Abstract

The paper reviews both the properties and the applications of core-excited metastable atoms. The production of these atoms by microwaves, pulsed hollow-cathode discharges, and laser-produced x rays is described. We discuss the application of these atoms to several new types of spectroscopy that allow autoionizing linewidths as narrow as 0.1 cm−1 to be measured. The application of these metastables to the generation of picosecond-time-scale soft-x-ray pulses and to XUV lasers is also discussed.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering as a high-resolution and picosecond-time-scale VUV light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 498 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.
  4. S. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft-x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976); H. A. Hyman, S. A. Mani, “Effect of autoionizing states on the proposed lithium soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 20, 209 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. 160, 143 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. E. Harris, “Proposal for a 207-Å laser in lithium,” Opt. Lett. 5, 1 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Rothenberg, S. E. Harris, “XUV lasers by quartet to doublet energy transfer in alkali atoms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 418 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. E. Harris, D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, A. J. Mendelsohn, R. D. Cowan, “Quasi-metastable quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions,” Opt. Lett. 9, 168 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Emission at 1091 Å in neutral core-excited Cs,” in Laser Techniques in the Extreme Ultraviolet, S. E. Harris, T. B. Lucatorto, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1984), pp. 496–501.
  11. A. J. Mendelsohn, C. P. J. Barty, M. H. Sher, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of quasi-metastable levels of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  12. K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Identification and oscillator strength measurement of the 109.1-nm transition in neutral Cs,” Opt. Lett. 11, 425 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1981), Secs. 8-1, 16-1, and 18-7.
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  15. R. W. Falcone, K. D. Pedrotti, “Pulsed hollow-cathode discharge for extreme-ultraviolet lasers and radiation sources,” Opt. Lett. 7, 74 (1982); R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, “Hollow-cathode discharge for XUV lasers and radiation sources,” AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 287 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. E. Holmgren, R. W. Falcone, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of lithium and sodium metastable quartet in a hollow-cathode discharge,” Opt. Lett. 9, 85 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, D. A. King, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of Na i quartets,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 677 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. D. Pedrotti, J. J. Mendelsohn, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Extreme-ultraviolet emission spectra of core-excited levels in sodium and magnesium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1942 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. A. King, R. G. Caro, “A fast, high-current pulsed discharge device for the inner-shell excitation of atoms and ions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  20. K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, “Absolutely measured x-ray spectra from laser plasmas with target, of different elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 377 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Duguay, “Soft x-ray lasers pumped by photoionization,” (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1975).
  22. R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “The use of laser-produced soft x-rays for the production of excited metastable ions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1407 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).
  24. J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(1s 2s 2p) 4P∘ deexcitation measurements in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. K. Spong, J. D. Kmetec, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of core-excited levels of neutral rubidium,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.
  26. L. J. Zych, J. Lukasik, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Inelastic collisions by intense laser radiation,” in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1977), pp. 397–402.
  27. S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, A. J. Mendelsohn, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, “Quasi-metastable energy levels and applications,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 162–165.
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 363 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high-resolution XUV radiation source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1795 (1983); erratum, QE-20, 986 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. W. Mansfield, “The K i absorption spectrum in the vacuum ultraviolet: 2p subshell excitation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 346, 539 (1973).
  31. R. W. Falcone, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of the He 1s 2s1S0isotopic shift using a tunable VUV anti-Stokes light source,” Opt. Lett. 3, 162 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of metastable extreme-ultraviolet levels in lithium atoms and ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1827 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. F. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2060 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. F. Bunge, “Accurate calculations for the even-parity core-excited 2P states of neutral Li,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 936 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Jáuregui, C. F. Bunge, “Emission spectrum of core-excited Li doublets,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1618 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  36. L. Engström, L. P. Somerville, H. G. Berry, “Lifetime measurements of core-excited quartet levels in Na i,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1468 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. J. Pedrotti, “Atomic spectroscopy for soft x-ray lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1985).
  38. W. T. Silfvast, J. J. Macklin, O. R. Wood, “High-gain inner-shell photoionization laser in Cd vapor pumped by soft-x-ray radiation from a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 551 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. W. T. Silfvast, O. R. Wood, H. Lundberg, J. J. Macklin, “Stimulated emission in the ultraviolet by optical pumping from photoionization-produced inner-shell states in Cd+,” Opt. Lett. 10, 122 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. E. J. McGuire, “Soft-x-ray amplified spontaneous emission via the Auger effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 844 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. J. Mendelsohn, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet selective autoionization laser in Zn iii,” Opt. Lett. 10, 128 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet Auger laser at 63.8 nm in Cs iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1515 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. F. Young, J. J. Macklin, S. E. Harris, “Grazing incidence ellipsoidal reflector for longitudinally pumping short wavelength lasers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 90 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to z= 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  45. L. A. Vainshtein, U. I. Safronova, “Energy levels of He- and Li-like ions (states 1snl, 1s3nl with n= 2–5),” Phys. Scr. 31, 519 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  46. V. Pejcev, D. Rassi, K. J. Ross, T. W. Ottley, “High-resolution ejected electron spectrum of rubidium vapor autoionizing levels excited by electron with kinetic energies in the range 27 to 400 eV,” J. Phys. B 10, 1653 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (3)

1985 (6)

1984 (3)

1983 (4)

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(1s 2s 2p) 4P∘ deexcitation measurements in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high-resolution XUV radiation source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1795 (1983); erratum, QE-20, 986 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Silfvast, J. J. Macklin, O. R. Wood, “High-gain inner-shell photoionization laser in Cd vapor pumped by soft-x-ray radiation from a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 551 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1981 (5)

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 363 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of metastable extreme-ultraviolet levels in lithium atoms and ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1827 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, S. E. Harris, “XUV lasers by quartet to doublet energy transfer in alkali atoms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 418 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Jáuregui, C. F. Bunge, “Emission spectrum of core-excited Li doublets,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1618 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Proposal for a 207-Å laser in lithium,” Opt. Lett. 5, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. F. Bunge, “Accurate calculations for the even-parity core-excited 2P states of neutral Li,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 936 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (2)

V. Pejcev, D. Rassi, K. J. Ross, T. W. Ottley, “High-resolution ejected electron spectrum of rubidium vapor autoionizing levels excited by electron with kinetic energies in the range 27 to 400 eV,” J. Phys. B 10, 1653 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering as a high-resolution and picosecond-time-scale VUV light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft-x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976); H. A. Hyman, S. A. Mani, “Effect of autoionizing states on the proposed lithium soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 20, 209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. J. McGuire, “Soft-x-ray amplified spontaneous emission via the Auger effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 844 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. W. Mansfield, “The K i absorption spectrum in the vacuum ultraviolet: 2p subshell excitation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 346, 539 (1973).

1971 (1)

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to z= 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. 160, 143 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Accad, Y.

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to z= 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

A. J. Mendelsohn, C. P. J. Barty, M. H. Sher, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of quasi-metastable levels of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

Berry, H. G.

L. Engström, L. P. Somerville, H. G. Berry, “Lifetime measurements of core-excited quartet levels in Na i,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bunge, C. F.

C. F. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Jáuregui, C. F. Bunge, “Emission spectrum of core-excited Li doublets,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1618 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bunge, “Accurate calculations for the even-parity core-excited 2P states of neutral Li,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 936 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Caro, R. G.

D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet Auger laser at 63.8 nm in Cs iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1515 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, A. J. Mendelsohn, R. D. Cowan, “Quasi-metastable quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions,” Opt. Lett. 9, 168 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “The use of laser-produced soft x-rays for the production of excited metastable ions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(1s 2s 2p) 4P∘ deexcitation measurements in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

D. A. King, R. G. Caro, “A fast, high-current pulsed discharge device for the inner-shell excitation of atoms and ions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

Cowan, R. D.

S. E. Harris, D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, A. J. Mendelsohn, R. D. Cowan, “Quasi-metastable quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions,” Opt. Lett. 9, 168 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1981), Secs. 8-1, 16-1, and 18-7.

Daugherty, J. D.

S. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft-x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976); H. A. Hyman, S. A. Mani, “Effect of autoionizing states on the proposed lithium soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 20, 209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dimiduk, D. P.

K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Identification and oscillator strength measurement of the 109.1-nm transition in neutral Cs,” Opt. Lett. 11, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Dimiduk, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (personal communication).

S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, A. J. Mendelsohn, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, “Quasi-metastable energy levels and applications,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, “Soft x-ray lasers pumped by photoionization,” (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1975).

Eidmann, K.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, “Absolutely measured x-ray spectra from laser plasmas with target, of different elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 377 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Engström, L.

L. Engström, L. P. Somerville, H. G. Berry, “Lifetime measurements of core-excited quartet levels in Na i,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R. W.

K. D. Pedrotti, J. J. Mendelsohn, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Extreme-ultraviolet emission spectra of core-excited levels in sodium and magnesium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1942 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Holmgren, R. W. Falcone, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of lithium and sodium metastable quartet in a hollow-cathode discharge,” Opt. Lett. 9, 85 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Falcone, K. D. Pedrotti, “Pulsed hollow-cathode discharge for extreme-ultraviolet lasers and radiation sources,” Opt. Lett. 7, 74 (1982); R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, “Hollow-cathode discharge for XUV lasers and radiation sources,” AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of metastable extreme-ultraviolet levels in lithium atoms and ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1827 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Falcone, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of the He 1s 2s1S0isotopic shift using a tunable VUV anti-Stokes light source,” Opt. Lett. 3, 162 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

Feldman, P.

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. 160, 143 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

J. F. Young, J. J. Macklin, S. E. Harris, “Grazing incidence ellipsoidal reflector for longitudinally pumping short wavelength lasers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Identification and oscillator strength measurement of the 109.1-nm transition in neutral Cs,” Opt. Lett. 11, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet Auger laser at 63.8 nm in Cs iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1515 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Pedrotti, J. J. Mendelsohn, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Extreme-ultraviolet emission spectra of core-excited levels in sodium and magnesium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1942 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mendelsohn, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet selective autoionization laser in Zn iii,” Opt. Lett. 10, 128 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, D. A. King, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of Na i quartets,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 677 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “The use of laser-produced soft x-rays for the production of excited metastable ions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Holmgren, R. W. Falcone, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of lithium and sodium metastable quartet in a hollow-cathode discharge,” Opt. Lett. 9, 85 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, A. J. Mendelsohn, R. D. Cowan, “Quasi-metastable quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions,” Opt. Lett. 9, 168 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(1s 2s 2p) 4P∘ deexcitation measurements in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high-resolution XUV radiation source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1795 (1983); erratum, QE-20, 986 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 363 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of metastable extreme-ultraviolet levels in lithium atoms and ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1827 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, S. E. Harris, “XUV lasers by quartet to doublet energy transfer in alkali atoms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 418 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Proposal for a 207-Å laser in lithium,” Opt. Lett. 5, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Falcone, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of the He 1s 2s1S0isotopic shift using a tunable VUV anti-Stokes light source,” Opt. Lett. 3, 162 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering as a high-resolution and picosecond-time-scale VUV light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Emission at 1091 Å in neutral core-excited Cs,” in Laser Techniques in the Extreme Ultraviolet, S. E. Harris, T. B. Lucatorto, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1984), pp. 496–501.

J. K. Spong, J. D. Kmetec, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of core-excited levels of neutral rubidium,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. J. Zych, J. Lukasik, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Inelastic collisions by intense laser radiation,” in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1977), pp. 397–402.

S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, A. J. Mendelsohn, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, “Quasi-metastable energy levels and applications,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

A. J. Mendelsohn, C. P. J. Barty, M. H. Sher, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of quasi-metastable levels of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Holmgren, D. E.

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, D. A. King, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of Na i quartets,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 677 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Holmgren, R. W. Falcone, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of lithium and sodium metastable quartet in a hollow-cathode discharge,” Opt. Lett. 9, 85 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, A. J. Mendelsohn, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, “Quasi-metastable energy levels and applications,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Emission at 1091 Å in neutral core-excited Cs,” in Laser Techniques in the Extreme Ultraviolet, S. E. Harris, T. B. Lucatorto, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1984), pp. 496–501.

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

Hyman, S. A.

S. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft-x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976); H. A. Hyman, S. A. Mani, “Effect of autoionizing states on the proposed lithium soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 20, 209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jáuregui, R.

R. Jáuregui, C. F. Bunge, “Emission spectrum of core-excited Li doublets,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1618 (1981).
[CrossRef]

King, D. A.

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, D. A. King, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of Na i quartets,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 677 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. King, R. G. Caro, “A fast, high-current pulsed discharge device for the inner-shell excitation of atoms and ions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kishimoto, T.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, “Absolutely measured x-ray spectra from laser plasmas with target, of different elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 377 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. K. Spong, J. D. Kmetec, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of core-excited levels of neutral rubidium,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Lukasik, J.

L. J. Zych, J. Lukasik, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Inelastic collisions by intense laser radiation,” in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1977), pp. 397–402.

Lundberg, H.

Macklin, J. J.

Mansfield, M. W.

M. W. Mansfield, “The K i absorption spectrum in the vacuum ultraviolet: 2p subshell excitation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 346, 539 (1973).

McGuire, E. J.

E. J. McGuire, “Soft-x-ray amplified spontaneous emission via the Auger effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 844 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mendelsohn, A. J.

A. J. Mendelsohn, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet selective autoionization laser in Zn iii,” Opt. Lett. 10, 128 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, A. J. Mendelsohn, R. D. Cowan, “Quasi-metastable quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions,” Opt. Lett. 9, 168 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, A. J. Mendelsohn, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, “Quasi-metastable energy levels and applications,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mendelsohn, C. P. J. Barty, M. H. Sher, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of quasi-metastable levels of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Mendelsohn, J. J.

Novick, R.

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. 160, 143 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ottley, T. W.

V. Pejcev, D. Rassi, K. J. Ross, T. W. Ottley, “High-resolution ejected electron spectrum of rubidium vapor autoionizing levels excited by electron with kinetic energies in the range 27 to 400 eV,” J. Phys. B 10, 1653 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, K. D.

Pedrotti, K. J.

K. J. Pedrotti, “Atomic spectroscopy for soft x-ray lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1985).

Pejcev, V.

V. Pejcev, D. Rassi, K. J. Ross, T. W. Ottley, “High-resolution ejected electron spectrum of rubidium vapor autoionizing levels excited by electron with kinetic energies in the range 27 to 400 eV,” J. Phys. B 10, 1653 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pekeris, C. L.

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to z= 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rassi, D.

V. Pejcev, D. Rassi, K. J. Ross, T. W. Ottley, “High-resolution ejected electron spectrum of rubidium vapor autoionizing levels excited by electron with kinetic energies in the range 27 to 400 eV,” J. Phys. B 10, 1653 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ross, K. J.

V. Pejcev, D. Rassi, K. J. Ross, T. W. Ottley, “High-resolution ejected electron spectrum of rubidium vapor autoionizing levels excited by electron with kinetic energies in the range 27 to 400 eV,” J. Phys. B 10, 1653 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high-resolution XUV radiation source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1795 (1983); erratum, QE-20, 986 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 363 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Rothenberg, S. E. Harris, “XUV lasers by quartet to doublet energy transfer in alkali atoms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 418 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

Safronova, U. I.

L. A. Vainshtein, U. I. Safronova, “Energy levels of He- and Li-like ions (states 1snl, 1s3nl with n= 2–5),” Phys. Scr. 31, 519 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, B.

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to z= 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sher, M. H.

A. J. Mendelsohn, C. P. J. Barty, M. H. Sher, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of quasi-metastable levels of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

Silfvast, W. T.

Somerville, L. P.

L. Engström, L. P. Somerville, H. G. Berry, “Lifetime measurements of core-excited quartet levels in Na i,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Spong, J. K.

J. K. Spong, J. D. Kmetec, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of core-excited levels of neutral rubidium,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Vainshtein, L. A.

L. A. Vainshtein, U. I. Safronova, “Energy levels of He- and Li-like ions (states 1snl, 1s3nl with n= 2–5),” Phys. Scr. 31, 519 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. J.

D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet Auger laser at 63.8 nm in Cs iii,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1515 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, D. A. King, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of Na i quartets,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 677 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Holmgren, R. W. Falcone, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of lithium and sodium metastable quartet in a hollow-cathode discharge,” Opt. Lett. 9, 85 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, A. J. Mendelsohn, R. D. Cowan, “Quasi-metastable quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions,” Opt. Lett. 9, 168 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Emission at 1091 Å in neutral core-excited Cs,” in Laser Techniques in the Extreme Ultraviolet, S. E. Harris, T. B. Lucatorto, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1984), pp. 496–501.

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

Wang, J. C.

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “The use of laser-produced soft x-rays for the production of excited metastable ions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(1s 2s 2p) 4P∘ deexcitation measurements in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

Willison, J. R.

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of metastable extreme-ultraviolet levels in lithium atoms and ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1827 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Falcone, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of the He 1s 2s1S0isotopic shift using a tunable VUV anti-Stokes light source,” Opt. Lett. 3, 162 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

Wisoff, P. J. K.

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

Wood, O. R.

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. J. Macklin, S. E. Harris, “Grazing incidence ellipsoidal reflector for longitudinally pumping short wavelength lasers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Identification and oscillator strength measurement of the 109.1-nm transition in neutral Cs,” Opt. Lett. 11, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Pedrotti, J. J. Mendelsohn, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Extreme-ultraviolet emission spectra of core-excited levels in sodium and magnesium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1942 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “The use of laser-produced soft x-rays for the production of excited metastable ions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high-resolution XUV radiation source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1795 (1983); erratum, QE-20, 986 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 363 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of metastable extreme-ultraviolet levels in lithium atoms and ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1827 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Falcone, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of the He 1s 2s1S0isotopic shift using a tunable VUV anti-Stokes light source,” Opt. Lett. 3, 162 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Mendelsohn, C. P. J. Barty, M. H. Sher, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of quasi-metastable levels of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, A. J. Mendelsohn, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, “Quasi-metastable energy levels and applications,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

L. J. Zych, J. Lukasik, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Inelastic collisions by intense laser radiation,” in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1977), pp. 397–402.

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

J. K. Spong, J. D. Kmetec, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of core-excited levels of neutral rubidium,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Zych, L. J.

L. J. Zych, J. Lukasik, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Inelastic collisions by intense laser radiation,” in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1977), pp. 397–402.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering as a high-resolution and picosecond-time-scale VUV light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 498 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of metastable levels of Li+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 9 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, “Absolutely measured x-ray spectra from laser plasmas with target, of different elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 377 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. E. Rothenberg, S. E. Harris, “XUV lasers by quartet to doublet energy transfer in alkali atoms,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 418 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high-resolution XUV radiation source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1795 (1983); erratum, QE-20, 986 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft-x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976); H. A. Hyman, S. A. Mani, “Effect of autoionizing states on the proposed lithium soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 20, 209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

V. Pejcev, D. Rassi, K. J. Ross, T. W. Ottley, “High-resolution ejected electron spectrum of rubidium vapor autoionizing levels excited by electron with kinetic energies in the range 27 to 400 eV,” J. Phys. B 10, 1653 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (11)

R. W. Falcone, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of the He 1s 2s1S0isotopic shift using a tunable VUV anti-Stokes light source,” Opt. Lett. 3, 162 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, “Proposal for a 207-Å laser in lithium,” Opt. Lett. 5, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 363 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Falcone, K. D. Pedrotti, “Pulsed hollow-cathode discharge for extreme-ultraviolet lasers and radiation sources,” Opt. Lett. 7, 74 (1982); R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, “Hollow-cathode discharge for XUV lasers and radiation sources,” AIP Conf. Proc. 90, 287 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Silfvast, J. J. Macklin, O. R. Wood, “High-gain inner-shell photoionization laser in Cd vapor pumped by soft-x-ray radiation from a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 8, 551 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Holmgren, R. W. Falcone, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Measurement of lithium and sodium metastable quartet in a hollow-cathode discharge,” Opt. Lett. 9, 85 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, D. J. Walker, R. G. Caro, A. J. Mendelsohn, R. D. Cowan, “Quasi-metastable quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions,” Opt. Lett. 9, 168 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Silfvast, O. R. Wood, H. Lundberg, J. J. Macklin, “Stimulated emission in the ultraviolet by optical pumping from photoionization-produced inner-shell states in Cd+,” Opt. Lett. 10, 122 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Mendelsohn, S. E. Harris, “Proposal for an extreme-ultraviolet selective autoionization laser in Zn iii,” Opt. Lett. 10, 128 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Identification and oscillator strength measurement of the 109.1-nm transition in neutral Cs,” Opt. Lett. 11, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Young, J. J. Macklin, S. E. Harris, “Grazing incidence ellipsoidal reflector for longitudinally pumping short wavelength lasers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 90 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (7)

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, D. A. King, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of Na i quartets,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 677 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2060 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bunge, “Accurate calculations for the even-parity core-excited 2P states of neutral Li,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 936 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Jáuregui, C. F. Bunge, “Emission spectrum of core-excited Li doublets,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 1618 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Engström, L. P. Somerville, H. G. Berry, “Lifetime measurements of core-excited quartet levels in Na i,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “The use of laser-produced soft x-rays for the production of excited metastable ions,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1407 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to z= 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

E. J. McGuire, “Soft-x-ray amplified spontaneous emission via the Auger effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 844 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wang, R. G. Caro, S. E. Harris, “Novel short-pulse photoionization electron source: Li(1s 2s 2p) 4P∘ deexcitation measurements in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 767 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. 160, 143 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. C. Wang, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of core-excited even-parity 2P states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1125 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Willison, R. W. Falcone, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of metastable extreme-ultraviolet levels in lithium atoms and ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1827 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

L. A. Vainshtein, U. I. Safronova, “Energy levels of He- and Li-like ions (states 1snl, 1s3nl with n= 2–5),” Phys. Scr. 31, 519 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

M. W. Mansfield, “The K i absorption spectrum in the vacuum ultraviolet: 2p subshell excitation,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 346, 539 (1973).

Other (12)

K. J. Pedrotti, “Atomic spectroscopy for soft x-ray lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1985).

S. E. Harris, R. G. Caro, R. W. Falcone, D. E. Holmgren, J. E. Rothenberg, D. J. Walker, J. C. Wang, J. R. Willison, J. F. Young, “Metastability in the XUV: lasers and spectroscopy,” in Atomic Physics 9, R. S. Van Dyck, E. N. Fortson, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985), pp. 462–479.

D. E. Holmgren, D. J. Walker, S. E. Harris, “Emission at 1091 Å in neutral core-excited Cs,” in Laser Techniques in the Extreme Ultraviolet, S. E. Harris, T. B. Lucatorto, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1984), pp. 496–501.

A. J. Mendelsohn, C. P. J. Barty, M. H. Sher, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Emission spectra of quasi-metastable levels of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

D. A. King, R. G. Caro, “A fast, high-current pulsed discharge device for the inner-shell excitation of atoms and ions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

J. K. Spong, J. D. Kmetec, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Laser spectroscopy of core-excited levels of neutral rubidium,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. J. Zych, J. Lukasik, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Inelastic collisions by intense laser radiation,” in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1977), pp. 397–402.

S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, A. J. Mendelsohn, D. E. Holmgren, K. D. Pedrotti, D. P. Dimiduk, “Quasi-metastable energy levels and applications,” in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch, Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1981), Secs. 8-1, 16-1, and 18-7.

D. P. Dimiduk, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (personal communication).

R. G. Caro, P. J. K. Wisoff, D. J. Walker, M. H. Sher, C. P. J. Barty, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Soft x-ray pumping of inner-shell excited levels for extreme ultraviolet lasers,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, to be published).

M. A. Duguay, “Soft x-ray lasers pumped by photoionization,” (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1975).

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Figures (25)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram for producing metastable Li+(1s2s) 1S and Li+(1s2s) 3S ions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy-level diagram of neutral Li.6

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy-level diagram for a possible 207-Å laser in neutral Li.7

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy-level diagram for quasi-metastable emission in neutral Cs.10

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission scan of Cs from pulsed hollow-cathode discharge.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of pulsed hollow-cathode discharge.15

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Metastable production by soft x rays.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photoionization cross sections of Li (solid curve); emission spectrum of a 30-eV blackbody (dashed curve).22

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Spectral profile of the dye-laser probe pulse in the vicinity of 548.5 nm. (b) Absorption trace of the Li+(1s2s) 3S–Li+(1s2p) 3P transition at 548 nm.23

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

N*L [Li+(1s2s) 3S] as a function of distance from the target at a time 1.9 nsec after the peak of the 1064-nm pulse. Li density, 1017 cm−3; energy incident upon each of three targets, 2.3 J.23

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

N*L [Li+(1s2s) 3S] as a function of time with respect to the peak of the 1064-nm laser pulse. Distance from targets, 7 mm; Li density, 1017 cm−3; energy incident upon each of three targets, 2.3 J.23

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Energy-level diagram showing photoionization of the absorber atom and the subsequent electron excitation of the target atom. The laser-probe transition is also indicated.24

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Photoionization cross section of Ne and the x-ray spectrum 1 mm from the target. (b) Predicted ejected electron distribution for a Ne density of 3 × 1017 cm−3.24

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

N*L for Li(1s2s2p) 4P∘ versus the time delay between the peaks of the probe and 1064-nm pulses. The solid line is a fit to the data yielding τdecay = 2.5 nsec.24

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Anti-Stokes scattering in C v.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Correlation of picosecond XUV pulses.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Schematic of apparatus used for absorption spectroscopy of K.28

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Absorption scans of K. Vapor pressure is 1015 cm−3, and cell length is 5 cm.28

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Na i core-excited Grotrian diagram.17

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Laser depletion spectroscopy in Rb.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Population of 3d84s2 1G4 level by super-Coster–Kronig decay.41

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Energy-level diagrams for three possible systems in Zn iii.41

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Energy-level diagram for a 379-Å laser in Na.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Schematic of longitudinal pumping using a prolate ellipsoidal reflector.43

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Fraction F of source energy delivered to the focal plane versus ellipsoid shape; b/c is the ratio of the semiminor to the half-focal separation.43

Tables (13)

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Table 1 Transitions from Core-Excited 2P States in Neutral Li

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Table 2 Quasi-Metastable and Metastable Quartet Levels of Alkalilike Configurations

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Table 3 Radiative and Autoionizing Rates for the Lowest Quasi-Metastable Levels of the Alkali Metals

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Table 4 Quasi-Metastable Lines Observed with Microwave Excitationa

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Table 5 Metastable Production by Charge Transfer

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Table 6 Anti-Stokes Scattering at Soft-X-Ray Wavelengthsa

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Table 7 Potassium Absorption Features

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Table 8 Linewidths and Positions of Potassium Absorption Features Observed with the Microwave Apparatus

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Table 9 Relative Term Energies, Designations, and Coulombic Autoionizing Rates of Na i Core-Excited Quartet Levels

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Table 10 Na i Quartet Transition Wavelengths, Transitions, Probabilities, Branching Ratios (B · R), and Observed Line Intensities

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Table 11 Depletion Spectroscopy of Neutral Rb

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Table 12 Possible Laser Systems

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Table 13 Possible XUV Lasers in Na i

Equations (3)

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Cs ( 5 p 6 6 s ) S 2 1 / 2 + Cs + ( 5 p 5 6 s ) ³ / [ ³ / ] J = 2 Cs + ( 5 p 6 ) S 1 0 + Cs ( 5 p 5 5 d 6 s ) P 4 5 / 2 + 1149 cm - 1 .
σ ( ω ) = π 2 c 2 ω 2 A ( ω ) .
B ( ω ) = ω 3 8 π 3 c 2 [ exp ( ω 21 / k T ) - 1 ] - 1 × { 1 - exp [ - σ ( ω ) ( N 1 - N 2 ) L ] } , σ ( ω ) = π ω 6 c 2 0 2 3 [ i ( μ 2 i μ i 1 ω i - ω + μ 2 i μ i 1 ω i + ω vis ) ] 2 P p A g ( ω )

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