Abstract

A Martinez-type stretcher-compressor is used to modify the spectral phases of a high-power (1W) quantum cascade laser (QCL) comb emitted at 8.2 μm with more than 100cm1 spectral bandwidth. Using this scheme, we demonstrate a compression of the QCL output from a 134 ps continuous-wave waveform, to a train of pulses of width 12 ps, and a power with peak to average ratio of 40.7. An evaluation of the phase noise of the free-running device yields an integrated timing jitter of 335 fs over the frequency range 20 kHz–100 MHz, and a pulse-to-pulse jitter of 2.0 fs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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2019 (1)

J. Hillbrand, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, G. Strasser, and B. Schwarz, “Coherent injection locking of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 101–104 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

S. A. Meek, A. Hipke, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Doppler-free Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. letters 43, 162–165 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Singleton, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Evidence of linear chirp in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 5, 948–953 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

T. Kanai, P. Malevich, S. S. Kangaparambil, K. Ishida, M. Mizui, K. Yamanouchi, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, A. Pugzlys, and A. Baltuska, “Parametric amplification of 100  fs mid-infrared pulses in ZnGeP 2 driven by a Ho: YAG chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 42, 683–686 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Krogen, H. Suchowski, H. Liang, N. Flemens, K.-H. Hong, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Moses, “Generation and multi-octave shaping of mid-infrared intense single-cycle pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 222–226 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, P. Krogen, Z. Wang, H. Park, T. Kroh, K. Zawilski, P. Schunemann, J. Moses, L. F. DiMauro, F. X. Kärtner, and K. H. Hong, “High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier,” Nat. Commun. 8, 141 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Jouy, J. M. Wolf, Y. Bidaux, P. Allmendinger, M. Mangold, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dual comb operation of λ∼8.2  μm quantum cascade laser frequency comb with 1  W optical power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 141102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 3294–3312 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cappelli, G. Campo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, S. Borri, B. Hinkov, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Frequency stability characterization of a quantum cascade laser frequency comb: frequency stability characterization of a quantum cascade laser frequency comb,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 623–630 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Bacon, J. R. Freeman, R. A. Mohandas, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and P. Dean, “Gain recovery time in a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 081104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, and V. Pervak, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100  MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9, 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 43, 1–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Express 23, 1190–1202 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

M. R. St-Jean, M. I. Amanti, A. Bernard, A. Calvar, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, H. C. Liu, and C. Sirtori, “Injection locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at 14 GHz, by direct microwave modulation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 443–449 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table–top soft x-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-μm 1-kHz pulses for carbon K-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kubat, C. S. Agger, U. Møller, A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, D. Furniss, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, B. Napier, M. Farries, J. Ward, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 12.5  μm in large NA chalcogenide step-index fibres pumped at 4.5  μm,” Opt. Express 22, 19169–19182 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti: sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, A. Hugi, and J. Faist, “Coherent frequency combs produced by self frequency modulation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081118 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Phillips, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, A. Lin, C. Langrock, M. Snure, D. Bliss, M. Zhu, I. Hartl, J. Harris, M. E. Fermann, and M. M. Fejer, “Widely tunable midinfrared difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned GaAs pumped with a femtosecond Tm-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2928–2930 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5, 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 69 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kaertner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, and P. Grant, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 12929–12943 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, A. Tredicucci, N. Q. Vinh, B. Murdin, C. Pidgeon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Gain recovery dynamics of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 075303 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z.-K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, “Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 167401 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Kuehn, W. Parz, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, T. Müller, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, M. Austerer, and G. Strasser, “Ultrafast phase-resolved pump-probe measurements on a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151106 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, A. Natan, Y. Silberberg, and S. Rosenwaks, “Standoff detection of trace amounts of solids by nonlinear Raman spectroscopy using shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171116 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sugiharto, C. M. Johnson, H. De Aguiar, L. Alloatti, and S. Roke, “Generation and application of high power femtosecond pulses in the vibrational fingerprint region,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 315–318 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. March, G. Paulus, and H. G. Muller, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Kéfélian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1405–1407 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

L. A. Jiang, S. T. Wong, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Measuring timing jitter with optical cross correlations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1047–1052 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
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1999 (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. Quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP); mercury cadmium telluride detector (MCT); a pair of matched ruled diffraction gratings (G1, G2); a pair of lenses ( F = 10 cm ); and the retroreflecting mirror MR form the compressor. G2 and MR are mounted on a common translation stage, directed along z . The optical axis z is positive in the right-hand direction, and so a displacement of G2 left indicates a positive GDD, and vice versa. To extend the travel of G2, the relay pair are shifted 5 cm toward the first grating as compared to the standard 4 F configuration.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Instantaneous intensity as a function of the grating position, calculated from the measured complex spectra by Eq. (2). As the grating G2 approaches in the direction of G1, indicated by the negative displacement, the pulse narrows and the peak power increases. (b) The field GDD, calculated from fits to each of the measured complex spectra. The red line at 11.86 cm indicates the position at which the quadratic part of the phase has been completely eliminated. 6.45 ps 2 marks the dispersion at z = 0 . (c) Pulse width (Gaussian FWHM) and (d) peak intensity, normalized to the average, as a function of grating position. The orange curves are calculated by applying the relevant phase shifts given by the grating pair to the reference measurement at z = 0 . (e) Comparison of the waveform at zero displacement and (f) position with highest peak power.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Beat-note power at the fundamental, second, third, and fourth electronic harmonics measured as a function of grating position, with the calculated traces superimposed (orange lines).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Radio frequency spectra as recorded on a fast detector (QWIP) with a spectrum analyzer, with the grating at the position where the field shows the strongest pulses. The resolution bandwidth (RBW) is 1 Hz for all measurements (a) Comparison of the first four harmonics, showing the expected broadening. (b) Radio frequency spectrum of the fundamental beat note as measured at a 1 Hz resolution bandwidth, scaled to the total power in the carrier, evaluated at a 200 Hz RBW. The blue line is a 1 / f 2 fit to the tail, from which the integrated timing jitter is inferred. (c) Third-harmonic electronic beat note, both free-running and when the laser has been RF injection locked at the fundamental beat frequency (7.42 GHz).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Device characteristics, measured at 20°C, 1.1688 A. (a) Optical spectrum, normalized to show the power per mode, as measured directly in front of the laser. (b) Phase spectrum as found by integrating the measured phase difference spectrum in (c). (c) Laser output field group delay measured at the nondispersive grating offset 0 cm. The orange curve is an 11th-order polynomial fit. (d) Field group delay dispersion, calculated as the numerical derivative of the black curve with respect to the circular frequency ( δ 2 ϕ / δ ω 2 )
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Unnormalized beat-note interferograms measured at 16 cm 1 as a function of the grating displacement (left) with the matching intermodal phase difference trace (right), where 0.0 cm is the reference (unmodified) position, and 13.2 cm represents a strongly AM signal. The grating position is noted in the left-hand column. Fits to the phase difference spectra are plotted in orange, and the estimated GDD noted. A green DC spectrum is provided for reference.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Beat-Note Parameters and Timing Jitter Extracted from Fits to Beat-Note Orders m = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 δ G and 2 γ Are the FWHM for the Gaussian and Lorentzian Fits, Respectively a

Equations (8)

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GDD = 2 ϕ ω 2 .
I ( t , z ) = | n A n e i ( ω 0 + n ω r ) t + ϕ n ( z ) | 2 .
B b ( z ) = | n A n A n b * e i ( ϕ C ( ω n , z ) ϕ C ( ω n b , z ) ) | 2 | H ˜ ( b ω r ) | .
x ( τ ) = E ( t + τ ) E * ( t ) cos ( ω r t ) ,
y ( τ ) = E ( t + τ ) E * ( t ) sin ( ω r t ) .
X ( ω ) i Y ( ω ) = n | A n | | A n 1 | e i ( ϕ n ϕ n 1 ) δ [ ω ( ω 0 + n ω r ) ] .
σ T = 1 2 π m f r f d f u S ( f ) d f ,
σ p p = 1 m π f r 0 + f r / 2 S ( f ) sin 2 ( π f m f r ) ,