Abstract

We consider the problem of light transmission from a high refractive index medium into a low-index environment. While total internal reflection severely limits such transmission in systems with smooth interfaces, diffractive metasurfaces may help out-couple light that enters an interface at blazing angles. We demonstrate that the profile of the structured interface can be numerically optimized to target a specific emission pattern. Our study suggests that while metasurfaces can help to out-couple light from a range of incident directions, there exists a universal limit for total transmission efficiency that depends only on the dielectric properties of the two materials and is independent of the profile and the composition of the metasurface coupler.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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