Abstract

We numerically study the interaction of a terahertz pulse with monolayer graphene. We observe that the electron momentum density is affected by the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the single- to few-cycle terahertz laser pulse that induces the electron dynamics. In particular, we see strong asymmetric electron momentum distributions for non-zero values of the CEP. We explain the origin of the asymmetry within the adiabatic-impulse model by finding conditions to reach minimal adiabatic gap between the valence band and the conduction band. We discuss how these conditions and the interference pattern, emanating from successive non-adiabatic transitions at this minimal gap, affect the electron momentum density and how they are modified by the CEP. This opens the door to control fundamental time-dependent electron dynamics in the tunneling regime in Dirac materials. Also, this control suggests a way to measure the CEP of a terahertz laser pulse when it interacts with condensed matter systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2017 (9)

B. Ahn, J. Schötz, M. Kang, W. A. Okell, S. Mitra, B. Förg, S. Zherebtsov, F. Süßmann, C. Burger, M. Kübel, C. Liu, A. Wirth, E. D. Fabrizio, H. Yanagisawa, D. Kim, B. Kim, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime,” APL Photon. 2, 036104 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Dimitrovski, L. B. Madsen, and T. G. Pedersen, “High-order harmonic generation from gapped graphene: perturbative response and transition to nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 035405 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Higuchi, C. Heide, K. Ullmann, H. B. Weber, and P. Hommelhoff, “Light-field-driven currents in graphene,” Nature 550, 224–228 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Aeschlimann, R. Krause, M. Chávez-Cervantes, H. Bromberger, R. Jago, E. Malić, A. Al-Temimy, C. Coletti, A. Cavalleri, and I. Gierz, “Ultrafast momentum imaging of pseudospin-flip excitations in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 020301 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Fillion-Gourdeau, P. Blain, D. Gagnon, C. Lefebvre, and S. MacLean, “Numerical computation of dynamical Schwinger-like pair production in graphene,” Russ. Phys. J. 59, 1875–1880 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, F. Wendler, S. Brem, R. Jago, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, J. C. König-Otto, T. Plötzing, D. Neumaier, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Carrier dynamics in graphene: ultrafast many-particle phenomena,” Ann. Phys. 529, 1700038 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. V. Oladyshkin, S. B. Bodrov, Y. A. Sergeev, A. I. Korytin, M. D. Tokman, and A. N. Stepanov, “Optical emission of graphene and electron-hole pair production induced by a strong terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 155401 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Gagnon, F. Fillion-Gourdeau, J. Dumont, C. Lefebvre, and S. MacLean, “Coherent destruction of tunneling in graphene irradiated by elliptically polarized lasers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 29, 035501 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Gagnon, F. Fillion-Gourdeau, J. Dumont, C. Lefebvre, and S. MacLean, “Suppression of multiphoton resonances in driven quantum systems via pulse shape optimization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 053203 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

H. K. Kelardeh, V. Apalkov, and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond strong-field interferometry in graphene: chirality, singularity, and Berry phase,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 155434 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Wismer, S. Y. Kruchinin, M. Ciappina, M. I. Stockman, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Strong-field resonant dynamics in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 197401 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kristinsson, O. V. Kibis, S. Morina, and I. A. Shelykh, “Control of electronic transport in graphene by electromagnetic dressing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20082 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshioka, I. Katayama, Y. Minami, M. Kitajima, S. Yoshida, H. Shigekawa, and J. Takeda, “Real-space coherent manipulation of electrons in a single tunnel junction by single-cycle terahertz electric fields,” Nat. Photonics 10, 762–765 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Mikhailov, “Quantum theory of the third-order nonlinear electrodynamic effects of graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 085403 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Fillion-Gourdeau, D. Gagnon, C. Lefebvre, and S. MacLean, “Time-domain quantum interference in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 125423 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. K. Kelardeh, V. Apalkov, and M. I. Stockman, “Graphene in ultrafast and superstrong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 045439 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Fillion-Gourdeau and S. MacLean, “Time-dependent pair creation and the Schwinger mechanism in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 035401 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, A. Lanzara, F. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Colloquium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 959–994 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, J. E. Sipe, and M. M. Dignam, “High harmonic generation in undoped graphene: Interplay of inter- and intraband dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 245423 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wehling, A. Black-Schaffer, and A. Balatsky, “Dirac materials,” Adv. Phys. 63, 1–76 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, and M. I. S. F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. L. Ishikawa, “Electronic response of graphene to an ultrashort intense terahertz radiation pulse,” New J. Phys. 15, 055021 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1987 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. V. Syzranov, Y. I. Rodionov, K. I. Kugel, and F. Nori, “Strongly anisotropic Dirac quasiparticles in irradiated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 241112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. Gilbertson, G. L. Dakovski, T. Durakiewicz, J.-X. Zhu, K. M. Dani, A. D. Mohite, A. Dattelbaum, and G. Rodriguez, “Tracing ultrafast separation and coalescence of carrier distributions in graphene with time-resolved photoemission,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 64–68 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Di Piazza, C. Müller, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Extremely high-intensity laser interactions with fundamental quantum systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1177–1228 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Jafari, “Nonlinear optical response in gapped graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24, 205802 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süssmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, and M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, E. Bobkin, and A. Knorr, “Microscopic theory of absorption and ultrafast many-particle kinetics in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205406 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. J. G. Couto, B. Sacépé, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Transport through graphene on SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 225501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, “Landau-Zener–Stückelberg interferometry,” Phys. Rep. 492, 1–30 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Znakovskaya, P. von den Hoff, S. Zherebtsov, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, M. J. J. Vrakking, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond control of electron dynamics in carbon monoxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103002 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Allor, T. D. Cohen, and D. A. McGady, “Schwinger mechanism and graphene,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 096009 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman and P. Hewageegana, “Absolute phase effect in ultrafast optical responses of metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 247–250 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Park, F. Giustino, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Velocity renormalization and carrier lifetime in graphene from the electron-phonon interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 086804 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. A. Mikhailov, “Non-linear electromagnetic response of graphene,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 79, 27002 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Ashhab, J. R. Johansson, A. M. Zagoskin, and F. Nori, “Two-level systems driven by large-amplitude fields,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063414 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5  μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. F. Kling, C. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, T. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science 312, 246–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Phase dependence of enhanced ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203003 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Chelkowski and A. D. Bandrauk, “Sensitivity of spatial photoelectron distributions to the absolute phase of an ultrashort intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 061802 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Winderler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

J. Schwinger, “On gauge invariance and vacuum polarization,” Phys. Rev. 82, 664–679 (1951).
[Crossref]

Aeschlimann, S.

S. Aeschlimann, R. Krause, M. Chávez-Cervantes, H. Bromberger, R. Jago, E. Malić, A. Al-Temimy, C. Coletti, A. Cavalleri, and I. Gierz, “Ultrafast momentum imaging of pseudospin-flip excitations in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 020301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süssmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, and M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

B. Ahn, J. Schötz, M. Kang, W. A. Okell, S. Mitra, B. Förg, S. Zherebtsov, F. Süßmann, C. Burger, M. Kübel, C. Liu, A. Wirth, E. D. Fabrizio, H. Yanagisawa, D. Kim, B. Kim, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond-controlled photoemission from metal nanowire tips in the few-electron regime,” APL Photon. 2, 036104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allor, D.

D. Allor, T. D. Cohen, and D. A. McGady, “Schwinger mechanism and graphene,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 096009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

I. Al-Naib, J. E. Sipe, and M. M. Dignam, “High harmonic generation in undoped graphene: Interplay of inter- and intraband dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 245423 (2014).
[Crossref]

Al-Temimy, A.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a), (c), (e) Electron momentum density maps in graphene for three different values of CEP ϕ=0,π/4,π/2. (b), (d), (f) Associated electric field, E(t) (black line), and vector potential, A(t) (green line), with parameters: one optical cycle (N=1); 10 THz; 107  V/m. Also displayed is the time evolution of px+eA(t) with px<0 (red dashed line) and px>0 (blue dashed line) for representative values of (b) |px|=22  eV, (d) |px|=12.5  eV, and (f) |px|=17  eV. The red/blue circles indicate the solutions of px+eA(t)=0, i.e., times where Eq. (7) is fulfilled and the non-adiabatic transition probability Pj is large.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Instantaneous field amplitude E(tj) for j=1 (dots) and j=2 (circles) when the condition for non-adiabatic transition at minimal interband gap is fulfilled [Eq. (7)] for a one-cycle laser pulse (N=1), 10 THz, 107  V/m, and (a) ϕ=0, (b) ϕ=π/4, and (c) ϕ=π/2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Asymmetry parameter X of the integrated EMD as a function of the CEP for laser pulses with 1 (black solid line), 2 (green dashed line), 3 (blue dotted dashed line), 5 (red dashed line), and 10 (magenta dotted dashed line) optical cycles; 10 THz, 107  V/m.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Electron momentum distribution maps in graphene for three different values of CEP: (a) ϕ=0, (b) ϕ=π/4, and (c) ϕ=π/2 for a five-cycle laser pulse (N=5); 10 THz; 107  V/m.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Instantaneous field amplitude E(tj) for j=1 to 512 when the condition for non-adiabatic transition at minimal interband gap is fulfilled [Eq. (7)] for a five-cycle laser pulse (N=5), 10 THz, 107  V/m, and (a) ϕ=0, (b) ϕ=π/4, and (c) ϕ=π/2.

Equations (23)

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itψs,K±(t,p)=HK±(t,p)ψs,K±(t,p),
HK±(t,p)=±vFα·(p+eA(t)).
fs,K±(p)=12Ep2Ep|us,K±(p)ψs,K±(tf,p)|2,
ψs,K±(ti,p)=vs,K±(p),
E(t)=tA(t)=x^tAx(t).
Ax(t)=E0ωε0(t)sin(ωt+ϕ),
ε0(t)={0,for  t[0,NT]sin2(πtNT),for  t[0,NT],
px+eA(t)=0.
Badiab(t0)=(01).
Utj+1,tjadiab=(eiξj+1,j00eiξj+1,j),
Pj=eπvFpy2e|Ex(tj)|,
Nj=(1PjeiφjPjPj1Pjeiφj),
Badiab(tf)=Utf,t2adiabN2Ut2,t1adiabN1Ut1,t0adiabBadiab(t0),=(B1adiab(tf)B2adiab(tf)),
B1adiab(tf)=P11P2eiφ2ei(ξ1,0ξ2,1ξf,2)1P1P2eiφ1ei(ξ1,0+ξ2,1ξf,2),
B2adiab(tf)=P1P2ei(ξ1,0ξ2,1+ξf,2)+1P11P2eiφ1+φ2ei(ξ1,0+ξ2,1+ξf,2).
Cadiab=(10),
P=|CadiabBadiab(tf)|2=P1(1P2)+P2(1P1)+2P1P2(1P1)(1P2)cos(φ1+φ2+2ξ2,1).
fs,K±(p)=P.
X=P+PP++P,
us,K+(p)=1Ep[EpvF(px+ipy)],
vs,K+(p)=1Ep[vF(pxipy)Ep],
us,K(p)=1Ep[EpvF(pxipy)],
vs,K(p)=1Ep[vF(px+ipy)Ep],