Abstract

A method for ultrafast ellipticity modulation of femtosecond intense lasers is introduced and demonstrated. The method is based on the coherent superimposition of two linearly polarized visible/infrared (Vis-IR) laser beams with orthogonal polarizations. Tuning their delay by a quarter of the wavelength, i.e., a few hundred nanometers, achieves the same function as the rotation of a quarter-wave plate by 45°, switching the polarization from linear to circular. We demonstrate the portability of this method to high-intensity processes by upconverting a femtosecond Vis-IR laser beam to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range through high-harmonic generation. These results open the way to lock-in detection of small absorption chiroptical signals in the EUV spectral range, including pump probe signals.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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2017 (5)

M. Zürch, H.-T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leoneal, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356, 54–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Busto, L. Barreau, M. Isinger, M. Turconi, C. Alexandridi, A. Harth, S. Zhong, R. J. Squibb, D. Kroon, S. Plogmaker, M. Miranda, Á. Jiménez-Galán, L. Argenti, C. L. Arnold, R. Feifel, F. Martin, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Time-frequency representation of autoionization dynamics in helium,” J. Phys. B 51, 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, A. Clergerie, J. Caillat, D. Descamps, N. Dudovich, B. Fabre, R. Géneaux, F. Légaré, S. Petit, B. Pons, G. Porat, T. Ruchon, R. Taïeb, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “Attosecond-resolved photoionization of chiral molecules,” Science 358, 1288–1294 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

J. Sutherland, “Calibration of photoelastic modulator based dichrometers: maintaining constant phase across the spectrum,” J. Instrum. 11, P07016 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Kfir, E. Bordo, G. I. Haham, O. Lahav, A. Fleischer, and O. Cohen, “In-line production of a bi-circular field for generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 211106 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, B. Fabre, D. Descamps, A. Ferre, G. Garcia, R. Geneaux, F. Legare, L. Nahon, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, B. Pons, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “Probing ultrafast dynamics of chiral molecules using time-resolved photoelectron circular dichroism,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 325–348 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martn, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a fano resonance: monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a fano resonance in the time domain,” Science 354, 738–741 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Veyrinas, V. Gruson, S. Weber, L. Barreau, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, J.-C. Houver, R. Lucchese, P. Salières, and D. Dowek, “Molecular frame photoemission by a comb of elliptical high-order harmonics: a sensitive probe of both photodynamics and harmonic complete polarization state,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 161–183 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. W. Jarrett, X. Liu, P. F. Nealey, R. A. Vaia, G. Cerullo, and K. L. Knappenberger, “Communication: Shg-detected circular dichroism imaging using orthogonal phase-locked laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 142, 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “A table-top ultrashort light source in the extreme ultraviolet for circular dichroism experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 93–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Weber, B. Manschwetus, M. Billon, M. Böttcher, M. Bougeard, P. Breger, M. Géléoc, V. Gruson, A. Huetz, N. Lin, Y. J. Picard, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033108 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8, 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Allaria, B. Diviacco, C. Callegari, P. Finetti, B. Mahieu, J. Viefhaus, M. Zangrando, G. De Ninno, G. Lambert, E. Ferrari, J. Buck, M. Ilchen, B. Vodungbo, N. Mahne, C. Svetina, C. Spezzani, S. Di Mitri, G. Penco, M. Trovó, W. M. Fawley, P. R. Rebernik, D. Gauthier, C. Grazioli, M. Coreno, B. Ressel, A. Kivimäki, T. Mazza, L. Glaser, F. Scholz, J. Seltmann, P. Gessler, J. Grünert, A. De Fanis, M. Meyer, A. Knie, S. P. Moeller, L. Raimondi, F. Capotondi, E. Pedersoli, O. Plekan, M. B. Danailov, A. Demidovich, I. Nikolov, A. Abrami, J. Gautier, J. Lüning, P. Zeitoun, and L. Giannessi, “Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041040 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. Pemmaraju, S. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346, 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blattermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madronero, F. Martin, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516, 374–378 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, “Vibrationally induced inversion of photoelectron forward-backward asymmetry in chiral molecule photoionization by circularly polarized light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

L. Nahon, N. de Oliveira, G. A. Garcia, J.-F. Gil, B. Pilette, O. Marcouillé, B. Lagarde, and F. Polack, “DESIRS: a state-of-the-art VUV beamline featuring high resolution and variable polarization for spectroscopy and dichroism at SOLEIL,” J. Synch. Rad. 19, 508–520 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, and G. Cerullo, “Phase-locked pulses for two-dimensional spectroscopy by a birefringent delay line,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3027–3029 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

B. Vodungbo, A. B. Sardinha, J. Gautier, G. Lambert, C. Valentin, M. Lozano, G. Iaquaniello, F. Delmotte, S. Sebban, J. Lüning, and P. Zeitoun, “Polarization control of high order harmonics in the EUV photon energy range,” Opt. Express 19, 4346–4356 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, J. Ye, and T. R. Schibli, “Simple piezoelectric-actuated mirror with 180 kHz servo bandwidth,” Opt. Express 18, 9739–9746 (2010).
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2009 (2)

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mevel, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bonmarin and J. Helbing, “Polarization control of ultrashort mid-ir laser pulses for transient vibrational circular dichroism measurements,” Chirality 21, E298–E306 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, “Polarization-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with high harmonics,” New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
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I. Powis, C. J. Harding, G. A. Garcia, and L. Nahon, “A valence photoelectron imaging investigation of chiral asymmetry in the photoionization of fenchone and camphor,” ChemPhysChem 9, 475–483 (2008).
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J. Debs, N. Robins, A. Lance, M. Kruger, and J. Close, “Piezo-locking a diode laser with saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5163–5166 (2008).
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2007 (1)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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1998 (1)

L. Alagna, T. Prosperi, S. Turchini, J. Goulon, A. Rogalev, C. Goulon-Ginet, C. R. Natoli, R. D. Peacock, and B. Stewart, “X-ray natural circular dichroism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4799–4802 (1998).
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1997 (2)

P. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
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P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
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1996 (2)

F. A. Weihe and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Measurement of the polarization state of high harmonics generated in gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 157–161 (1996).
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P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
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1995 (1)

H. Eichmann, A. Egbert, S. Nolte, and C. Momma, “Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414–R3417 (1995).
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1994 (1)

Y. Liang, M. V. Ammosov, and S. L. Chin, “High-order harmonic generation in argon by elliptically polarized picosecond dye laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 27, 1269–1276 (1994).
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1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
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K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3440 (1993).
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1976 (1)

B. Ritchie, “Theory of the angular distribution of photoelectrons ejected from optically active molecules and molecular negative ions,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 1411–1415 (1976).
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Alagna, L.

L. Alagna, T. Prosperi, S. Turchini, J. Goulon, A. Rogalev, C. Goulon-Ginet, C. R. Natoli, R. D. Peacock, and B. Stewart, “X-ray natural circular dichroism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4799–4802 (1998).
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E. Allaria, B. Diviacco, C. Callegari, P. Finetti, B. Mahieu, J. Viefhaus, M. Zangrando, G. De Ninno, G. Lambert, E. Ferrari, J. Buck, M. Ilchen, B. Vodungbo, N. Mahne, C. Svetina, C. Spezzani, S. Di Mitri, G. Penco, M. Trovó, W. M. Fawley, P. R. Rebernik, D. Gauthier, C. Grazioli, M. Coreno, B. Ressel, A. Kivimäki, T. Mazza, L. Glaser, F. Scholz, J. Seltmann, P. Gessler, J. Grünert, A. De Fanis, M. Meyer, A. Knie, S. P. Moeller, L. Raimondi, F. Capotondi, E. Pedersoli, O. Plekan, M. B. Danailov, A. Demidovich, I. Nikolov, A. Abrami, J. Gautier, J. Lüning, P. Zeitoun, and L. Giannessi, “Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041040 (2014).
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Y. Liang, M. V. Ammosov, and S. L. Chin, “High-order harmonic generation in argon by elliptically polarized picosecond dye laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 27, 1269–1276 (1994).
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P. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
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P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
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D. Busto, L. Barreau, M. Isinger, M. Turconi, C. Alexandridi, A. Harth, S. Zhong, R. J. Squibb, D. Kroon, S. Plogmaker, M. Miranda, Á. Jiménez-Galán, L. Argenti, C. L. Arnold, R. Feifel, F. Martin, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Time-frequency representation of autoionization dynamics in helium,” J. Phys. B 51, 044002 (2017).
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V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martn, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a fano resonance: monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
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C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blattermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madronero, F. Martin, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516, 374–378 (2014).
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M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
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D. Busto, L. Barreau, M. Isinger, M. Turconi, C. Alexandridi, A. Harth, S. Zhong, R. J. Squibb, D. Kroon, S. Plogmaker, M. Miranda, Á. Jiménez-Galán, L. Argenti, C. L. Arnold, R. Feifel, F. Martin, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Time-frequency representation of autoionization dynamics in helium,” J. Phys. B 51, 044002 (2017).
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A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356, 54–59 (2017).
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Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3204–3210 (1997).
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Baltuska, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Barreau, L.

D. Busto, L. Barreau, M. Isinger, M. Turconi, C. Alexandridi, A. Harth, S. Zhong, R. J. Squibb, D. Kroon, S. Plogmaker, M. Miranda, Á. Jiménez-Galán, L. Argenti, C. L. Arnold, R. Feifel, F. Martin, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Time-frequency representation of autoionization dynamics in helium,” J. Phys. B 51, 044002 (2017).
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V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martn, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a fano resonance: monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
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K. Veyrinas, V. Gruson, S. Weber, L. Barreau, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, J.-C. Houver, R. Lucchese, P. Salières, and D. Dowek, “Molecular frame photoemission by a comb of elliptical high-order harmonics: a sensitive probe of both photodynamics and harmonic complete polarization state,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 161–183 (2016).
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Barron, L.

L. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge University, 2009).

Beaulieu, S.

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, A. Clergerie, J. Caillat, D. Descamps, N. Dudovich, B. Fabre, R. Géneaux, F. Légaré, S. Petit, B. Pons, G. Porat, T. Ruchon, R. Taïeb, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “Attosecond-resolved photoionization of chiral molecules,” Science 358, 1288–1294 (2017).
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S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, B. Fabre, D. Descamps, A. Ferre, G. Garcia, R. Geneaux, F. Legare, L. Nahon, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, B. Pons, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “Probing ultrafast dynamics of chiral molecules using time-resolved photoelectron circular dichroism,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 325–348 (2016).
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Bhattacherjee, A.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356, 54–59 (2017).
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Billon, M.

S. J. Weber, B. Manschwetus, M. Billon, M. Böttcher, M. Bougeard, P. Breger, M. Géléoc, V. Gruson, A. Huetz, N. Lin, Y. J. Picard, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033108 (2015).
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Blanchet, V.

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, A. Clergerie, J. Caillat, D. Descamps, N. Dudovich, B. Fabre, R. Géneaux, F. Légaré, S. Petit, B. Pons, G. Porat, T. Ruchon, R. Taïeb, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “Attosecond-resolved photoionization of chiral molecules,” Science 358, 1288–1294 (2017).
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S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, B. Fabre, D. Descamps, A. Ferre, G. Garcia, R. Geneaux, F. Legare, L. Nahon, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, B. Pons, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “Probing ultrafast dynamics of chiral molecules using time-resolved photoelectron circular dichroism,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 325–348 (2016).
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A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “A table-top ultrashort light source in the extreme ultraviolet for circular dichroism experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 93–98 (2015).
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Blattermann, A.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blattermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madronero, F. Martin, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516, 374–378 (2014).
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Blättermann, A.

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a fano resonance in the time domain,” Science 354, 738–741 (2016).
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Blumel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Bonmarin, M.

M. Bonmarin and J. Helbing, “Polarization control of ultrashort mid-ir laser pulses for transient vibrational circular dichroism measurements,” Chirality 21, E298–E306 (2009).
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Bordo, E.

O. Kfir, E. Bordo, G. I. Haham, O. Lahav, A. Fleischer, and O. Cohen, “In-line production of a bi-circular field for generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 211106 (2016).
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M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. Pemmaraju, S. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346, 1348–1352 (2014).
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Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

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M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
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Böttcher, M.

S. J. Weber, B. Manschwetus, M. Billon, M. Böttcher, M. Bougeard, P. Breger, M. Géléoc, V. Gruson, A. Huetz, N. Lin, Y. J. Picard, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033108 (2015).
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Bougeard, M.

S. J. Weber, B. Manschwetus, M. Billon, M. Böttcher, M. Bougeard, P. Breger, M. Géléoc, V. Gruson, A. Huetz, N. Lin, Y. J. Picard, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033108 (2015).
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Boutu, W.

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, “Polarization-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with high harmonics,” New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
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Breger, P.

S. J. Weber, B. Manschwetus, M. Billon, M. Böttcher, M. Bougeard, P. Breger, M. Géléoc, V. Gruson, A. Huetz, N. Lin, Y. J. Picard, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 033108 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mevel, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, “Polarization-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with high harmonics,” New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brida, D.

Briles, T. C.

Buck, J.

E. Allaria, B. Diviacco, C. Callegari, P. Finetti, B. Mahieu, J. Viefhaus, M. Zangrando, G. De Ninno, G. Lambert, E. Ferrari, J. Buck, M. Ilchen, B. Vodungbo, N. Mahne, C. Svetina, C. Spezzani, S. Di Mitri, G. Penco, M. Trovó, W. M. Fawley, P. R. Rebernik, D. Gauthier, C. Grazioli, M. Coreno, B. Ressel, A. Kivimäki, T. Mazza, L. Glaser, F. Scholz, J. Seltmann, P. Gessler, J. Grünert, A. De Fanis, M. Meyer, A. Knie, S. P. Moeller, L. Raimondi, F. Capotondi, E. Pedersoli, O. Plekan, M. B. Danailov, A. Demidovich, I. Nikolov, A. Abrami, J. Gautier, J. Lüning, P. Zeitoun, and L. Giannessi, “Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041040 (2014).
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Bucksbaum, P. H.

Budil, K. S.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3440 (1993).
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Burgdorfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burgdörfer, J.

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a fano resonance in the time domain,” Science 354, 738–741 (2016).
[Crossref]

Burgy, F.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “A table-top ultrashort light source in the extreme ultraviolet for circular dichroism experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 93–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Busto, D.

D. Busto, L. Barreau, M. Isinger, M. Turconi, C. Alexandridi, A. Harth, S. Zhong, R. J. Squibb, D. Kroon, S. Plogmaker, M. Miranda, Á. Jiménez-Galán, L. Argenti, C. L. Arnold, R. Feifel, F. Martin, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Time-frequency representation of autoionization dynamics in helium,” J. Phys. B 51, 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

Caillat, J.

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, A. Clergerie, J. Caillat, D. Descamps, N. Dudovich, B. Fabre, R. Géneaux, F. Légaré, S. Petit, B. Pons, G. Porat, T. Ruchon, R. Taïeb, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “Attosecond-resolved photoionization of chiral molecules,” Science 358, 1288–1294 (2017).
[Crossref]

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K. Veyrinas, V. Gruson, S. Weber, L. Barreau, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, J.-C. Houver, R. Lucchese, P. Salières, and D. Dowek, “Molecular frame photoemission by a comb of elliptical high-order harmonics: a sensitive probe of both photodynamics and harmonic complete polarization state,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 161–183 (2016).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Ilchen, M.

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M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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O. Kfir, E. Bordo, G. I. Haham, O. Lahav, A. Fleischer, and O. Cohen, “In-line production of a bi-circular field for generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 211106 (2016).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2015).
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A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8, 543–549 (2014).
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M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Klünder, K.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143002 (2011).
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Knappenberger, K. L.

J. W. Jarrett, X. Liu, P. F. Nealey, R. A. Vaia, G. Cerullo, and K. L. Knappenberger, “Communication: Shg-detected circular dichroism imaging using orthogonal phase-locked laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 142, 151101 (2015).
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E. Allaria, B. Diviacco, C. Callegari, P. Finetti, B. Mahieu, J. Viefhaus, M. Zangrando, G. De Ninno, G. Lambert, E. Ferrari, J. Buck, M. Ilchen, B. Vodungbo, N. Mahne, C. Svetina, C. Spezzani, S. Di Mitri, G. Penco, M. Trovó, W. M. Fawley, P. R. Rebernik, D. Gauthier, C. Grazioli, M. Coreno, B. Ressel, A. Kivimäki, T. Mazza, L. Glaser, F. Scholz, J. Seltmann, P. Gessler, J. Grünert, A. De Fanis, M. Meyer, A. Knie, S. P. Moeller, L. Raimondi, F. Capotondi, E. Pedersoli, O. Plekan, M. B. Danailov, A. Demidovich, I. Nikolov, A. Abrami, J. Gautier, J. Lüning, P. Zeitoun, and L. Giannessi, “Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 041040 (2014).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2015).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdorfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Muller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blumel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Kroon, D.

D. Busto, L. Barreau, M. Isinger, M. Turconi, C. Alexandridi, A. Harth, S. Zhong, R. J. Squibb, D. Kroon, S. Plogmaker, M. Miranda, Á. Jiménez-Galán, L. Argenti, C. L. Arnold, R. Feifel, F. Martin, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Time-frequency representation of autoionization dynamics in helium,” J. Phys. B 51, 044002 (2017).
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M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Principle of a fast ellipticity modulator. Two linearly polarized coherent fields of orthogonal polarization are temporally and spatially overlapped, leading to a total field of elliptical polarization. The total field polarization is controlled by modulating the relative amplitude and dephasing δ of the two fields. (b) Polarization properties of the combined fields and definition of the parameters used in the main text. Ψ refers to the ellipse direction in the laboratory frame. a and b correspond to the ellipse major and minor axis, from which the ellipticity ε=b/a can be defined. (c) and (d) Theoretical ellipticity (ϵ) and ellipse direction (Ψ) of the total field against the dephasing δ between the two beams for different ratios r=E0y/E0x.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the experimental setup. The femtosecond laser is split in two arms in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer before being recombined. The polarization is turned in one arm by an HWP. A stabilization loop is implemented to finely control the delay between the two arms. The composite beam is then focused by a lens in a vacuum chamber. The IR radiation is either directly analyzed at focus upon insertion of a reflective polarizer or used to generate high-order harmonics in an argon gas jet. These harmonics are further collected in a polarizing spectrometer made of two gold mirrors set at 45° of incidence angle, a concave variable spacing grating, a set of microchannel plates coupled to a phosphor screen, and finally a CCD camera. To scan the main axis direction of the incoming polarization, a computer-controlled HWP is inserted right before the vacuum chamber. (inset) Typical harmonic profile summed over the vertical direction on the MCP detector.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Laser beam profile intensity averaged over several HWP2 full rotations. Any point with intensity below 10% of the maximum signal has been cropped. The lineouts represent the integrated beam profile in the x (blue) and y (red) direction. The black circle represents the area where the intensity is greater than 35% of the maximum intensity. This region is then integrated in order to extract the ellipticity ϵ and ellipse direction Ψ against δ [blue curves in (c) and (d)]. The corresponding fitting curves obtained with Eq. (5) are plotted in red. (b) Extracted spatially resolved ratio. This ratio is obtained through the fit of ϵ(δ) for each averaged pixel (2×2 pixels) on the CCD. A mean ratio r=0.74 is obtained when integrating over the black circle. (c) and (d) Experimental values (blue) and fitting curve obtained with Eq. (5) (blue) of ϵ and Ψ against δ.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a)–(c) (red curves) Harmonic yield evolution with respect to the fundamental beam ellipticity scanned with a QWP, for harmonic orders 11 (a), 13 (b), and 15 (c). The ellipticity axis is at the bottom of each panel. (d) Values of βq parameters extracted from such curves, displayed for harmonic orders 9–23. (a)–(c) (blue curves) Harmonic yield evolution with respect to the dephasing (top horizontal axis) between the two fields. Using the “dephasing-to-ellipticity” calibration described in the main text [Eq. (7)], the two horizontal axes have been matched once the βq parameters were extracted from the red curves.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. High harmonics main polarization direction ΨEUV and ellipticities ϵEUV measured using either the Mach–Zehnder interferometer (blue) or the quarter-wave plate (red) for harmonics 11 (a), 13 (b), and 15 (c).

Equations (7)

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{Ex(z,t)=E0xcos(ωtkz)Ey(z,t)=E0ycos(ωtkz+δ).
ϵIR(r,δ)=tan(12asin{sin[2atan(r)]sin(δ)}),
ΨIR(r,δ)=12atan(tan[2atan(r)]cos(δ)).
Sq(ϵIR)=S0,qeβqϵIR2,
I(θ)=A+Bcos[2(θ+Ψ)],
ϵ=tan(12asin1B2A2Γref2),
Sq(δ)=S0,qeβq[tan(12asin{sin[2atan(r)]sinδ})2].

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