Abstract

Graphene is one the most promising two-dimensional materials for functional electromagnetic components. Harnessing graphene’s high third-order nonlinearity, a standing-wave resonant system is proposed that realizes low-power and high-conversion-efficiency degenerate four-wave mixing in the THz regime. The proposed system is analyzed in depth, using a recently developed nonlinear framework based on the perturbation theory and temporal coupled-mode theory, which allows for efficient design, accurate results, and physical insight into the system performance. Following robust design guidelines derived from the developed framework, a clear design path is highlighted, covering two possible realizations of the coupling scheme using one or two waveguides as physical ports. The two systems are compared on the basis of input power and conversion efficiency performance metrics, accurately extracted taking into account all relevant nonlinear phenomena including the nonlinear resonance frequency shifts due to self- and cross-phase modulation in graphene, owing to the Kerr effect. The reported values of 10% conversion efficiency and sub-mW power requirements are highly promising for practical applications, highlighting the potential of graphene-based structures in the far-infrared.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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