Abstract

We examine the applicability of wireless indoor quantum key distribution (QKD) in hybrid quantum-classical networks. We propose practical configurations that would enable wireless access to such networks. The proposed setups would allow an indoor wireless user, equipped with a QKD-enabled mobile device, to communicate securely with a remote party on the other end of the access network. QKD signals, sent through wireless indoor channels, are combined with classical ones and sent over shared fiber links to the remote user. Dense wavelength-division multiplexing would enable the simultaneous transmission of quantum and classical signals over the same fiber. We consider the adverse effects of the background noise induced by Raman-scattered light on the QKD receivers due to such an integration. In addition, we consider the loss and the background noise that arise from indoor environments. We consider a number of discrete and continuous-variable QKD protocols and study their performance in different scenarios.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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Corrections

8 May 2018: A correction was made to the acknowledgments.


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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (2)

2016 (2)

S. Bahrani, M. Razavi, and J. A. Salehi, “Crosstalk reduction in hybrid quantum-classical networks,” Sci. Iran. Trans. D 23, 2898–2907 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bahrani, M. Razavi, and J. A. Salehi, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution in the presence of Raman noise,” Proc. SPIE 9900, 99001C (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

E. Diamanti and A. Leverrier, “Distributing secret keys with quantum continuous variables: principle, security and implementations,” Entropy 17, 6072–6092 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kumar, H. Qin, and R. Alléaume, “Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels,” New J. Phys. 17, 043027 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, D. Huang, P. Huang, D. Lin, J. Peng, and G. Zeng, “25  MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50  km fiber channel,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14607 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Panayi, M. Razavi, X. Ma, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 16, 043005 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10  Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 378–381 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

L. S. Madsen, V. C. Usenko, M. Lassen, R. Filip, and U. L. Andersen, “Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1083 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ma and M. Razavi, “Alternative schemes for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 062319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, and M. Razavi, “Statistical fluctuation analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 052305 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legrè, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys. 12, 063027 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys. 12, 103042 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

F. Xu, W. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Yin, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, H. Li, D. Liu, Z. Han, and G. Guo, “Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2991–2997 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. Garca-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution over 25  km with an all-fiber continuous-variable system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Yuan, B. Kardynal, A. Sharpe, and A. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. L. Duligall, M. S. Godfrey, K. A. Harrison, W. J. Munro, and J. G. Rarity, “Low cost and compact quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 8, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Hendrych, “Quantum cryptography,” Prog. Opt. 49, 381–454 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, H.-F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” J. Crypt. 18, 133–165 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Grosshans, G. Van Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature 421, 238–241 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Grosshans and P. Grangier, “Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057902 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330–1333 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

R. Kumar, H. Qin, and R. Alléaume, “Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels,” New J. Phys. 17, 043027 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Kumar, H. Qin, and R. Alléaume, “Experimental demonstration of the coexistence of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with an intense DWDM classical channel,” in CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper FM4A–1.

Andersen, U. L.

L. S. Madsen, V. C. Usenko, M. Lassen, R. Filip, and U. L. Andersen, “Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1083 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ardehali, M.

H.-K. Lo, H.-F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” J. Crypt. 18, 133–165 (2005).
[Crossref]

Asai, T.

Bahrani, S.

S. Bahrani, M. Razavi, and J. A. Salehi, “Crosstalk reduction in hybrid quantum-classical networks,” Sci. Iran. Trans. D 23, 2898–2907 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bahrani, M. Razavi, and J. A. Salehi, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution in the presence of Raman noise,” Proc. SPIE 9900, 99001C (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bahrani, M. Razavi, and J. A. Salehi, “Wavelength assignment in hybrid quantum-classical networks,” arXiv:1701.08270 (2017).

Bapst, U.

F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[Crossref]

Barber, B.

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barry, J. R.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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Sakai, Y.

Salehi, J. A.

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Scarani, V.

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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Sharpe, A.

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Sharpe, A. W.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10  Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051123 (2014).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Shields, A.

Z. Yuan, B. Kardynal, A. Sharpe, and A. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
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Shields, A. J.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10  Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051123 (2014).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Shimizu, K.

Sodnik, Z.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Stucki, D.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Suda, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tamas, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Tanaka, A.

Themel, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Thew, R. T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Thoma, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Tiefenbacher, F.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144  km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
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J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
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Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

Treiber, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Trinkler, P.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Tualle-Brouri, R.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic view of exchanging secret keys between an indoor wireless user with a central office at the end of an access network. The transmitter is mobile, while the QKD receiver or the collection point is fixed on the ceiling.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Setup 1, where secret key exchange between Alice and Bob is achieved in two steps. K 1 is generated between Alice and Rx, while K 2 is generated between Tx and Bob. The resultant key is computed by taking the XOR of K 1 and K 2 . Three cases are examined according to the position and alignment of the QKD transmitter. The DS-BB84 and GG02 protocols will be examined in this setup. Dynamic beam steering is used at the Rx node.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Setup 2, where secret keys are exchanged between Alice and Bob using the DS-BB84 and GG02 protocols. The latter is only used in case 3. The QKD signals are collected and coupled to the fiber and sent to Bob, where the measurement is performed. Dynamic beam steering is used at the collection node.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Setup 3, where secret keys are exchanged between Alice and Bob using the MDI-QKD protocol. The BSM is performed at the user’s end in this setup.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Setup 4, where secret keys are exchanged between Alice and the central office using the MDI-QKD protocol. The BSM is performed at the splitting point of the DWDM PON.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Bell-state measurement (BSM) module used in setups 3 and 4. This module works for time-bin encoded QKD signals. If fast detectors are available, as assumed here, we can do a separate measurement on each time bin. If not, we can still measure one out of four Bell states by relying on a single click in total on each detector.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Secret key rate per pulse versus the coupling loss, η coup , in decibels (dB), in setups 2, 3, and 4 in cases 1 and 2. The QKD source is placed at the center of the room in case 1, while it is moved to a corner of the room in case 2, with semi-angle at half-power of ϕ 1 / 2 = 20 ° in both cases. Receiver’s FOV is 6°. The decoy-state and MDI-QKD protocols are used for secret key-rate analysis. The bulb’s PSD in cases 1 and 2 is 10 7    W / nm and 10 8    W / nm , respectively. The fiber length ( L 0 ) is 10 km. (DS, decoy state; SPP, single-photon pulse.)
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Secret key rate for setups 1–3 in case 3, in which the full alignment between the QKD node on the ceiling and wireless transmitter is obtained. The QKD source is placed at a corner of the room’s floor, with semi-angle at half-power ϕ 1 / 2 = 1 ° . Receiver’s FOV is 6°. (a) The secret key rate per pulse versus the coupling loss, η coup , in dB. Fiber length is L 0 = 10    km and PSD is 10 5    W / nm . (b) The total secret key rate in bits per second (bps) versus L 0 when the coupling loss is 10 dB, PSD is 10 5    W / nm , and the repetition rate is 1 GHz. (DS, decoy state; SPP, single-photon pulse.)
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Noise counts per detector due to (a) forward Raman scattering, (b) backward Raman scattering, (c) the artificial lighting source, and (d) the total background noise n N , all in count per pulse (c/p), versus L 0 . The bulb’s PSD is 10 5    W / nm and η coup is 10 dB.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Comparison of the GG02 and DS-BB84 protocols for setup 2 and case 3 [except for the curve labeled GG02 (setup 1)]. (a) Secret key rate per pulse versus total background noise. The latter is assumed to be per detector for DV-QKD, while it is per spatio-temporal mode for CV-QKD. (b) Secret key rate per pulse versus coupling loss, η coup , in dB. The coupling loss in (a) is 5 dB for setup 2 and 0 dB for setup 1. The shared fiber length ( L 0 ) is 10 km. The used bulb’s PSD is 10 5    W / nm .
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) Regions of secure operation for DV-QKD (DS-BB84) and CV-QKD (GG02) protocols for setup 2 (case 3). The curves show the maximum tolerable background noise at different values of coupling loss, η coup , in dB. The background noise is calculated per detector for DV-QKD, while it is per spatio-temporal mode for CV-QKD. (b) Comparison of the two systems from the clock rate point of view when the CV repetition rate is fixed to 25 MHz. In (a) and (b), L 0 = 10    km . In (b), coupling loss is 5 dB and PSD is 10 5    W / nm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Nominal Values Used for Our System Parameters

Equations (39)

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H DC = { A ( m + 1 ) 2 π d 2 cos ( ϕ ) m T s ( ψ ) × g ( ψ ) cos ( ψ ) 0 ψ Ψ c 0 elsewhere ,
m = ln 2 ln ( cos ( ϕ 1 / 2 ) )
g ( ψ ) = { n 2 sin 2 ( Ψ c ) 0 ψ Ψ c 0 ψ > Ψ c .
I R f ( I , L , λ d , λ q ) = I e α L L Γ ( λ d , λ q ) Δ λ
I R b ( I , L , λ d , λ q ) = I ( 1 e 2 α L ) 2 α Γ ( λ d , λ q ) Δ λ
μ R f = η d I R f λ q T d h c
μ R b = η d I R b λ q T d h c ,
R q { Q μ f h ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 h ( e 1 ) ] } ,
n N = n B 1 η d 1 / 2 + n dc ,
I T 1 f = [ I R f ( I , L 0 + L 1 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) + k = 2 N I R f ( I e α L k , L 0 , λ d k , λ q 1 ) ] 10 2 Λ / 10
I T 1 b = [ I R b ( I , L 0 + L 1 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) + k = 2 N I R b ( I , L 0 , λ d k , λ q 1 ) ] 10 2 Λ / 10 ,
n N = η d 2 λ q 1 T d 2 h c ( I T 1 f + I T 1 b ) + n dc ,
η fib = 10 [ α ( L 1 + L 0 ) + 2 Λ ] / 10 .
n N = η d 2 2 [ λ q 1 T d h c ( I T 2 f + I T 2 b ) + n B 1 η fib η coup ] + n dc ,
K = β I A B χ B E ,
n r = λ q 1 T d h c ( I T 1 f + I T 1 b ) .
n r = λ q 1 T d h c ( I T 2 f + I T 2 b ) .
I T 3 f = [ I R f ( I , L 0 + L 1 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) + e α L 1 k = 2 N I R f ( I , L 0 , λ d k , λ q 1 ) ] 10 2 Λ / 10 , I T 3 b = [ I R b ( I , L 0 + L 1 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) + e α L 1 k = 2 N I R b ( I e α L k , L 0 , λ d k , λ q 1 ) ] 10 2 Λ / 10 .
n N = η d 2 4 [ λ q 1 T d h c ( I T 3 f + I T 3 b ) + n B 1 η coup ] + n dc ,
I T 4 f = [ I R f ( I , L 0 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) + k = 2 N I R f ( I , L 0 , λ d k , λ q 1 ) ] × 10 2 Λ / 10 + I R f ( I , L 1 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) , I T 4 b = [ I R b ( I e α L 1 , L 0 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) + k = 2 N I R b ( I e α L k , L 0 , λ d k , λ q 1 ) + I R b ( I e α L 0 , L 1 , λ d 1 , λ q 1 ) ] 10 2 Λ / 10 .
n N = η d 2 4 [ λ q 1 T d h c ( I T 4 f + I T 4 b ) + n B 1 η coup 10 α L 1 / 10 ] + n dc .
R q { Q μ f h ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 h ( e 1 ) ] } ,
Q μ = 1 e η μ ( 1 n N ) 2 , E μ = e 0 Q μ ( e 0 e d ) ( 1 e η μ ) ( 1 n N ) Q μ , Q 1 = Y 1 μ e μ , e 1 = e 0 Y 1 ( e 0 e d ) η ( 1 n N ) Y 1 ,
Y 1 = 1 ( 1 η ) ( 1 n N ) 2 , h ( x ) = x log 2 x ( 1 x ) log 2 ( 1 x ) ,
K = β I A B χ B E ,
I A B = 1 2 log 2 V + χ tot 1 + χ tot ,
V = V A + 1 ,
χ tot = χ line + χ hom / η ch ,
χ line = 1 η ch η ch + ϵ , χ hom = 1 η B η B + v elec η B ,
χ B E = g ( Λ 1 ) + g ( Λ 2 ) g ( Λ 3 ) g ( Λ 4 ) ,
g ( x ) = ( x + 1 2 ) log 2 ( x + 1 2 ) ( x 1 2 ) log 2 ( x 1 2 ) ,
Λ 1 / 2 = ( A ± A 2 4 B ) / 2 , Λ 3 / 4 = ( C ± C 2 4 D ) / 2 .
A = V 2 ( 1 2 η ch ) + 2 η ch + η ch 2 ( V + χ line ) 2 , B = η ch 2 ( V χ line + 1 ) 2 , C = V B + η ch ( V + χ line ) + A χ hom η ch ( V + χ tot ) , D = B V + B χ hom η ch ( V + χ tot ) .
R MDI - QKD SPP = Y 11 [ 1 h ( e 11 : X ) f h ( e 11 : Z ) ]
R MDI - QKD DS = Q 11 ( 1 h ( e 11 ; X ) ) f Q μ ν ; Z h ( E μ ν ; Z ) .
Q 11 = μ ν e μ ν Y 11 ,
Y 11 = ( 1 n N ) 2 [ η a η b / 2 + ( 2 η a + 2 η b 3 η a η b ) n N + 4 ( 1 η a ) ( 1 η b ) n N 2 ] ,
e 11 ; X Y 11 = Y 11 / 2 ( 1 / 2 e d ) ( 1 n N ) 2 η a η b / 2 , e 11 ; Z Y 11 = Y 11 / 2 ( 1 / 2 e d ) ( 1 n N ) 2 ( 1 2 n N ) η a η b / 2 , Q μ ν ; Z = Q C + Q E , E μ ν ; Z Q μ ν ; Z = e d Q c + ( 1 e d ) Q E ,
Q C = 2 ( 1 n N ) 2 e μ / 2 [ 1 ( 1 n N ) e η a μ / 2 ] × [ 1 ( 1 n N ) e η b ν / 2 ] Q E = 2 n N ( 1 n N ) 2 e μ / 2 [ I 0 ( 2 x ) ( 1 n N ) e μ / 2 ] ,

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