Abstract

Third-harmonic (TH) generation inside air plasma filaments provides a simple method to convert near-infrared laser pulses in the UV range. Here, we report on the optimization of the third-harmonic generation during filamentation in the parameter space of focusing geometry, gas pressure, and incident laser pulse energy. It is observed that, in the nonlinear filamentation regime, the TH yield is largely dominated by the geometrical focusing condition and gas pressure. Using ambient air as the medium for filamentation, an optimal numerical aperture (NA) = 0.07 was found for a laser pulse with a peak power close to and above the critical power for self-focusing. For more loose focusing geometry (NA<0.047), reduction of the air pressure can improve the conversion efficiency. In this case, the spatial mode of the third harmonic was also found to be more uniform than in ambient air. With the scanning pinhole and crossing-filaments methods, it is revealed that in the situation of optimized focusing geometry (NA = 0.07) the TH accumulates constructively along the filament and exits at its end. In contrast, for the loose focusing geometry, the destructive interference effect of the TH generated at the leading and trailing edges of the filaments decreases the TH yield efficiency. This study provides a practical guidance for efficient conversion of near-infrared femtosecond pulses to the UV domain.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

A. K. Dharmadhikari, S. Edward, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “On the generation of polarization-dependent supercontinuum and third harmonic in air,” J. Phys. B 48, 094012 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

K. Lim, M. Durand, M. Baudelet, and M. Richardson, “Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7217 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, and Y. Cheng, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in femtosecond laser induced filamentation-comparison of results obtained with plasma and a pair of glass plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 59, 245–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Filamentation-induced third-harmonic generation in air via plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033817(2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Lu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhou, T. Xi, Z. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Enhancement of third-harmonic emission from femtosecond laser filament screened partially by a thin fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 974–976 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Efficient third-harmonic generation through tailored IR femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in air,” Opt. Express 17, 3190–3195(2009).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. Tr. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and I. A. Kulagin, “Third-harmonic generation in air by use of femtosecond radiation in tight-focusing conditions,” Appl. Opt. 45, 748–755(2005).
[Crossref]

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Tamaki, K. Midirika, and M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 59–63 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

D. S. Bethune and C. T. Retter, “Optical harmonic generation in nonuniform gaseous media with application to frequency tripling in free-jet expansions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 23, 1348–1360 (1987).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 9, 470–484 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abdollahpour, D.

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Filamentation-induced third-harmonic generation in air via plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033817(2010).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Efficient third-harmonic generation through tailored IR femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in air,” Opt. Express 17, 3190–3195(2009).
[Crossref]

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baba, M.

Babine, A.

Backus, S.

Baudelet, M.

K. Lim, M. Durand, M. Baudelet, and M. Richardson, “Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. Tr. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Bethune, D. S.

D. S. Bethune and C. T. Retter, “Optical harmonic generation in nonuniform gaseous media with application to frequency tripling in free-jet expansions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 23, 1348–1360 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).

Chen, Z. L.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, and Y. Cheng, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in femtosecond laser induced filamentation-comparison of results obtained with plasma and a pair of glass plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 59, 245–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. Tr. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, and Y. Cheng, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in femtosecond laser induced filamentation-comparison of results obtained with plasma and a pair of glass plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 59, 245–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, S. Edward, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “On the generation of polarization-dependent supercontinuum and third harmonic in air,” J. Phys. B 48, 094012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, S. Edward, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “On the generation of polarization-dependent supercontinuum and third harmonic in air,” J. Phys. B 48, 094012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Downer, M. C.

Durand, M.

K. Lim, M. Durand, M. Baudelet, and M. Richardson, “Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Edward, S.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, S. Edward, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “On the generation of polarization-dependent supercontinuum and third harmonic in air,” J. Phys. B 48, 094012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eramo, R.

Fedorov, V. Y.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Forestier, B.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frey, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

Gravel, J. F.

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Harris, S. E.

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 9, 470–484 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, S. A.

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Houard, A.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ionin, A. A.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iwasaki, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kovacev, M.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kudryashov, S. I.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kulagin, I. A.

Kuroda, H.

Li, Y. J.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. T.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lim, K.

K. Lim, M. Durand, M. Baudelet, and M. Richardson, “Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. Tr. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

Luo, Q.

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ma, J. X.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matera, M.

Mathur, D.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, S. Edward, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “On the generation of polarization-dependent supercontinuum and third harmonic in air,” J. Phys. B 48, 094012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Midirika, K.

T. Tamaki, K. Midirika, and M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 59–63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 9, 470–484 (1973).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

New, G. H. C.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ni, J.

J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, and Y. Cheng, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in femtosecond laser induced filamentation-comparison of results obtained with plasma and a pair of glass plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 59, 245–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

Obara, M.

T. Tamaki, K. Midirika, and M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 59–63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Papazoglou, D. G.

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Filamentation-induced third-harmonic generation in air via plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033817(2010).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Efficient third-harmonic generation through tailored IR femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in air,” Opt. Express 17, 3190–3195(2009).
[Crossref]

Peatross, J.

Peck, E. R.

Peng, Y.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reeder, K.

Retter, C. T.

D. S. Bethune and C. T. Retter, “Optical harmonic generation in nonuniform gaseous media with application to frequency tripling in free-jet expansions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 23, 1348–1360 (1987).
[Crossref]

Richardson, M.

K. Lim, M. Durand, M. Baudelet, and M. Richardson, “Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rundquist, A.

Salmon, E.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schulz, E.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seleznev, L. V.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sergeev, A. M.

Sharifi, M.

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Z. M.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Siders, C. W.

Simard, P. Tr.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. Tr. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sinitsyn, D. V.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Steingrube, D. S.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A.

Sunchugasheva, E. S.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suntsov, S.

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Filamentation-induced third-harmonic generation in air via plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033817(2010).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Efficient third-harmonic generation through tailored IR femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in air,” Opt. Express 17, 3190–3195(2009).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

Taft, G.

Tamaki, T.

T. Tamaki, K. Midirika, and M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 59–63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Theberge, F.

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. Tr. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tong, Y.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Turner, N. C.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Filamentation-induced third-harmonic generation in air via plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033817(2010).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Efficient third-harmonic generation through tailored IR femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in air,” Opt. Express 17, 3190–3195(2009).
[Crossref]

Vockerodt, T.

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z. Y.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J. P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xi, T.

Xu, Z.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, and Y. Cheng, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in femtosecond laser induced filamentation-comparison of results obtained with plasma and a pair of glass plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 59, 245–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yuan, S.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeek, Z.

Zeng, B.

J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, and Y. Cheng, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in femtosecond laser induced filamentation-comparison of results obtained with plasma and a pair of glass plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 59, 245–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Z. Zhang, X. Lu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhou, T. Xi, Z. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Enhancement of third-harmonic emission from femtosecond laser filament screened partially by a thin fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35, 974–976 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, L. Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Tamaki, K. Midirika, and M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 59–63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Théberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081108 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, S. Yuan, L. Ding, Z. Xu, and H. Zeng, “Noncollinear interaction of femtosecond filaments with enhanced third harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (3)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, “Optical third-harmonic generation in alkali metal vapors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 9, 470–484 (1973).
[Crossref]

D. S. Bethune and C. T. Retter, “Optical harmonic generation in nonuniform gaseous media with application to frequency tripling in free-jet expansions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 23, 1348–1360 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, and Y. Cheng, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in femtosecond laser induced filamentation-comparison of results obtained with plasma and a pair of glass plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 59, 245–249 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

A. K. Dharmadhikari, S. Edward, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “On the generation of polarization-dependent supercontinuum and third harmonic in air,” J. Phys. B 48, 094012 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, E. S. Sunchugasheva, and V. Y. Fedorov, “Third harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses tightly focused in air,” Laser Phys. 21, 500–504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Efficient generation of third harmonic radiation in air filaments: a revisit,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4706–4713 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Filamentation-induced third-harmonic generation in air via plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033817(2010).
[Crossref]

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. Tr. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036406 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, “Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602(2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Lim, M. Durand, M. Baudelet, and M. Richardson, “Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Third harmonic yield as a function of focusing length for different incident pulse energies. The diameter of the incident pulse is 14 mm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. THz signal pass through a 110 μm pinhole scanned along the filament. (a) f=200mm, (b) f=1000mm. The origin (z=0mm) is defined as the geometrical focus in each case.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Third-harmonic signal as a function of air pressure for different focal lengths. From (a) to (d), the focal lengths are 200 mm, 500 mm, 750 mm, and 1000 mm, respectively. All the data are normalized to the signal obtained with 0.7 mJ incident pulse energy in the case of f=200mm and 1 bar air.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Far-field profile of the third-harmonic radiation for different air pressures. The focal length is 1000 mm and the paper screen is 75 cm away from the geometrical focus. The incident pulse energy is 1.2 mJ. From (a) to (h), the pressures are 30, 70, 200, 300, 350, 430, 600, 1000 mbar, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Effect of crossing filament on the TH generation. The focal lenses for (a) and (b) are 1000 mm and 200 mm, respectively. The focal length for the control pulse was 500 mm and the control pulse energy was 380 μJ, similar to that in [24].

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