Abstract

We have developed a rigorous scattering matrix theory of light emission from periodically structured media using a Green’s function approach. We computationally simulate the spectral power inside the structure, incorporating Purcell factor enhancements, and find internal waveguiding modes and plasmonic losses. We simulate the light-outcoupling factor ${\eta _{\text{out}}}$ and describe how corrugations and structured media can enhance ${\eta _{\text{out}}}$. We have extended our framework to describe non-periodic disordered arrays as well as aperiodic quasi-crystalline arrays. Flat organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have low outcoupling with ${\eta _{\text{out}}} \sim{20}\%$ since most of the light is trapped in waveguided modes in higher index layers or lost to plasmonic excitations at the metal cathode. Periodically corrugated OLEDs can achieve highly enhanced ${\eta _{\text{out}}} \sim {65}\% {-} {70}\%$ for pitch values between 1000 and 2000 nm, representing an enhancement factor $ \gt {3}$ over planar structures. Periodic corrugations strongly diffract trapped waveguided and plasmonic modes to the emissive air cone. Disordered templates also can cause significant enhanced outcoupling with ${\eta _{\text{out}}} \sim {50}\% {-} {55}\%$ for smaller nearest-neighbor separations of 300–400 nm. Quasi-crystalline tilings can also lead to enhancements of ${\eta _{\text{out}}} \sim {50}\% {-} {55}\%$. This framework can be utilized to design novel structured media that can generate high light extraction.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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