Abstract

A plasmonic metasurface comprised of a single-layer silver bow-tie antenna array is presented for unconventional photolithography below the diffraction limit. The proposed structure can be fabricated by self-assembling a mask of dielectric spheres on top of a photoresist layer, followed by metal deposition and removal of the spheres. The nanoantennas can focus light to expose the photoresist in a similar way as it occurs in multi-photon lithography. The intensity distribution in the photoresist is calculated by solving Maxwell’s equations, and then resist dissolution models are applied to predict the clearance profile after development. Several exposure conditions with different metasurface parameters are investigated. The simulations can provide the size of the nanospheres, the thickness of the metallic bow-tie antennas and of the photoresist, and the optimum wavelength of the illumination, and they can present guidelines for the development conditions to obtain an array of holes arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is shown that other geometries can be obtained as well by precise control of the process conditions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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