Abstract

Midwave infrared (MWIR) light is critically important for a variety of applications, such as chemical sensing and LIDAR. Directional control over MWIR light is required for these applications and is typically accomplished using mechanical devices such as gimbal-mounted mirrors. Mechanical steerers, however, are subject to a host of problems, and replacing them has been a long-standing goal. In this paper, we describe the first nonmechanical beam steerer capable of continuous angular tuning in the MWIR. These devices are chip-based and provide steering in two dimensions without relying on moving parts. Previous work has demonstrated nonmechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the short-wave infrared and near infrared using a waveguide in which a portion of the propagating light is evanescently coupled to a liquid crystal (LC) layer in which the refractive index is voltage-tuned. We have extended this NMBS technology into the MWIR by utilizing a unique combination of materials, specifically chalcogenide glass waveguides and LC materials that exhibit high MWIR transparency. We explain the working principles behind these steerers, discuss material considerations for transparency in the MWIR, describe steerer fabrication, and present experimental results showing up to 14° in-plane and 0.6° out-of-plane steering.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (3)

J. R. Lindle and A. T. Watnik, “Large angle nonmechanical laser beam steering at 4.6  μm using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 57, 027108 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Xiang, J. Kim, and M. J. Escuti, “Bragg polarization gratings for wide angular bandwidth and high efficiency at steep deflection angles,” Sci. Rep. 8, 7202 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 76180E (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Kim, C. Oh, M. J. Escuti, L. Hosting, and S. Serati, “Wide-angle nonmechanical beam steering using thin liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 709302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. Haellstig, J. Stigwall, M. Lindgren, and L. Sjoqvist, “Laser beam steering and tracking using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 5087, 13–23 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500  K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

Abdel-Moneim, N. S.

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Abdulhalim, I.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

Agra-Kooijman, D. M.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M. H.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 76180E (2010).
[Crossref]

Bayya, S.

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Bekele, R.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

Bekele, R. Y.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Chaudhary, A.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Davis, S. R.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 76180E (2010).
[Crossref]

Deegan, J.

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Douglass, M. R.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[Crossref]

Drake, G.

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Escuti, M. J.

X. Xiang, J. Kim, and M. J. Escuti, “Bragg polarization gratings for wide angular bandwidth and high efficiency at steep deflection angles,” Sci. Rep. 8, 7202 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, C. Oh, M. J. Escuti, L. Hosting, and S. Serati, “Wide-angle nonmechanical beam steering using thin liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 709302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Farca, G.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 76180E (2010).
[Crossref]

Frantz, J.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

Frantz, J. A.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Furniss, D.

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Gamble, J. D.

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gann, D.

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gelbaor-Kirzhner, M.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gibson, D.

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Gotjen, H.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

Haellstig, E.

E. Haellstig, J. Stigwall, M. Lindgren, and L. Sjoqvist, “Laser beam steering and tracking using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 5087, 13–23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hewak, D. W.

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hornbeck, L. J.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hosting, L.

J. Kim, C. Oh, M. J. Escuti, L. Hosting, and S. Serati, “Wide-angle nonmechanical beam steering using thin liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 709302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Icenogle, H. W.

Johnson, S.

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 76180E (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

X. Xiang, J. Kim, and M. J. Escuti, “Bragg polarization gratings for wide angular bandwidth and high efficiency at steep deflection angles,” Sci. Rep. 8, 7202 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, C. Oh, M. J. Escuti, L. Hosting, and S. Serati, “Wide-angle nonmechanical beam steering using thin liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 709302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klebanov, M.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kochubey, V.

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Kolacz, J.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Kolacz, J. S.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

Kotov, M.

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kumar, T. A.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kuzutkina, Y.

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Lindberg, G.

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Lindgren, M.

E. Haellstig, J. Stigwall, M. Lindgren, and L. Sjoqvist, “Laser beam steering and tracking using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 5087, 13–23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lindle, J. R.

J. R. Lindle and A. T. Watnik, “Large angle nonmechanical laser beam steering at 4.6  μm using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 57, 027108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luey, B.

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

McClain, C.

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

Meier, R. E.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[Crossref]

Melnikov, A.

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Miklos, R.

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

Myers, J. D.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Naciri, J.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

Nguyen, V.

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Oh, C.

J. Kim, C. Oh, M. J. Escuti, L. Hosting, and S. Serati, “Wide-angle nonmechanical beam steering using thin liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 709302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okada, Y.

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500  K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Platt, B. C.

Ratna, B. R.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Reznikov, Y. A.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Romanova, E.

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Rommel, S. D.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 76180E (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Seddon, A.

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Serati, S.

J. Kim, C. Oh, M. J. Escuti, L. Hosting, and S. Serati, “Wide-angle nonmechanical beam steering using thin liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 709302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sharpnack, L.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shaw, B.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

Shaw, L. B.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Sheremet, N. V.

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sjoqvist, L.

E. Haellstig, J. Stigwall, M. Lindgren, and L. Sjoqvist, “Laser beam steering and tracking using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 5087, 13–23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sodergren, B.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

Spillmann, C.

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

Spillmann, C. M.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

Stigwall, J.

E. Haellstig, J. Stigwall, M. Lindgren, and L. Sjoqvist, “Laser beam steering and tracking using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 5087, 13–23 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tokumaru, Y.

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500  K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ulrich, R.

Van Kessel, P. F.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[Crossref]

Villalobos, G.

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-J.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

Watnik, A. T.

J. R. Lindle and A. T. Watnik, “Large angle nonmechanical laser beam steering at 4.6  μm using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 57, 027108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, W. L.

Xiang, X.

X. Xiang, J. Kim, and M. J. Escuti, “Bragg polarization gratings for wide angular bandwidth and high efficiency at steep deflection angles,” Sci. Rep. 8, 7202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ziemkiewicz, M.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500  K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314–320 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

N. V. Sheremet, L. Sharpnack, M. Gelbaor-Kirzhner, D. M. Agra-Kooijman, A. Chaudhary, T. A. Kumar, M. Klebanov, I. Abdulhalim, S. Kumar, and Y. A. Reznikov, “Liquid crystal photoalignment on As2 S3 chalcogenide thin films,” J. Phys. D 50, 065306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, “Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Mater. Lett. 60, 1350–1353 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. R. Lindle and A. T. Watnik, “Large angle nonmechanical laser beam steering at 4.6  μm using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 57, 027108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (8)

E. Haellstig, J. Stigwall, M. Lindgren, and L. Sjoqvist, “Laser beam steering and tracking using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 5087, 13–23 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, C. Oh, M. J. Escuti, L. Hosting, and S. Serati, “Wide-angle nonmechanical beam steering using thin liquid crystal polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7093, 709302 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. R. Davis, G. Farca, S. D. Rommel, S. Johnson, and M. H. Anderson, “Liquid crystal waveguides: new devices enabled by >1000 waves of optical phase control,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 76180E (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ziemkiewicz, S. R. Davis, S. D. Rommel, D. Gann, B. Luey, J. D. Gamble, and M. Anderson, “Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners,” Proc. SPIE 9828, 982808 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, R. Y. Bekele, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, J. S. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, B. Sodergren, Y.-J. Wang, S. D. Rommel, M. Anderson, S. R. Davis, and M. Ziemkiewicz, “Non-mechanical beam steering in the mid-wave infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10181, 101810X (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Myers, J. Frantz, C. Spillmann, R. Bekele, J. Kolacz, H. Gotjen, J. Naciri, B. Shaw, and J. Sanghera, “Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR,” Proc. SPIE 10539, 105390A (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Gibson, S. Bayya, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, R. Miklos, and C. McClain, “IR-GRIN optics for imaging,” Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220R (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bayya, D. Gibson, V. Nguyen, J. Sanghera, M. Kotov, G. Drake, J. Deegan, and G. Lindberg, “Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map,” Proc. SPIE 9451, 94511N (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Xiang, J. Kim, and M. J. Escuti, “Bragg polarization gratings for wide angular bandwidth and high efficiency at steep deflection angles,” Sci. Rep. 8, 7202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Y. Kuzutkina, A. Melnikov, E. Romanova, V. Kochubey, N. S. Abdel-Moneim, D. Furniss, and A. Seddon, “Dispersion of linear and nonlinear refractive index in chalcogenide glass,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, H. Gotjen, J. Kolacz, J. Frantz, J. D. Myers, and R. Bekele, “Liquid crystal-based refractive beamsteering in the infrared,” in Advanced Photonics (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, PS) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th1C.1.

J. A. Frantz, J. D. Myers, C. M. Spillmann, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, R. Y. Bekele, and J. Kolacz, “Liquid crystal alignment on chalcogenide glasses,” U.S. patent2018/0024413 (A1) (January25, 2018).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram showing a SEEOR in cross section (bottom) and an angled view of the cover glass showing the patterned electrodes (top).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Plot of the effective index of the waveguide and the tapout length as a function of position from the tip of a SEEOR at the input side.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Attenuation coefficient versus wavelength for a five-component eutectic mixture.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEEOR substrate dimensions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Geometric model of an offset shadow-mask deposition, and (b) example test taper with visible interference fringing in the tapered region. The mask edge is indicated, as well as approximate lengths of x 1 and x 2 .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Measured chalcogenide taper profile, and (b) cubic fit to measured profile.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. SEM images of chalcogenide taper as a function of position.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. AFM images of bare and brushed chalcogenide glass surfaces for LC alignment. The resulting LC alignment for each case is also shown, as viewed through crossed polarizers.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Photograph of a completed SEEOR chip, and (b) an image of a SEEOR chip showing fringes in the tapered regions.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Diagram of the MWIR steering characterization setup.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Steering curves for MWIR SEEORs versus applied voltage. (a) In-plane steering curves for devices with LC aligned parallel to the light path (black, LC //), perpendicular to the light path (LC ⊥, blue) and under high voltage (red); (b) out-of-plane steering with same naming convention as in (a).
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Outcoupled beam profile as a function of voltage, displayed in angle-space. The ellipses show the dimensions of the x and y profile at each voltage.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Bandwidth measurement of SEEOR at different wavelengths.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Properties of Passive Waveguide Materials

Equations (4)

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V 1 peak = V 3 τ 321 ( β ) a ( β ) e i ( k β x ω t ) u ( β ) ,
u ( β ) = 1 1 r 10 r 123 e 2 i k ξ 1 W ,
x 1 = ( y + z ) tan α ,
x 2 = ( y ) tan β .

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