Abstract

A promising alternative to Gaussian beams for use in strong field science is Bessel–Gauss (BG or Bessel-like) laser beams, as they are easily produced with readily available optics and provide more flexibility of the spot size and working distances. Here we use BG beams produced with a lens-axicon optical system for higher-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a thin gas jet. The finite size of the interaction region allows for scans of the HHG yield along the propagation axis. Further, by measuring the ionization yield in unison with the extreme ultraviolet (XUV), we are able to distinguish regions of maximum ionization from regions of optimum XUV generation. This distinction is of great importance for BG fields, as the generation of BG beams with axicons often leads to oscillations of the on-axis intensity, which can be exploited for extended phase-matching conditions. We observed such oscillations in the ionization and XUV flux along the propagation axis for the first time. As is the case for Gaussian modes, the harmonic yield is not maximum at the point of highest ionization. Finally, despite Bessel beams having a hole in the center in the far field, the XUV beam is well collimated, making BG modes a great alternative when spatial filtering of the fundamental is desired.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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2020 (1)

2019 (2)

R. Geneaux, H. J. Marroux, A. Guggenmos, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Transient absorption spectroscopy using high harmonic generation: a review of ultrafast x-ray dynamics in molecules and solids,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 377, 20170463 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Troß and C. A. Trallero-Herrero, “High harmonic generation spectroscopy via orbital angular momentum,” J. Chem. Phys. 151, 84308 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

P. M. Kraus, M. Zürch, S. K. Cushing, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “The ultrafast x-ray spectroscopic revolution in chemical dynamics,” Nat. Rev. Chem. 2, 82–94 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Young, K. Ueda, M. Gühr, P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Simon, S. Mukamel, N. Rohringer, K. C. Prince, C. Masciovecchio, M. Meyer, A. Rudenko, D. Rolles, C. Bostedt, M. Fuchs, D. Reis, R. Santra, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, H. Ibrahim, F. Légaré, M. Vrakking, M. Isinger, D. Kroon, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, H. Wörner, and S. Leone, “Roadmap of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics,” J. Phys. B 51, 032003 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Klas, A. Kirsche, M. Tschernajew, J. Rothhardt, and J. Limpert, “Annular beam driven high harmonic generation for high flux coherent XUV and soft x-ray radiation,” Opt. Express 26, 19318–19327 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522, 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft x-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, Q. Cheng, and D. Xu, “Generation of intense isolated attosecond pulses with high spatiotemporal quality by two-color polarization-gating Bessel-Gauss beams,” Opt. Commun. 339, 247–253 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, B. Schmidt, J. Bertrand, K. T. Kim, H. Bandulet, D. Comtois, J. Kieffer, D. Rayner, P. Corkum, F. Légaré, and D. Villeneuve, “High harmonic cutoff energy scaling and laser intensity measurement with a 1.8µm laser source,” J. Mod. Opt. 60, 1458–1465 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2010 (3)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent x-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, Z. H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Van Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation with a Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131114 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

H. Bandulet, D. Comtois, A. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, T. Ozaki, P. Corkum, D. Villeneuve, J. Kieffer, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with a spatially filtered optical parametric amplifier,” J. Phys. B 41, 245602 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Intensity distribution around the focal regions of real axicons,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4240–4244 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Brzobohatý, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “High quality quasi-Bessel beam generated by round-tip axicon,” Opt. Express 16, 12688–12700 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Averchi, D. Faccio, R. Berlasso, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase matching with pulsed Bessel beams for high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 021802 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Grunwald, M. Bock, V. Kebbel, S. Huferath, U. Neumann, G. Steinmeyer, G. Stibenz, J.-L. Néron, and M. Piché, “Ultrashort-pulsed truncated polychromatic Bessel-Gauss beams,” Opt. Express 16, 1077–1089 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

P. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Mcgloin and K. Dholakia, “Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light,” Contemp. Phys. 46, 15–28 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, E. Priori, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Tosa, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matching analysis of high-order harmonics generated by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 14 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “The role of beam profile in high-order harmonic generation by few-optical-cycle pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s11–s15 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. De Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated Bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 033902 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, D. D’Antuoni, C. de Lisio, and S. Solimeno, “Harmonic generation in gases by use of Bessel–Gauss laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 34–42 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. Jarutis, R. Paškauskas, and A. Stabinis, “Focusing of Laguerre-Gaussian beams by axicon,” Opt. Commun. 184, 105–112 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Z. Bouchal, J. Wagner, and M. Chlup, “Self-reconstruction of a distorted nondiffracting beam,” Opt. Commun. 151, 207–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. MacDonald, S. Boothroyd, T. Okamoto, J. Chrostowski, and B. Syrett, “Interboard optical data distribution by Bessel beam shadowing,” Opt. Commun. 122, 169–177 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30, 000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier and P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1960 (1)

1954 (1)

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, “Tailored-beam ultrashort laser pulses,” Quantum. Phys. Lett. 1, 97–112 (2012).

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, B. Pasquiou, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Intensity distribution around the focal regions of real axicons,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4240–4244 (2008).
[Crossref]

Altucci, C.

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Data Availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. The output of a 1 kHz Ti:Sapph ($\lambda = 795\; {\rm{nm}}$, $\tau = 30\; {\rm{fs}}$) laser system is incident on a tip block, lens, and axicon producing a BG beam to be focused into an Ar gas jet. The XUV beam produced from the gas jet is inherently isolated from the fundamental light as the on-axis BG beam vanishes in the far field, leaving only the XUV to enter the spectrometer comprising a slit, focusing grating, MCP, and phosphor screen. The phosphor is imaged by an external camera. To attain a profile of the XUV beam, the grating and slit are translated perpendicular to the beam. Also shown is a simulated intensity profile of a femtosecond BG beam.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Typical spectrum from imaging the MCP/phosphor screen. The integration time was 300 ms. Harmonics up to the 27th order were observed, corresponding to 41 eV.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. From top to bottom: traces of ionization and HHG yield as well as two-dimensional maps of HHG yield for scans with the tip block inserted for (a) ${\rm{L}} = {{13}}\;{\rm{mm}}$ and (b) ${\rm{L}} = {12.3}\;{\rm{mm}}$. Corresponding scans were taken without the tip block and are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. At each z position, the HHG output spectrum was recorded to produce the two-dimensional map. This map was then integrated to produce the trace of the full HHG yield over all detected harmonic orders. Vertical red dashed lines indicate the position of maximum HHG yield. For (a) and (b), horizontal red dashed lines indicate the ionization yield at the position of maximum HHG yield. Black circles in (a) and (b) call out other positions at which the ionization level was the same as at the position of maximum XUV flux. Note that each of these positions has vastly different harmonic fluxes.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Ionization curves from Fig. 3 replotted. Red curves represent data for the case of ${\rm{L}} = {{13}}\;{\rm{mm}}$, and black curves represent the case of ${\rm{L}} = {12.3}\;{\rm{mm}}$. Dashed and solid lines represent the presence and absence of the tip block, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulated intensity profiles of a BG beam from a lens-axicon system with parameters 1 mm tip block, ${\rm{L}} = {{12}}\;{\rm{mm}}$, and a 4 mm FWHM spot size incident on the axicon that closely resembles the experimental conditions. (a) shows intensity as a function of the distance from the tip of the axicon (z, increasing from right to left) and the radial distance. Two line profiles derived from the distribution in (a) are also shown. Black is an integration of the intensity in the central spot of the beam profile (i.e., from ${\rm{radius}} = 0\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ to the first radial zero of the intensity), and red is the on-axis lineout (${\rm{radius}} = 0\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$), normalized to its maximum values. Also shown are two transverse beam profiles taken at (b) ${\rm{z}} = {{70}}\;{\rm{mm}}$ and (c) ${\rm{z}} = {{190}}\;{\rm{mm}}$. These positions are marked with dashed black lines in (a). The profile at ${\rm{z}} = {{70}}\;{\rm{mm}}$ corresponds to the peak of the first oscillation in the BG focal region from the axicon tip, where maximum XUV and ionization yield is seen. The profile at ${\rm{z}} = {{190}}\;{\rm{mm}}$ shows the vanishing on-axis intensity of a BG beam.