Abstract

We investigate the second-order optical response of graphene irradiated by two-color lights with frequencies $\omega$ and $3\omega$, focusing on the modulation by ellipticity and phase of the incident fields. Based on the analytical perturbation theory, it is found that the interplay between the second harmonic generation (SHG) ($\omega + \omega$) and difference frequency generation (DFG) ($3\omega - \omega$) processes leads to nontrivial nonlinear optical properties. The interference between the two processes (SHG and DFG) results in different dependencies of the second-order response intensity $I(2\omega)$ on ellipticity, including monotonic, nonmonotonic change of $I(2\omega)$ with ellipticity, or even nearly independent of ellipticity under suitable conditions. The optimal incident angles for the highest $I(2\omega)$ are found, which can be tuned by changing the ellipticity, relative phase, or field strength of the incident light. In particular, a large output enhancement with respect to a small increment of the incident field can be achieved. We have found effective methods of modulating nonlinear optical processes, which may have applications in optical devices based on two-dimensional materials.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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