Abstract

Resonant third-order sum- and difference-frequency conversion (ωuv = 2ωR ± ωT) of pulsed-dye-laser radiation is investigated in the rare gas, Kr. The frequency ωRR = 216.6 nm) is resonant with the Kr two-photon transition 4p–5p[5/2, 2]. On tuning ωT in the range λT = 219–364 nm, the sum frequency generates light in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) (λxuv = 72.5–83.5 nm). In agreement with theoretical predictions, the conversion efficiency η is almost constant within this spectral range. At input powers PR = 14 kW and PT = 400 kW, the pulse power of the XUV exceeded Pxuv = 20 W. However, absorptions in the Kr gas reduced the power of the detected XUV light to about 5 W (effective efficiency, η = 1.2 × 10−5). With laser light at λT = 272–737 nm, the difference frequency generates continuously tunable radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) (λvuv = 127–180 nm). In this range, the conversion efficiency increases with wavelength by more than 1 order of magnitude. At λvuv = 135 nm, for example, input powers PR = 0.2 MW and PT = 1.2 MW generate VUV light with Pvuv = 250 W (n = 1.8 × 10−4). At λvuv = 175 nm, a lower input (PR = 80 kW, PT = 560 kW) produced VUV light pulses of Pvuv = 1.8 kW (η = 2.8 × 10−3). This spectral variation of η is in agreement with the calculated wavelength dependence of the nonlinear susceptibility and of the gas pressure required for optimum VUV output.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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1986 (2)

1985 (2)

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, Sci. Sinica Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

A. Lago, G. Hilber, R. Hilbig, and R. Wallenstein, Laser Optoelektron. 17, 357 (1985).

1984 (5)

Y. Prior, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 37 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Timmermann, and R. Wallenstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 119, 1 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig, A. Lago, and R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 49, 297 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. D. Bonin and T. J. McIlrath, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 527 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. D. Bonin and T. J. McIlrath, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1666 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (8)

A. H. Kung, Opt. Lett. 8, 24 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Marinero, C. T. Rettner, R. N. Zare, and A. H. Kung, Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 486 (1983); J. Phys. Chem. 88, 4459 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Bokor, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. R. Freeman, Opt. Lett. 8, 217 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1759 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 44, 283 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. Scheingraber and C. R. Vidal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1747 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. G. Fujimoto and T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 861 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (3)

1981 (4)

1980 (8)

H. Puell, H. Scheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1165 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Kildal and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 566 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. Duzy and H. A. Hyman, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1878 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Langer, H. Puell, and H. Röhr, Opt. Commun. 34, 137 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 33, 119 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Junginger, H. B. Puell, H. Scheingraber, and J. R. Vidal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1132 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Heinrich and W. Behmenburg, Appl. Phys. 23, 333 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Wallenstein and H. Zacharias, Opt. Commun. 32, 429 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (3)

T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, and J. R. Roberts, Appl. Opt. 18, 2505 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cotter, Opt. Commun. 31, 397 (1979).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 444 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (5)

M. Aymar and M. Coulombe, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 538 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. A. Paisner, M. L. Spaeth, D. C. Gerstenberger, and I. W. Rudermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 476 (1978).
[Crossref]

N. Bloembergen, H. Loten, and R. T. Lynch, Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978).

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, and D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. Scheingraber, H. Puell, and C. R. Vidal, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2585 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. Geiger, Z. Phys. A 282, 129 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

G. V. Marr and J. B. West, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 497 (1976).
[Crossref]

S. C. Wallace and G. Zdaziuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 449 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (4)

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 343 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. M. Leung, J. F. Ward, and B. J. Orr, Phys. Rev. A 9, 2440 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. P. Leonard, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 22 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 470 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 985 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

S. E. Harris and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 385 (1971).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

G. H. C. New and J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556 (1967); J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, Phys. Rev. 185, 57 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

1942 (1)

G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 61, 537 (1942).

1935 (1)

J. C. Boyce, Phys. Rev. 47, 718 (1935).
[Crossref]

Abjean, R.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[Crossref]

Andrew, K. L.

Aymar, M.

M. Aymar and M. Coulombe, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 538 (1978).
[Crossref]

M. Aymar, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Orsay, France) (personal communication).

Behmenburg, W.

J. Heinrich and W. Behmenburg, Appl. Phys. 23, 333 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bethune, D. S.

D. S. Bethune, C. T. Rettner, and A. H. Kung, in Digest of the XIII International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), postdeadline paper WII 26-1.

Bideau-Mehu, A.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287 (1975).
[Crossref]

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 985 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, H. Loten, and R. T. Lynch, Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978).

Bloom, D. M.

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

Boker, J.

Bokor, J.

Bonin, K. D.

K. D. Bonin and T. J. McIlrath, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 527 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. D. Bonin and T. J. McIlrath, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1666 (1984).
[Crossref]

Boyce, J. C.

J. C. Boyce, Phys. Rev. 47, 718 (1935).
[Crossref]

Brueck, S. R. J.

H. Kildal and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 566 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Byer, R. L.

C. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 322.

Chang, T. N.

T. N. Chang and Y. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2728 (1982).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, Sci. Sinica Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

C. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 322.

Cotter, D.

D. Cotter, Opt. Commun. 31, 397 (1979).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979); M. A. Yuratich and D. C. Hanna, J. Phys. B 9, 729 (1976).
[Crossref]

Coulombe, M.

M. Aymar and M. Coulombe, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 538 (1978).
[Crossref]

Cowan, R. D.

Duzy, C.

C. Duzy and H. A. Hyman, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1878 (1980).
[Crossref]

Eckardt, R. C.

C. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 322.

Fan, Y. X.

C. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 322.

Freeman, R. R.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto and T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 861 (1983).
[Crossref]

Geiger, J.

J. Geiger, Z. Phys. A 282, 129 (1977).
[Crossref]

Gerstenberger, D. C.

J. A. Paisner, M. L. Spaeth, D. C. Gerstenberger, and I. W. Rudermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 476 (1978).
[Crossref]

Guern, Y.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979); M. A. Yuratich and D. C. Hanna, J. Phys. B 9, 729 (1976).
[Crossref]

Harris, S. E.

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 470 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 985 (1972).
[Crossref]

S. E. Harris and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 385 (1971).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, J.

J. Heinrich and W. Behmenburg, Appl. Phys. 23, 333 (1980).
[Crossref]

Herman, P. R.

B. P. Stoicheff, P. R. Herman, P. E. LaRocque, and R. H. Lipson, in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds., Vol. 49 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 174–178; Opt. Lett. 10, 502 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hilber, G.

A. Lago, G. Hilber, R. Hilbig, and R. Wallenstein, Laser Optoelektron. 17, 357 (1985).

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Timmermann, and R. Wallenstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 119, 1 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. Hilber, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986).

A. Lago, G. Hilber, and R. Wallenstein, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Hilbig, R.

A. Lago, G. Hilber, R. Hilbig, and R. Wallenstein, Laser Optoelektron. 17, 357 (1985).

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Timmermann, and R. Wallenstein, AIP Conf. Proc. 119, 1 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig, A. Lago, and R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 49, 297 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 44, 283 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1759 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, Appl. Opt. 21, 913 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984) (to be published in Appl. Phys.)

Hodgson, R. T.

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 343 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hyman, H. A.

C. Duzy and H. A. Hyman, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1878 (1980).
[Crossref]

Jamroz, W.

W. Jamroz, P. E. La Rocque, and B. P. Stoicheff, Opt. Lett. 7, 617 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Jamroz and B. P. Stoicheff, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 20, pp. 326–380.
[Crossref]

Jiang, A.

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, Sci. Sinica Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Johannin-Gilles, A.

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[Crossref]

Junginger, H.

H. Junginger, H. B. Puell, H. Scheingraber, and J. R. Vidal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1132 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kildal, H.

H. Kildal and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 566 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

T. N. Chang and Y. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2728 (1982).
[Crossref]

Koopman, D. W.

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B. P. Stoicheff, P. R. Herman, P. E. LaRocque, and R. H. Lipson, in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds., Vol. 49 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 174–178; Opt. Lett. 10, 502 (1985).
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D. S. Bethune, C. T. Rettner, and A. H. Kung, in Digest of the XIII International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), postdeadline paper WII 26-1.

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H. Langer, H. Puell, and H. Röhr, Opt. Commun. 34, 137 (1980).
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R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 343 (1974).
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J. A. Paisner, M. L. Spaeth, D. C. Gerstenberger, and I. W. Rudermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 476 (1978).
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C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, Sci. Sinica Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

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D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979); M. A. Yuratich and D. C. Hanna, J. Phys. B 9, 729 (1976).
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E. E. Marinero, C. T. Rettner, R. N. Zare, and A. H. Kung, Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 486 (1983); J. Phys. Chem. 88, 4459 (1984).
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S. C. Wallace and G. Zdaziuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 449 (1976).
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AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
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S. C. Wallace and G. Zdaziuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 449 (1976).
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S. E. Harris and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 385 (1971).
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R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, and D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
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J. A. Paisner, M. L. Spaeth, D. C. Gerstenberger, and I. W. Rudermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 476 (1978).
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At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (3)

G. V. Marr and J. B. West, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 497 (1976).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (12)

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 444 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. Scheingraber and C. R. Vidal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1747 (1983).
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J. G. Fujimoto and T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 861 (1983).
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Y. Prior, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 37 (1984).
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K. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013 (1986).
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G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287 (1975).
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R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 470 (1973).
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R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[Crossref]

H. Junginger, H. B. Puell, H. Scheingraber, and J. R. Vidal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1132 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1759 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 194 (1983).
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Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Bloembergen, H. Loten, and R. T. Lynch, Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

A. Bideau-Mehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
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Laser Optoelektron. (1)

A. Lago, G. Hilber, R. Hilbig, and R. Wallenstein, Laser Optoelektron. 17, 357 (1985).

Opt. Commun. (6)

R. Wallenstein and H. Zacharias, Opt. Commun. 32, 429 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 44, 283 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Hilbig, A. Lago, and R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 49, 297 (1984).
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H. Langer, H. Puell, and H. Röhr, Opt. Commun. 34, 137 (1980).
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D. Cotter, Opt. Commun. 31, 397 (1979).
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R. Wallenstein, Opt. Commun. 33, 119 (1980).
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Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. (2)

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G. Racah, Phys. Rev. 61, 537 (1942).

Phys. Rev. A (5)

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T. N. Chang and Y. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. A 26, 2728 (1982).
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H. Puell, H. Scheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1165 (1980).
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K. M. Leung, J. F. Ward, and B. J. Orr, Phys. Rev. A 9, 2440 (1974).
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H. Scheingraber, H. Puell, and C. R. Vidal, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2585 (1978).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 343 (1974).
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G. H. C. New and J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 556 (1967); J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, Phys. Rev. 185, 57 (1969).
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A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, G. C. Bjorklund, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 985 (1972).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. D. Bonin and T. J. McIlrath, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1666 (1984).
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Sci. Sinica Ser. B (1)

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, Sci. Sinica Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Z. Phys. A (1)

J. Geiger, Z. Phys. A 282, 129 (1977).
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Other (12)

D. S. Bethune, C. T. Rettner, and A. H. Kung, in Digest of the XIII International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), postdeadline paper WII 26-1.

M. Aymar, Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Orsay, France) (personal communication).

A. Lago, G. Hilber, and R. Wallenstein, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

G. Hilber, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986).

C. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 322.

C. E. Moore, in Atomic Energy Levels (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1971), Vol. II.

B. P. Stoicheff, P. R. Herman, P. E. LaRocque, and R. H. Lipson, in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds., Vol. 49 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 174–178; Opt. Lett. 10, 502 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Lago, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987.)

W. Jamroz and B. P. Stoicheff, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 20, pp. 326–380.
[Crossref]

C. R. Vidal, in Tunable Lasers, I. F. Mollenauer and J. C. White, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).

R. Hilbig, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984) (to be published in Appl. Phys.)

D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, and D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979); M. A. Yuratich and D. C. Hanna, J. Phys. B 9, 729 (1976).
[Crossref]

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Figures (24)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tuning ranges of the resonant difference-frequency mixing ωvuv = 2ωRωT. A, ωT = ωL (the fundamental frequency of the dye laser, λL = 416–737 nm); B, ωT = ωL + ωIR (ωIR is the fundamental of the Nd:YAG laser, λL = 544–720 nm); C, ωT = 2ωL (with λL = 544–720 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of the power of the VUV light generated at the frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωL for the following laser dyes: a, Fluorescine 27 (basic solution); b, Rhodamine 6G; c, Rhodamine 610 (basic solution); d, Rhodamine 620; e, Rhodamine 640 (basic solution); f, Sulforhodamine; g, DCM; and h, Pyridin 1. (The VUV power is plotted in arbitrary units.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength dependence of the power of the VUV light generated at the frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωL for the following laser dyes: a, Stilbene 420; b, Coumarin 440; c, Coumarin 460; d, Coumarin 480; e, Coumarin 500. (As in Fig. 2, the output power is plotted in arbitrary units.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dependence of the power of the VUV radiation produced by the difference frequency ωvuv = ωRωT, with ωT = ωL + ωIR; the frequency ωL was generated with the same dyes as listed in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength dependence of the power of the VUV light produced by the difference frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωT with ωT = 2ωL; the frequency ωL was generated with the same dyes as listed in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Generated VUV power as function of the laser power PT measured for the difference frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωT at λvuv = 134.3 nm. The Kr pressure in the gas cell is 43 Torr. A, PR = 60 kW; B, PR = 110 kW.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength dependence of the parameter C calculated for difference-frequency mixing ωvuv = 2ωRωT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated spectral dependence of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of the conversion ωvuv = 2ωRωT.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated wavelength dependence of the optimum value Gm(3) of the function G(3) for the difference frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωT.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated change of the maximum VUV output (plotted in arbitrary units) as function of the wavelength of the VUV power generated by the difference frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωT.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral variation of the optimum gas pressure in the conversion cell required for maximum VUV power of the difference frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωT (confocal parameter b = 0.3 cm).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated dependence of the VUV output power on the laser power PT for two different values of the parameter A. The powers Pvuv and PT are plotted in arbitrary units. For further details see text.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectral dependence of the power of the difference frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωT in the wavelength range λvuv = 129–132 nm (for further details see text).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Simultaneous recording of A, the generated difference frequency ωvuv = 2ωRωT and B, the amount of ions produced in the focus of the laser light. The Kr pressure in the gas cell is 20 Torr.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Wavelength dependence of the sum frequency ωxuv = 2ωR + ωT generated in A, a free-expanding gas jet and B, a gas cell. The output power Pxuv is plotted in arbitrary units. The density at the axis of the gas jet (at a distance of 1.5 mm from the nozzle) was N0 = 2.5 × 1017 cm−3. The pressure in the gas cell (with a pinhole as XUV-transmitting window) was pKr = 10 Torr (N0 = 3.2 × 1017 cm−3).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

The parameter C calculated for the sum frequency ωvuv = 2ωR + ωT in the spectral region of the Kr continuum.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

The parameter C calculated for the sum frequency ωxuv = 2ωR + ωT in the wavelength range λxuv = 92–93 nm.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

The calculated XUV output power of the sum frequency ωxuv = 2ωR + ωT generated in A, a gas jet and B, a cell is plotted in arbitrary units. The parameters used in these calculations are A, b = 0.3 cm, L = 0.15 cm, N0 = 2.5 × 1017 cm3 and B, b = 0.3 cm, L = 3 cm, z0/L = 0.9, p = 10 Torr (N0 = 3.2 × 1017 cm−3).

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Wavelength dependence of the XUV power generated by the sum frequency ωxuv = 2ωR + ωT with ωT = 2ωL + ωIR. The XUV power is plotted in arbitrary units. The frequency ωL is tuned in the spectral regions of the following dyes: a, Rhodamine 6G; b, Rhodamine 610 (basic solution); c, basic mixture of Rhodamine 620 and Rhodamine 640 (ratio 7:3); d, Sulforhodamine; e, DCM; and f, Pyridin 1. (For further details see text.)

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Spectral variation of the power generated by the sum frequency ωxuv = 2ωR + ωT with ωT = 2ωL. The XUV power is plotted in arbitrary units. The frequency WL is tuned in the spectral regions of the following dyes: a, Fluorescine 27 (basic solution); b, Rhodamine 6G; c, Rhodamine 610 (basic solution); d, Rhodamine 620; e, Rhodamine 640 (basic solution); f, Sulforhodamine; g, DCM; and h, Pyridin 1. (For further details see text.)

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Calculated wavelength dependence of the XUV power generated by the sum frequency ωxuv = 2ωR + ωT. The parameters used in the calculation are b = 0.3 cm, L = 0.15 cm, and N0 = 2.7 × 1017 cm−3.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Output power Pxuv of the sum frequency ωxuv = 2ωR + ωT measured at λxuv = 80.9 nm as a function of the power PT. The gas density on the jet axis was N0 = 2.7 × 1017 cm−3, b = 0.3 cm, and PR = 14 kW.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

The same measurement as in Fig. 22 but as a function of the power PR (PT = 28 kW).

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Relative intensities of the third harmonic ωxuv = 3ωR generated with UV laser radiation at ωR tuned in the vicinity of the two-photon resonances 4p–5p[1/2, 0], 4p–5p[3/2, 0], and 4p–5p[5/2, 2] (for further details see text).

Equations (1)

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χ ( 3 ) ω I σ A σ B ( ω - ω xuv - i γ ) - 1 [ ( ω - ω R ) ω ] - 1 / 2 d ω .

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