Abstract

We investigate the use of coupled silicon nanobeam cavities for achieving multiple resonances as a photonic dedicated platform for nonlinear signal processing and sensing. The transmission spectra of the triple-coupled cavities were measured, and high quality factors, up to about 80,000, have been experimentally reported. By precisely varying the positions of three cavities vertically and horizontally, evolutions of the supermodes were fully mapped, in good agreement with the simulation designs. Some specific and interesting properties such as the dark state of the system, leading to unique transmission spectra, have been clearly observed. Based on a geometrical control of the structure, the three resonances can be tuning independently, and degeneracy modes emerge in some configurations when the distance parameters are properly chosen. This triple-resonant device is expected to enable the adjustment of third-order nonlinear properties in silicon photonics, and it is also a candidate for sensing or reconfigurable and programmable photonics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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2018 (2)

2017 (4)

J. Zhang and S. He, “Cladding-free efficiently tunable nanobeam cavity with nanotentacles,” Opt. Express 25, 12541–12551 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, X. Jiang, Q. Hua, S. Hua, Y. Chen, J. Ma, and M. Xiao, “Realization of controllable photonic molecule based on three ultrahigh-Q microtoroid cavities,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600178 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, Y. Hu, X. Jiang, and M. Xiao, “Analysis of a triple-cavity photonic molecule based on coupled-mode theory,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033847 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, S. Serna, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Silicon nanobeam cavity for ultra-localized light-matter interaction,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3323–3326 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

P. Shi, G. Zhou, J. Deng, F. Tian, and F. S. Chau, “Tuning all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14379 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photon. 2, 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. C. M. M. Souza, G. F. M. Rezende, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. von Zuben, G. S. Wiederhecker, and N. C. Frateschi, “Spectral engineering with coupled microcavities: active control of resonant mode-splitting,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3332–3335 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, C. M. Gentry, and M. A. Popović, “Four-wave mixing in silicon coupled-cavity resonators with port-selective, orthogonal supermode excitation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2120–2123 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (5)

P. B. Deotare, L. C. Kogos, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for tunable filter and router applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3600210 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ryckman, K. A. Hallman, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic devices reconfigured by an optically induced semiconductor-to-metal transition,” Opt. Express 21, 10753–10763 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498, 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jarlov, K. A. Atlasov, L. Ferrier, M. Calic, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “1D and 2D arrays of coupled photonic crystal cavities with a site-controlled quantum wire light source,” Opt. Express 21, 31082–31091 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Tu, Y. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “Vertically coupled photonic molecule laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z.-F. Bi, A. W. Rodriguez, H. Hashemi, D. Duchesne, M. Loncar, K.-M. Wang, and S. G. Johnson, “High-efficiency second-harmonic generation in doubly-resonant χ(2) microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 7526–7543 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Intonti, N. Caselli, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, S. Kumar, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, L. Balet, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Mode tuning of photonic crystal nanocavities by photoinduced non-thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 033116(2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160  Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 18, 3905–3910 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Rakovich and J. F. Donegan, “Photonic atoms and molecules,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 179–191 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162–235 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Käsebier, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Observation of optical coupling in microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043841 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441, 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 484–488 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Popović, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, “Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2571–2573 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. A. Foster, J. M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 363–367 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582–2585 (1998).
[Crossref]

Alcorn, T.

Z. Lin, T. Alcorn, M. Loncar, S. G. Johnson, and A. W. Rodriguez, “High-efficiency degenerate four-wave mixing in triply resonant nanobeam cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 053839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alegre, T. P. M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. M. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photon. 2, 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Altug, H.

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 484–488 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498, 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atlasov, K. A.

Azzini, S.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bajoni, D.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, C.

E. Gil-Santos, C. Baker, A. Lemaitre, C. Gomez, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High-precision spectral tuning of micro and nanophotonic cavities by resonantly enhanced photoelectrochemical etching,” arXiv:1511.06186 (2015).

Balet, L.

F. Intonti, N. Caselli, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, S. Kumar, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, L. Balet, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Mode tuning of photonic crystal nanocavities by photoinduced non-thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 033116(2012).
[Crossref]

Barea, L. A. M.

Barwicz, T.

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical modes in photonic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582–2585 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bi, Z.-F.

Biermann, K.

Buckley, S.

Bulu, I.

P. B. Deotare, L. C. Kogos, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for tunable filter and router applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 3600210 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
[Crossref]

Calic, M.

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

M. A. Foster, J. M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 363–367 (2005).
[Crossref]

Caselli, N.

F. Intonti, N. Caselli, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, S. Kumar, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, L. Balet, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Mode tuning of photonic crystal nanocavities by photoinduced non-thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 033116(2012).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chau, F. S.

P. Shi, G. Zhou, J. Deng, F. Tian, and F. S. Chau, “Tuning all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in nanobeam cavities using nanoelectromechanical system,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. J.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

C. Yang, X. Jiang, Q. Hua, S. Hua, Y. Chen, J. Ma, and M. Xiao, “Realization of controllable photonic molecule based on three ultrahigh-Q microtoroid cavities,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600178 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chihara, M.

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[Crossref]

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat. Commun. 3, 846 (2012).
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Q. Quan and M. Loncar, “Deterministic design of wavelength scale, ultra-high Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express 19, 18529–18542 (2011).
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Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
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Ma, J.

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W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photon. 2, 470–474 (2015).
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Patrini, M.

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W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photon. 2, 470–474 (2015).
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Pertsch, T.

C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Käsebier, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Observation of optical coupling in microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043841 (2009).
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Q. Quan and M. Loncar, “Deterministic design of wavelength scale, ultra-high Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express 19, 18529–18542 (2011).
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Raineri, F.

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Y. P. Rakovich and J. F. Donegan, “Photonic atoms and molecules,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 179–191 (2010).
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Riboli, F.

F. Intonti, N. Caselli, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, S. Kumar, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, L. Balet, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Mode tuning of photonic crystal nanocavities by photoinduced non-thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 033116(2012).
[Crossref]

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Z. Lin, T. Alcorn, M. Loncar, S. G. Johnson, and A. W. Rodriguez, “High-efficiency degenerate four-wave mixing in triply resonant nanobeam cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 053839 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Ryckman, J. D.

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

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[Crossref]

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W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photon. 2, 470–474 (2015).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) SEM views of triple-coupled nanobeam cavities. Cavities are connected to the external strip waveguide, among which the distances are increased after the cavity region. (b) The three supermodes’ field maps of the system, FM/DM/EM, with resonance wavelengths of 1576.95 nm/1568.29 nm/1560.69 nm and Q factors of 38,307/63,826/115,347 (simulation was carried out using 3D-FDTD with a = 312 nm , W = 700 nm , D y = 100 nm , D x = 0 nm ) [28].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Transmission spectra (normalized by the band-edge modes) from three output ports when TE polarized light is injected from (a) one of the side cavity and (b) the middle cavity.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental and theoretical results of the supermode wavelengths in the triple nanobeam cavity system. The blue, red, and yellow marks represent the fundamental, dark, and excited supermodes, respectively. (a) Controlling the lateral distance between the central and side cavities ( a = 306 nm , D x = 0 ). (b) Longitudinally shifting the middle nanobeam cavity ( a = 300 nm , D y = 140 nm ).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Transmission spectrum of the degeneracy mode (degeneracy points appear when D x = a / 2 ). (b) Comparison between degeneracy point D x = 150 nm and D x = 300 nm in 3D-FDTD simulation ( a = 300 nm , extra holes were removed to reduce the simulation time).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Pre-fabrication method for adjusting the resonance frequency by varying R m 1 (hole radii of the middle cavity decrease linearly from the center R m 1 to the side R m 16 , and R m 16 was fixed to 73 nm). (b) Post-fabrication method for resonances tuning by effective index. (c) Left, relationship between Δ ω and R m 1 ; right, relationship between Δ ω and Δ n eff of the middle cavity.

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