Abstract

We show the opportunity to fabricate a device for measuring circular dichroism (CD) in real time, the key element of which is a liquid crystal cycloidal diffractive waveplate (CDW). We present the results of simulations carried out to estimate the accuracy of CD spectrum measurement using CDW. We pay attention to the fact that, using two charge-coupled devices (CCDs) for registration of the spectra of left- and right- circularly polarized light, it is basically impossible to measure CD spectra with an accuracy of a few millidegrees. We show that measurement errors can appear due to different filling of two CCD arrays with left- and right- circularly polarized components of light beams. We propose a device for CD measurement on one wavelength, where for light registration two photodetectors are used. This approach allows precise measurement of CD with high stability in time. We propose that the developed CD meter can be promising for investigation of fast-running processes in bio-objects.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Chigrinov, V. Kozenkov, and H.-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).
  2. M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal spatial-light-modulator,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Fabrication of liquid crystal polymer axial waveplates for UV-IR wavelengths,” J. Opt. Express 17, 11926–11934 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. De Sio, D. E. Roberts, Z. Liao, J. Hwang, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Beam shaping diffractive wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 57, A118–A121 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and A. Mazzulla, PCT/IT2008/0003334 Patent No. WO 2008/142723 A2, 27November2008.
  9. P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

2018 (1)

2015 (1)

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Fabrication of liquid crystal polymer axial waveplates for UV-IR wavelengths,” J. Opt. Express 17, 11926–11934 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal spatial-light-modulator,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aroutiounian, V.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Callan-Jones, A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

V. Chigrinov, V. Kozenkov, and H.-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

Chilingaryan, H.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cipparrone, G.

P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and A. Mazzulla, PCT/IT2008/0003334 Patent No. WO 2008/142723 A2, 27November2008.

Crawford, G. P.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[Crossref]

De Sio, L.

Eakin, J. N.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Escuti, M. J.

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal spatial-light-modulator,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[Crossref]

Gasparyan, P.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Giorgini, L.

P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goushcha, O.

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Hakobyan, N.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Hoke, L.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hovhannisyan, D.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Hwang, J.

Jo, J.

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Jones, W. M.

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal spatial-light-modulator,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[Crossref]

Kimball, B.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimball, B. R.

L. De Sio, D. E. Roberts, Z. Liao, J. Hwang, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Beam shaping diffractive wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 57, A118–A121 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Fabrication of liquid crystal polymer axial waveplates for UV-IR wavelengths,” J. Opt. Express 17, 11926–11934 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kozenkov, V.

V. Chigrinov, V. Kozenkov, and H.-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

Kwok, H.-S.

V. Chigrinov, V. Kozenkov, and H.-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

Liao, Z.

Margaryan, H.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Mazzulla, A.

P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and A. Mazzulla, PCT/IT2008/0003334 Patent No. WO 2008/142723 A2, 27November2008.

Nersisyan, S.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Fabrication of liquid crystal polymer axial waveplates for UV-IR wavelengths,” J. Opt. Express 17, 11926–11934 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nersisyan, S. R.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pagliusi, P.

P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and A. Mazzulla, PCT/IT2008/0003334 Patent No. WO 2008/142723 A2, 27November2008.

Pelcovits, R. A.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pokhsraryan, D.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

Provenzano, C.

P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and A. Mazzulla, PCT/IT2008/0003334 Patent No. WO 2008/142723 A2, 27November2008.

Radcliffe, M. D.

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roberts, D. E.

Rohatgi, U.

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Sargsyan, T.

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Steeves, D. M.

L. De Sio, D. E. Roberts, Z. Liao, J. Hwang, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Beam shaping diffractive wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 57, A118–A121 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Fabrication of liquid crystal polymer axial waveplates for UV-IR wavelengths,” J. Opt. Express 17, 11926–11934 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tabirian, N.

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

Tabiryan, N.

L. De Sio, D. E. Roberts, Z. Liao, J. Hwang, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Beam shaping diffractive wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 57, A118–A121 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Fabrication of liquid crystal polymer axial waveplates for UV-IR wavelengths,” J. Opt. Express 17, 11926–11934 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N. V.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, “Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. P. Crawford, J. N. Eakin, M. D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R. A. Pelcovits, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, A. Mazzulla, L. Giorgini, and G. Cipparrone, “Spectrograph based on a single diffractive element for real time measurement of circular dichroism,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 465–468 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Express (2)

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Fabrication of liquid crystal polymer axial waveplates for UV-IR wavelengths,” J. Opt. Express 17, 11926–11934 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” J. Opt. Express 17, 1817–1830 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. Hakobyan, H. Margaryan, D. Hovhannisyan, T. Sargsyan, P. Gasparyan, V. Aroutiounian, H. Chilingaryan, D. Pokhsraryan, and N. Tabiryan, “Technique for spectropolarimetry based on liquid crystal polarization diffraction grating,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 615, 63–69 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal spatial-light-modulator,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

V. Chigrinov, V. Kozenkov, and H.-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

H. Margaryan, N. Hakobyan, D. Hovhannisyan, V. Aroutiounian, N. Tabirian, U. Rohatgi, J. Jo, O. Goushcha, T. Sargsyan, and P. Gasparyan, PCT/AM/2014/000003 Patent No. WO 2016/000001 A1, 07January2016.

G. Cipparrone, P. Pagliusi, C. Provenzano, and A. Mazzulla, PCT/IT2008/0003334 Patent No. WO 2008/142723 A2, 27November2008.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of causes of errors at registering the spectra of light beams with left- and right-circular polarizations: (a) shift, (b) scale.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Results of simulations of possible errors in CD measurement of vitamin B12.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of developed CD meter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Microscopic image of used CDW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Time dependence of the CD of vitamin B12 with a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml at a wavelength of 430 nm.

Equations (1)

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CD ( mdegree ) = C · Δ A , where C = ln 10 4 · 180 π · 1000 = 32982 and Δ A = log I OL I SL log I OR I SR ,

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