref]

Ansbacher, W.

Bancroft, G. M.

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, and K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, and H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashkin, S.

S. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Level and Grotrian Diagrams (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975–1982), Vols. 1–4 and addenda.

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, A. E. Kingston, and R. W. P. McWhirter, Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 267, 297 (1982); Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 270, 155 (1962).

D. R. Bates and A. Dalgarno, in Atomic and Molecular Processes, D. R. Bates, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), p. 245.
[Crossref]

Becker, U.

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, and H.-E. Wetzel, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3891 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
[Crossref]

U. Becker, R. Hölzel, H. G. Kerkhoff, B. Langer, D. Szostak, and R. Wehlitz, “Zerfälle der Xe 4d→ np Anregungen: resonante Auger und Doppel-Auger-Prozesse,” Bericht (BESSY, Berlin, 1984).

Berry, H. G.

A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, and H. G. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 21, 771 (1980).
[Crossref]

Blackburn, J.

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965).

Bokor, J.

Boyer, K.

A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Boyer and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1490 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

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E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Gosselin, J. A. O’Neill, J. A. Kernahan, K. E. Donnelly, and R. L. Brooks, Phys. Scr. 20, 151 (1979).
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L. J. Curtis and D. G. Ellis, J. Phys. B 11, L543 (1978).
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B. C. Fawcett, A. Ridgeley, and G. E. Bromage, Phys. Scr. 18, 315 (1978).
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Gibson, G. W.

M. H. R. Hutchinson, I. A. McIntyre, G. W. Gibson, and C. K. Rhodes, “Measurement of 248 nm subpicosecond pulse radiations by two-photon fluorescence of xenon dimers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

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E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Gosselin, J. A. O’Neill, J. A. Kernahan, K. E. Donnelly, and R. L. Brooks, Phys. Scr. 20, 151 (1979).
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A. M. Howald, D. C. Gregory, R. A. Phaneuf, D. H. Crandall, and M. S. Pindzola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1675 (1986).
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U. Becker, R. Hölzel, H. G. Kerkhoff, B. Langer, D. Szostak, and R. Wehlitz, “Zerfälle der Xe 4d→ np Anregungen: resonante Auger und Doppel-Auger-Prozesse,” Bericht (BESSY, Berlin, 1984).

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A. M. Howald, D. C. Gregory, R. A. Phaneuf, D. H. Crandall, and M. S. Pindzola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1675 (1986).
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Hutchinson, M. H. R.

M. H. R. Hutchinson, I. A. McIntyre, G. W. Gibson, and C. K. Rhodes, “Measurement of 248 nm subpicosecond pulse radiations by two-photon fluorescence of xenon dimers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

Irwin, D. J. G.

Jara, H.

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

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U. Johann, T. S. Luk, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1084 (1986).
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A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

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H. P. Kelly and S. L. Carter, Phys. Scr. 21, 448 (1980).
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R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 angstroms,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1983).

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D. J. Kennedy and S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 5, 227 (1972); J. B. West, P. R. Woodruff, K. Codling, and R. G. Houlgate, J. Phys. B 9, 407 (1976); G. R. Wight and M. J. Van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 10, 601 (1977); D. M. P. Holland, K. Codling, J. B. West, and G. V. Marr, J. Phys. B 12, 2465 (1979).
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Kerkhoff, H. G.

U. Becker, R. Hölzel, H. G. Kerkhoff, B. Langer, D. Szostak, and R. Wehlitz, “Zerfälle der Xe 4d→ np Anregungen: resonante Auger und Doppel-Auger-Prozesse,” Bericht (BESSY, Berlin, 1984).

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Kim, Y.-K.

K.-T. Chang and Y.-K. Kim, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 547 (1978).
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D. R. Bates, A. E. Kingston, and R. W. P. McWhirter, Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 267, 297 (1982); Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 270, 155 (1962).

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E. J. Knystautas and R. Drouin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 551 (1977).
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S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
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R. U. Datla, H. J. Kunze, and D. Petrini, Phys. Rev. A 6, 38 (1972).
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G. Wendin, L. Jönsson, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1241 (1986); A. L’Huillier, L. Jönsson, and G. Wendin, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3938 (1986).
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U. Becker, R. Hölzel, H. G. Kerkhoff, B. Langer, D. Szostak, and R. Wehlitz, “Zerfälle der Xe 4d→ np Anregungen: resonante Auger und Doppel-Auger-Prozesse,” Bericht (BESSY, Berlin, 1984).

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S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
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A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1084 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

Madden, R. P.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2261 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
[Crossref]

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, and D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. 155, 26 (1967).
[Crossref]

Manson, S. T.

D. J. Kennedy and S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 5, 227 (1972); J. B. West, P. R. Woodruff, K. Codling, and R. G. Houlgate, J. Phys. B 9, 407 (1976); G. R. Wight and M. J. Van der Wiel, J. Phys. B 10, 601 (1977); D. M. P. Holland, K. Codling, J. B. West, and G. V. Marr, J. Phys. B 12, 2465 (1979).
[Crossref]

McIlrath, T. J.

McIntyre, I. A.

A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. R. Hutchinson, I. A. McIntyre, G. W. Gibson, and C. K. Rhodes, “Measurement of 248 nm subpicosecond pulse radiations by two-photon fluorescence of xenon dimers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

McPherson, A.

A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

McWhirter, R. W. P.

D. R. Bates, A. E. Kingston, and R. W. P. McWhirter, Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 267, 297 (1982); Proc. R., Soc. London Ser. A 270, 155 (1962).

Meyer, H.

U. Buck and H. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4854 (1986); D. R. Worsnop, S. J. Buelow, and D. R. Herserbach, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 4506 (1984); U. Buck, H. Meyer, and H. Pauly, in Flow in Real Fluids, G. B. A. Meier and F. Obermeier, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 170; U. Buck and H. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 109 (1984); A. Van Deursan, A. Van Lumig, and J. Reuss, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 18, 129 (1975); U. Buek and A. Meyer, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 88, 254 (1984).
[Crossref]

Miles, R.

Monaghan, D. A.

R. Engleman, D. B. Thomson, and D. A. Monaghan, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from argon, krypton, and xenon in a radial-viewed theta pinch,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1976).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, J. A.

E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Gosselin, J. A. O’Neill, J. A. Kernahan, K. E. Donnelly, and R. L. Brooks, Phys. Scr. 20, 151 (1979).
[Crossref]

O’Sullivan, G.

Owaki, S.

S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
[Crossref]

Palumbo, L. J.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 angstroms,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1983).

Peacock, N. J.

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, and M. G. Hobby, J. Phys. B 2, 798 (1969).
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G. J. Pert, J. Phys. B 11, 1105 (1978).
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G. J. Pert, J. Phys. B 8, 3069 (1975).
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R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).
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G. J. Pert, J. Phys. A 5, 1221 (1972); J. Phys. A 9, 1797 (1976).
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G. J. Pert, J. Phys. A 5, 506 (1972).
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Petrini, D.

R. U. Datla, H. J. Kunze, and D. Petrini, Phys. Rev. A 6, 38 (1972).
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Phaneuf, R. A.

A. M. Howald, D. C. Gregory, R. A. Phaneuf, D. H. Crandall, and M. S. Pindzola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1675 (1986).
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Pindzola, M. S.

A. M. Howald, D. C. Gregory, R. A. Phaneuf, D. H. Crandall, and M. S. Pindzola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1675 (1986).
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Pinnington, E. H.

Prescher, T.

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, and H.-E. Wetzel, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3891 (1986).
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Pulkkinen, H.

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, and K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, and H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pummer, H.

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).
[Crossref]

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A. Szöke and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 720 (1986).
[Crossref]

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1084 (1986).
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A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
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T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
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[Crossref]

M. Rothschild, W. Gornik, J. Zavelovich, and C. K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3794 (1981).
[Crossref]

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

C. K. Rhodes, “Ordered many-electron motions in atoms and x-ray lasers,” in Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Giant Resonances in Atoms, Molecules, and Solids, J.-P. Connerade, J. M. Esteva, and R. C. Karnatak, eds. (Plenum, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

C. K. Rhodes, “Physical processes at high field strengths,” Phys. Scr. (to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

M. H. R. Hutchinson, I. A. McIntyre, G. W. Gibson, and C. K. Rhodes, “Measurement of 248 nm subpicosecond pulse radiations by two-photon fluorescence of xenon dimers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

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A. P. Schwarzenbach, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, U. Johann, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Lett. 11, 499 (1986).
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A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

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A. Szöke and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 720 (1986).
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H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, and H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
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H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, and K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
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R. Engleman, D. B. Thomson, and D. A. Monaghan, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from argon, krypton, and xenon in a radial-viewed theta pinch,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1976).
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J. P. Connerade and D. H. Tracy, J. Phys. B 10, L235 (1977).
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U. Becker, R. Hölzel, H. G. Kerkhoff, B. Langer, D. Szostak, and R. Wehlitz, “Zerfälle der Xe 4d→ np Anregungen: resonante Auger und Doppel-Auger-Prozesse,” Bericht (BESSY, Berlin, 1984).

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G. Wendin, in Photoionization and Other Probes of Many-Electron Interactions, F. J. Wuilleumier, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 61.
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U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, and H.-E. Wetzel, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3891 (1986).
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M. Rothschild, J. Zavelovich, W. Gornik, and C. K. Rhodes, Opt. Commun. 39, 316 (1981).
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[Crossref]

H. Aksela, S. Aksela, H. Pulkkinen, G. M. Bancroft, and K. H. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3876 (1986).
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S. Southworth, U. Becker, C. M. Truesdale, P. H. Kobrin, D. W. Lindle, S. Owaki, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 28, 261 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. Aksela, A. Aksela, G. M. Bancroft, K. A. Tan, and H. Pulkkinen, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, and H.-E. Wetzel, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3891 (1986).
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A. E. Livingston, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, and H. G. Berry, Phys. Rev. A 21, 771 (1980).
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T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
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U. Johann, T. S. Luk, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1084 (1986).
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[Crossref]

G. Wendin, L. Jönsson, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1241 (1986); A. L’Huillier, L. Jönsson, and G. Wendin, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3938 (1986).
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Other (19)

R. Engleman, D. B. Thomson, and D. A. Monaghan, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from argon, krypton, and xenon in a radial-viewed theta pinch,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1976).
[Crossref]

M. Ya. Amusia, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. R. Bates and B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1981), Vol. 17, p. 1.
[Crossref]

A. Szöke, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (personal communication).

A. F. Starace, “Electron correlation effects in nonresonant multiphoton ionization processes,” Phys. Scr. (to be published).

G. Wendin, in Photoionization and Other Probes of Many-Electron Interactions, F. J. Wuilleumier, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 61.
[Crossref]

U. Becker, R. Hölzel, H. G. Kerkhoff, B. Langer, D. Szostak, and R. Wehlitz, “Zerfälle der Xe 4d→ np Anregungen: resonante Auger und Doppel-Auger-Prozesse,” Bericht (BESSY, Berlin, 1984).

A. F. Starace, in Fundamental Processes in Energetic Atomic Collisions, H. O. Lutz, J. S. Briggs, and H. Kleinpoppen, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1983), p. 69; A. F. Starace, Handb. Phys. 31, 1 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. Ya. Amusia and N. A. Cherepkov, in Case Studies in Atomic Physics 5, E. W. McDaniel and M. R. McDowell, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), p. 47.

D. R. Bates and A. Dalgarno, in Atomic and Molecular Processes, D. R. Bates, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), p. 245.
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S. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Level and Grotrian Diagrams (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975–1982), Vols. 1–4 and addenda.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, “Atomic and ionic emission lines below 2000 angstroms,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1983).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multi-quantum processes at high field strengths,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

C. K. Rhodes, “Physical processes at high field strengths,” Phys. Scr. (to be published).

A. McPherson, T. S. Luk, M. H. R. Hutchinson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF* radiation,” presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Symposium on Fiber Optics, Optoelectronics and Laser Applications, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1986.

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, H. Jara, U. Johann, I. A. McIntyre, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Experimental study of harmonic generation with picosecond 248 nm radiation,” in Ultrafast Phenomena V, G. R. Fleming and A. E. Siegman, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, A. P. Schwarzenbach, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Multiphoton ionization in intense ultraviolet laser fields,” in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation, J. Bokor and D. Attwood, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

C. K. Rhodes, “Ordered many-electron motions in atoms and x-ray lasers,” in Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Giant Resonances in Atoms, Molecules, and Solids, J.-P. Connerade, J. M. Esteva, and R. C. Karnatak, eds. (Plenum, New York, to be published).

M. H. R. Hutchinson, I. A. McIntyre, G. W. Gibson, and C. K. Rhodes, “Measurement of 248 nm subpicosecond pulse radiations by two-photon fluorescence of xenon dimers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of pulsed-gas jet and spectrometer–detector assembly used in studies of emitted radiation. The laser was operated to produce 3–10 mJ of energy with a pulse width of ~1 psec. Typical background pressures are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A plot of the relative energy-conversion efficiency for harmonic generation in Ne shows a sharp change in slope between the ninth and eleventh harmonics. The arrow indicates the energy at which a 2s electron in the neutral becomes excited. For the seventh harmonic, the typical error bar is shown. The efficiency of the thirteenth harmonic is ~2 × 10−11.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A section of the Kr spectrum near 30 nm illustrates identified features from Kr7+ and unidentified lines of comparable strength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Xe spectrum illustrating the characteristic emissions produced by 248-nm radiation at an intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 with a pulse length of ~1 psec. Features involving transitions in Xe7+ and Xe8+ are shown along with a group of unidentified lines. The tick marks indicate the positions of the transitions in the 4d95s5p → 4d105s manifold of Xe7+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Partial Grotrian diagram of Xe7+ indicating the experimentally observed transitions. Excited states involving excitation of either the 5s electron or a 4d electron are evident. Dashed lines, not observed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Kr7+ spectrum illustrating the presence of both the ~20-nm 5d → 4p transitions and the 5p → 4s lines at ~18.2 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Grotrian diagram for the n = 4 and n = 5 levels of Kr7+ illustrating the observed transitions below 50 nm. The transitions indicated by the dashed lines determine the 5d lifetime.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Harmonic Production and Maximum Charge States Observed in the Rare Gases with 248-nm Radiation at an Intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 and a Pulse Length of ~1 psec

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimated Values of Several Harmonic Scattering Cross Sections σN for the Rare Gases Observed with 248-nm Radiation at an Intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 and a Pulse Length of ~1 psec

Tables Icon

Table 3 Main Properties of the Fluorescence Observed from Ar, Kr, and Xe with 248-nm Radiation at an Intensity of ~1015–1016 W/cm2 and a Pulse Length of ~1 psec

Tables Icon

Table 4 Tabulation of Approximate Values of Observed Cross Sections σN for Fluorescence, Assuming That Excitation Occurs by the Direct Process (3) or (4)

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N γ + X X q + + q e - + γ
N γ ( ω ) + X γ ( N ω ) + X ,
N γ + X q + ( X q + ) *
σ N γ av > σ F > σ N             ( N > 7 )
σ F σ N γ av ~ 1 × 10 - 4
e - + X e 6 + X e 9 + + 4 e - ,
γ + X e ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 6 ) X e 2 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 2 5 p 5 ) + 2 e - ,
N γ + X e ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 6 ) X e 2 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 2 5 p 5 ) + 2 e -
N γ + X e 3 + ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p 3 ) X e 5 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 2 5 p 2 ) + 2 e -
N γ + X e 5 + ( 4 d 10 5 s 2 5 p ) X e 7 + ( 4 d 9 5 s 5 p ) + 2 e - .

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