Abstract

Using the Fresnel–Kirchhoff integral, we express the state of the light that diffracts from an aperture to a point, by superposition of two or more waves. The amplitudes of the waves are determined by the distances of the point from the ray optics borders of the emerging beams. The interference approach to the Fresnel diffraction leads to a universal formulation of the normalized intensity distribution on the diffraction pattern that determines the state of the incident light, the parameters of the aperture, and its distance from the observation plane, uniquely. In the photon approach, according to the uncertainty principle, confining the position of a photon to an aperture changes the probable propagation direction of the photon in an interval that leads to the diffraction of the photon or light. Thus, the normalized intensity distribution on the diffraction pattern is the probability distribution of a photon. To this probability distribution, a probability amplitude distribution is associated that diffracts similar to a wave in Fresnel diffraction. Applying the introduced approach to the study of the diffraction, from different simple apertures and phase steps, we deduce general behaviors of the Fresnel diffraction and show it is involved in all aspects of light phenomena.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
More Like This
Fresnel diffraction at an opaque strip expressed by means of asymptotic representations of Fresnel integrals

Petr Šmíd and Pavel Horváth
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(6) 1071-1077 (2012)

Generalized interferometry

M. Taghi Tavassoly and Hamid Salvdari
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(12) 2094-2103 (2018)

Quasi-Talbot effect of a grating in the deep Fresnel diffraction region

Shuyun Teng, Xiaoyi Chen, Tongjun Zhou, and Chuanfu Cheng
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6) 1656-1665 (2007)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Data Availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (7)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (51)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription