Abstract

Levitated optomechanics, a new experimental physics platform, holds promise for fundamental science and quantum technological sensing applications. We demonstrate a simple and robust geometry for optical trapping in vacuum of a single nanoparticle based on a parabolic mirror and the optical gradient force. We demonstrate parametric feedback cooling of all three motional degrees of freedom from room temperature to a few millikelvin. A single laser at 1550 nm and a single photodiode are used for trapping, position detection, and cooling for all three dimensions. Particles with diameters from 26 to 160 nm are trapped without feedback to 105  mbar, and with feedback-engaged, the pressure is reduced to 106  mbar. Modifications to the harmonic motion in the presence of noise and feedback are studied, and an experimental mechanical quality factor in excess of 4×107 is evaluated. This particle manipulation is key to building a nanoparticle matter-wave interferometer in order to test the quantum superposition principle in the macroscopic domain.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Quantum model of cooling and force sensing with an optically trapped nanoparticle

B. Rodenburg, L. P. Neukirch, A. N. Vamivakas, and M. Bhattacharya
Optica 3(3) 318-323 (2016)

Effects of photon scattering torque in off-axis levitated torsional cavity optomechanics

M. Bhattacharya, B. Rodenburg, W. Wetzel, B. Ek, and A. K. Jha
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6) C44-C51 (2017)

Dynamics of a levitated microparticle in vacuum trapped by a perfect vortex beam: three-dimensional motion around a complex optical potential

Yoshihiko Arita, Mingzhou Chen, Ewan M. Wright, and Kishan Dholakia
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6) C14-C19 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. P. Neukirch, E. v. Haartman, J. M. Rosenholm, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond,” Nat. Photonics 9, 653–657 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Phys. 10, 271–277 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Diosi, “Gravitation and quantum-mechanical localization of macro-objects,” Phys. Lett. A 105, 199–202 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Penrose, “On gravity’s role in quantum state reduction,” Gen. Relativ. Gravi. 28, 581–600 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Anastopoulos and B. L. Hu, “Probing a gravitational cat state,” Classical Quantum Grav. 32, 165022 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Li, S. Kheifets, and M. G. Raizen, “Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum,” Nat. Phys. 7, 527–530 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Gieseler, B. Deutsch, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Sub-kelvin parametric feedback cooling of a laser-trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 103603 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2374 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9, 806–810 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Beresnev, V. Chernyak, and G. Fomyagin, “Motion of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas. Part 2. Drag and thermal polarization,” J. Fluid Mech. 219, 405–421 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, C. Moritz, and C. Dellago, “Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling,” New J. Phys. 17, 045011 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Bateman, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and H. Ulbricht, “Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4788 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Bahrami, M. Paternostro, A. Bassi, and H. Ulbricht, “Proposal for a noninterferometric test of collapse models in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 210404 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and K. Hammerer, “Optomechanical sensing of spontaneous wave-function collapse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 020405 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Diosi, “Testing spontaneous wave-function collapse models on classical mechanical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 050403 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. Goldwater, M. Paternostro, and P. F. Barker, “Testing wave-function-collapse models using parametric heating of a trapped nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 010104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).
  32. J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. C. J. Riedel, “Direct detection of classically undetectable dark matter through quantum decoherence,” Phys. Rev. D 88, 116005 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  35. B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  36. A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-range force detection using optically cooled levitated microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 101101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  37. Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033614 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. M. Wiseman and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum theory of optical feedback via homodyne detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548–551 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  40. H. Wiseman and G. Milburn, Quantum Measurement and Control (Cambridge University, 2010).

2017 (1)

2016 (8)

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Goldwater, M. Paternostro, and P. F. Barker, “Testing wave-function-collapse models using parametric heating of a trapped nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 010104 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

2015 (8)

J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, C. Moritz, and C. Dellago, “Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling,” New J. Phys. 17, 045011 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Diosi, “Testing spontaneous wave-function collapse models on classical mechanical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 050403 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. P. Neukirch, E. v. Haartman, J. M. Rosenholm, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond,” Nat. Photonics 9, 653–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Anastopoulos and B. L. Hu, “Probing a gravitational cat state,” Classical Quantum Grav. 32, 165022 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Phys. 10, 271–277 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and H. Ulbricht, “Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Bahrami, M. Paternostro, A. Bassi, and H. Ulbricht, “Proposal for a noninterferometric test of collapse models in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 210404 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and K. Hammerer, “Optomechanical sensing of spontaneous wave-function collapse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 020405 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9, 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Riedel, “Direct detection of classically undetectable dark matter through quantum decoherence,” Phys. Rev. D 88, 116005 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2374 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Gieseler, B. Deutsch, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Sub-kelvin parametric feedback cooling of a laser-trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 103603 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Li, S. Kheifets, and M. G. Raizen, “Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum,” Nat. Phys. 7, 527–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-range force detection using optically cooled levitated microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 101101 (2010).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. Penrose, “On gravity’s role in quantum state reduction,” Gen. Relativ. Gravi. 28, 581–600 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. M. Wiseman and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum theory of optical feedback via homodyne detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548–551 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. Beresnev, V. Chernyak, and G. Fomyagin, “Motion of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas. Part 2. Drag and thermal polarization,” J. Fluid Mech. 219, 405–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

L. Diosi, “Gravitation and quantum-mechanical localization of macro-objects,” Phys. Lett. A 105, 199–202 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anastopoulos, C.

C. Anastopoulos and B. L. Hu, “Probing a gravitational cat state,” Classical Quantum Grav. 32, 165022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arita, Y.

Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2374 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arndt, M.

S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Phys. 10, 271–277 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asenbaum, P.

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bahrami, M.

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahrami, M. Paternostro, A. Bassi, and H. Ulbricht, “Proposal for a noninterferometric test of collapse models in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 210404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bang, J.

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barker, P.

J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barker, P. F.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Goldwater, M. Paternostro, and P. F. Barker, “Testing wave-function-collapse models using parametric heating of a trapped nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 010104 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bassi, A.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahrami, M. Paternostro, A. Bassi, and H. Ulbricht, “Proposal for a noninterferometric test of collapse models in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 210404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bateman, J.

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and H. Ulbricht, “Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beresnev, S.

S. Beresnev, V. Chernyak, and G. Fomyagin, “Motion of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas. Part 2. Drag and thermal polarization,” J. Fluid Mech. 219, 405–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Blaser, F.

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bongs, K.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Bose, S.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Braxmaier, C.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Brukner, C.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chernyak, V.

S. Beresnev, V. Chernyak, and G. Fomyagin, “Motion of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas. Part 2. Drag and thermal polarization,” J. Fluid Mech. 219, 405–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cheshnovsky, O.

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

Christophe, B.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Chwalla, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Cirac, J. I.

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cohadon, P.-F.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Cruise, A. M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Curceanu, C.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Delic, U.

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dellago, C.

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, C. Moritz, and C. Dellago, “Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling,” New J. Phys. 17, 045011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, B.

J. Gieseler, B. Deutsch, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Sub-kelvin parametric feedback cooling of a laser-trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 103603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2374 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diosi, L.

L. Diosi, “Testing spontaneous wave-function collapse models on classical mechanical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 050403 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Diosi, “Gravitation and quantum-mechanical localization of macro-objects,” Phys. Lett. A 105, 199–202 (1984).
[Crossref]

Döringshoff, K.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Duan, L. M.

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ertmer, W.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Fomyagin, G.

S. Beresnev, V. Chernyak, and G. Fomyagin, “Motion of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas. Part 2. Drag and thermal polarization,” J. Fluid Mech. 219, 405–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fonseca, P.

J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Genoni, M. G.

M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geraci, A. A.

A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-range force detection using optically cooled levitated microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 101101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gieseler, J.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, C. Moritz, and C. Dellago, “Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling,” New J. Phys. 17, 045011 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9, 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, B. Deutsch, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Sub-kelvin parametric feedback cooling of a laser-trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 103603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goldwater, D.

D. Goldwater, M. Paternostro, and P. F. Barker, “Testing wave-function-collapse models using parametric heating of a trapped nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 010104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grass, D.

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gürlebeck, N.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Haartman, E. v.

L. P. Neukirch, E. v. Haartman, J. M. Rosenholm, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond,” Nat. Photonics 9, 653–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hammerer, K.

S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and K. Hammerer, “Optomechanical sensing of spontaneous wave-function collapse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 020405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hechenblaikner, G.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Heidmann, A.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Hempston, D.

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, S.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Hoang, T. M.

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hornberger, K.

S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Phys. 10, 271–277 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and K. Hammerer, “Optomechanical sensing of spontaneous wave-function collapse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 020405 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and H. Ulbricht, “Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hossenfelder, S.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Hu, B. L.

C. Anastopoulos and B. L. Hu, “Probing a gravitational cat state,” Classical Quantum Grav. 32, 165022 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jain, V.

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jess Riedel, C.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Johann, U.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Kaltenbaek, R.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kheifets, S.

T. Li, S. Kheifets, and M. G. Raizen, “Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum,” Nat. Phys. 7, 527–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kiesel, N.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kitching, J.

A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-range force detection using optically cooled levitated microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 101101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kosloff, A.

S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, S.

S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lambrecht, A.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Lämmerzahl, C.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Li, T.

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S. Kheifets, and M. G. Raizen, “Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum,” Nat. Phys. 7, 527–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lochan, K.

A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, F.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martinetz, L.

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mavrogordatos, T.

J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mazilu, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2374 (2013).
[Crossref]

McHardy, I.

J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
[Crossref]

Merle, A.

J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
[Crossref]

Milburn, G.

H. Wiseman and G. Milburn, Quantum Measurement and Control (Cambridge University, 2010).

Milburn, G. J.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

H. M. Wiseman and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum theory of optical feedback via homodyne detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548–551 (1993).
[Crossref]

Millen, J.

S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Monteiro, T.

J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moritz, C.

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, C. Moritz, and C. Dellago, “Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling,” New J. Phys. 17, 045011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morley, G.

M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morley, G. W.

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morris, T. R.

J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, H.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Neukirch, L. P.

L. P. Neukirch, E. v. Haartman, J. M. Rosenholm, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond,” Nat. Photonics 9, 653–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nimmrichter, S.

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and K. Hammerer, “Optomechanical sensing of spontaneous wave-function collapse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 020405 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and H. Ulbricht, “Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
[Crossref]

Novotny, L.

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, C. Moritz, and C. Dellago, “Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling,” New J. Phys. 17, 045011 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9, 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, B. Deutsch, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Sub-kelvin parametric feedback cooling of a laser-trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 103603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oosterkamp, T. H.

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Papp, S. B.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-range force detection using optically cooled levitated microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 101101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paternostro, M.

D. Goldwater, M. Paternostro, and P. F. Barker, “Testing wave-function-collapse models using parametric heating of a trapped nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 010104 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

M. Bahrami, M. Paternostro, A. Bassi, and H. Ulbricht, “Proposal for a noninterferometric test of collapse models in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 210404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patolsky, F.

S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

Penrose, R.

R. Penrose, “On gravity’s role in quantum state reduction,” Gen. Relativ. Gravi. 28, 581–600 (1996).
[Crossref]

Peters, A.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Pflanzer, A. C.

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pikovski, I.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Pilan-Zanoni, A.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Quidant, R.

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9, 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, B. Deutsch, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Sub-kelvin parametric feedback cooling of a laser-trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 103603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rahman, A. A.

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raizen, M. G.

T. Li, S. Kheifets, and M. G. Raizen, “Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum,” Nat. Phys. 7, 527–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rasel, E. M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Rashid, M.

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Regal, C. A.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reynaud, S.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Riedel, C. J.

C. J. Riedel, “Direct detection of classically undetectable dark matter through quantum decoherence,” Phys. Rev. D 88, 116005 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robicheaux, F.

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Romero-Isart, O.

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rondin, L.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Rosenholm, J. M.

L. P. Neukirch, E. v. Haartman, J. M. Rosenholm, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond,” Nat. Photonics 9, 653–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roura, A.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Satin, S.

A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scala, M.

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schleich, W. P.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Schmiedmayer, J.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Schuldt, T.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Schwab, K. C.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Sclafani, M.

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

Serafini, A.

M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sezer, U.

P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singh, T. P.

A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stickler, B. A.

S. Kuhn, A. Kosloff, B. A. Stickler, F. Patolsky, K. Hornberger, M. Arndt, and J. Millen, “Full rotational control of levitated silicon nanorods,” Optica 4, 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tajmar, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Tino, G. M.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Tufarelli, T.

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ulbricht, H.

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and H. Ulbricht, “Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Bahrami, M. Paternostro, A. Bassi, and H. Ulbricht, “Proposal for a noninterferometric test of collapse models in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 210404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ursin, R.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Usenko, O.

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vamivakas, A. N.

L. P. Neukirch, E. v. Haartman, J. M. Rosenholm, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond,” Nat. Photonics 9, 653–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vedral, V.

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Vinante, A.

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vovrosh, J.

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wan, C.

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wijts, G.

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D. J.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wiseman, H.

H. Wiseman and G. Milburn, Quantum Measurement and Control (Cambridge University, 2010).

Wiseman, H. M.

H. M. Wiseman and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum theory of optical feedback via homodyne detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548–551 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.-Q.

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Classical Quantum Grav. (1)

C. Anastopoulos and B. L. Hu, “Probing a gravitational cat state,” Classical Quantum Grav. 32, 165022 (2015).
[Crossref]

EPJ Quantum Technol. (1)

R. Kaltenbaek, M. Arndt, M. Aspelmeyer, P. F. Barker, A. Bassi, J. Bateman, K. Bongs, S. Bose, C. Braxmaier, Č. Brukner, B. Christophe, M. Chwalla, P.-F. Cohadon, A. M. Cruise, C. Curceanu, K. Dholakia, K. Döringshoff, W. Ertmer, J. Gieseler, N. Gürlebeck, G. Hechenblaikner, A. Heidmann, S. Herrmann, S. Hossenfelder, U. Johann, N. Kiesel, M. Kim, C. Lämmerzahl, A. Lambrecht, M. Mazilu, G. J. Milburn, H. Müller, L. Novotny, M. Paternostro, A. Peters, I. Pikovski, A. Pilan-Zanoni, E. M. Rasel, S. Reynaud, C. Jess Riedel, M. Rodrigues, L. Rondin, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, J. Schmiedmayer, T. Schuldt, K. C. Schwab, M. Tajmar, G. M. Tino, H. Ulbricht, R. Ursin, and V. Vedral, “Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update,” EPJ Quantum Technol. 3, 5 (2016).

Gen. Relativ. Gravi. (1)

R. Penrose, “On gravity’s role in quantum state reduction,” Gen. Relativ. Gravi. 28, 581–600 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

S. Beresnev, V. Chernyak, and G. Fomyagin, “Motion of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas. Part 2. Drag and thermal polarization,” J. Fluid Mech. 219, 405–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Kuhn, P. Asenbaum, A. Kosloff, M. Sclafani, B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, O. Cheshnovsky, F. Patolsky, and M. Arndt, “Cavity-assisted manipulation of freely rotating silicon nanorods in high vacuum,” Nano Lett. 15, 5604–5608 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2374 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Asenbaum, S. Kuhn, S. Nimmrichter, U. Sezer, and M. Arndt, “Cavity cooling of free silicon nanoparticles in high vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3743 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bateman, S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and H. Ulbricht, “Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4788 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. P. Neukirch, E. v. Haartman, J. M. Rosenholm, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond,” Nat. Photonics 9, 653–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (3)

M. Arndt and K. Hornberger, “Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions,” Nat. Phys. 10, 271–277 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S. Kheifets, and M. G. Raizen, “Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum,” Nat. Phys. 7, 527–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, and R. Quidant, “Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator,” Nat. Phys. 9, 806–810 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

J. Gieseler, L. Novotny, C. Moritz, and C. Dellago, “Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling,” New J. Phys. 17, 045011 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. G. Genoni, J. Zhang, J. Millen, P. F. Barker, and A. Serafini, “Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements,” New J. Phys. 17, 073019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

L. Diosi, “Gravitation and quantum-mechanical localization of macro-objects,” Phys. Lett. A 105, 199–202 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

D. Goldwater, M. Paternostro, and P. F. Barker, “Testing wave-function-collapse models using parametric heating of a trapped nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 010104 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. A. Stickler, S. Nimmrichter, L. Martinetz, S. Kuhn, M. Arndt, and K. Hornberger, “Rotranslational cavity cooling of dielectric rods and disks,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033818 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, T. Li, X. Zhang, and L. M. Duan, “Large quantum superpositions of a levitated nanodiamond through spin-optomechanical coupling,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033614 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. J. Riedel, “Direct detection of classically undetectable dark matter through quantum decoherence,” Phys. Rev. D 88, 116005 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (14)

A. A. Geraci, S. B. Papp, and J. Kitching, “Short-range force detection using optically cooled levitated microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 101101 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Romero-Isart, A. C. Pflanzer, F. Blaser, R. Kaltenbaek, N. Kiesel, M. Aspelmeyer, and J. I. Cirac, “Large quantum superpositions and interference of massive nanometer-sized objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 020405 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Scala, M. Kim, G. Morley, P. Barker, and S. Bose, “Matter-wave interferometry of a levitated thermal nano-oscillator induced and probed by a spin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180403 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, M. Scala, G. W. Morley, A. A. Rahman, H. Ulbricht, J. Bateman, P. F. Barker, S. Bose, and M. S. Kim, “Free nano-object Ramsey interferometry for large quantum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 143003 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Vinante, M. Bahrami, A. Bassi, O. Usenko, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Upper bounds on spontaneous wave-function collapse models using millikelvin-cooled nanocantilevers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 090402 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahrami, M. Paternostro, A. Bassi, and H. Ulbricht, “Proposal for a noninterferometric test of collapse models in optomechanical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 210404 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nimmrichter, K. Hornberger, and K. Hammerer, “Optomechanical sensing of spontaneous wave-function collapse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 020405 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Diosi, “Testing spontaneous wave-function collapse models on classical mechanical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 050403 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Gieseler, B. Deutsch, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Sub-kelvin parametric feedback cooling of a laser-trapped nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 103603 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Jain, J. Gieseler, C. Moritz, C. Dellago, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Direct measurement of photon recoil from a levitated nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 243601 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. M. Hoang, Y. Ma, J. Ahn, J. Bang, F. Robicheaux, Z.-Q. Yin, and T. Li, “Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123604 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rashid, T. Tufarelli, J. Bateman, J. Vovrosh, D. Hempston, M. S. Kim, and H. Ulbricht, “Experimental realization of a thermal squeezed state of levitated optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 273601 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Millen, P. Fonseca, T. Mavrogordatos, T. Monteiro, and P. Barker, “Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 123602 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Wiseman and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum theory of optical feedback via homodyne detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548–551 (1993).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14180–14185 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, C. A. Regal, S. B. Papp, D. J. Wilson, J. Ye, O. Painter, H. J. Kimble, and P. Zoller, “Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1005–1010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bassi, K. Lochan, S. Satin, T. P. Singh, and H. Ulbricht, “Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 471–527 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Bateman, I. McHardy, A. Merle, T. R. Morris, and H. Ulbricht, “On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8058 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. Wiseman and G. Milburn, Quantum Measurement and Control (Cambridge University, 2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Trapping and controlling the motion of the particle with a parabolic mirror. (a) Temperature fitting of experimental PSD, to obtain a collisional damping, Γ=Γ0 for a particle in thermal equilibrium with its environment at temperatures of 300K, at 1×101mbar and fitting at lower temperatures at lower pressures. Data shown are for a 100 nm diameter particle trapped with 385 mW laser power. (b) Detection of the position of the particle is using optical interferometry between the light scattered off the particle Escat and the diverging reference Ediv. Here the position of the detector is chosen so that the amplitudes of both fields are comparable, unlike the standard homodyne detection scheme. The parabolic mirror used has a focal distance of f=3.1mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Feedback and trapping scheme. The scattered light from the particle is collected by a single photodiode. This signal is then sent to three different lock-in amplifiers, where the signals are extracted for each spatial degree of freedom. In each of the lock-in amplifiers, the frequency ω and phase θ of the particle motion in one spatial degree of freedom are extracted, and an associated frequency-doubled sine wave is generated per degree of motion. These frequency-doubled and phase-shifted signals for each spatial degree of freedom are added together before being sent to an AOM, to modulate the intensity of the laser beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PSD of particle motion at low pressures. z motional PSD peak for a 102 nm diameter particle trapped at 168 mW laser power at varying pressures without feedback cooling. Particles could be trapped for several hours without significant changes to the PSD. Drifts in laser intensity over long time-scales broaden the peak.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Analyzing cooling rate δΓ and damping rate Γ0. (a) We show an instance of the PSD with x, y, z peaks at temperatures Tcm taken simultaneously, labeled as Sqq(ω)=iSii(ω). The red data represent a PSD without feedback at 300 K at a pressure of 7×102mbar. The blue data are a PSD of a feedback cooled particle at 6×106mbar with a radius of 50 nm at 350 mW. The lowest temperatures reached in this experiment are indicated in the blue graph. The motions in the x, y, z directions are cooled with independent feedback parameters. The gray data represent the noise floor of our system. (b) We show the translational motional temperature Tcm for the motion in the x, y, z directions versus pressure, p. An extrapolation of the fit (shown in dashed lines) of the cooling rate shows that for this data set the ground-state temperature (intercept with horizontal dashed lines) could be reached for the pressures of 108 to 109  mbar if photon recoil and other sources of noise can be overcome [10]. (c) The damping rate Γ0 that is extracted from fitting a Lorentzian to the PSD here is shown for x, y, and z motion for the same data set as in Fig. 2(a). The dashed lines show the theoretical prediction from Eq. (9). The lowest damping rate obtained is 2 mHz at 6×106mbar. The linear fit includes the pressure dependency only, while other effects may play a role at low pressure.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Feedback-dependent effects. All data shown are for the z motion of the particle of a 100 nm diameter particle trapped with 385 mW at 1×106mbar. (a) Feedback phase scan for a 100 nm diameter particle at 105mbar with different phase ϕ for feedback. The PSD shows the dependence of the mechanical oscillator frequency ω0 when driven with a feedback signal of differing phases. The red data represent data for an uncooled particle, and its central frequency is denoted by a dashed line. (b) Extracted temperature from PSDs in (a) versus feedback phase ϕ, according to Eq. (20) and a fixed modulation depth η=0.44%. (c) We show the cooling for different feedback modulation depths η, fitted with the Eq. (20). All other parameters have been kept constant and the feedback loop phase optimized for maximum cooling.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength scan to measure relative amplitude change in the first and second harmonic of the trap frequency for the z peak. For a 60 nm diameter silica particle, trapped with 385 mW laser power at 1×102mbar, we can observe how the amplitude of the first-order peak (top panel, fitted with sin(α)2J1(β)sin(ω0t)) and second-order peak (lower panel, fitted with cos(α)2J2(β)sin(2ω0t)) changes as the wavelength of the laser if varied to extract a parameter-independent position resolution. By varying the trapping laser wavelength by 0.25 nm in steps of 5 pm, we are able to vary the phase θ by 1.5π in steps of 0.03π.

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x¨(t)+Γ0x˙(t)+ω02x(t)=1m(Fth(t)+Ffb(t)),
Ffb(t)=2Δkx02ω0x(t)2x˙(t).
x¨(t)+Γ0x˙(t)+ω02x(t)=Fth(t)m2ηω0x02x2(t)x˙(t).
x2(t)x˙(t)=(x¯(t)+δx(t))2(x¯˙(t)+δx˙(t))=(x¯2(t)+δx2(t)+2δx(t)x¯(t))(x¯˙(t)+δx˙(t))=x¯2(t)x¯˙(t)+δx2(t)x¯˙(t)+2x¯(t)x¯˙(t)δx(t)+x¯2(t)δx˙(t)+δx2(t)δx˙(t)+2x¯(t)δx(t)δx˙(t)x¯2(t)x¯˙(t)+x¯2(t)δx˙(t)+2x¯(t)x¯˙(t)δx(t).
δx¨(t)+[Γ0+δΓ]δx˙(t)+[ω0+δω]2δx(t)=1mFth(t),
Sxx(ω)=2kbT0πmΓ0([ω0+δω]2+ω2)2+ω2(Γ0+δΓ)2.
δx2=0Sxx(ω)dω=Γ0kbTcmm1ω02(Γ0+δΓ)
Tcm=T0Γ0Γ0+δΓ.
Γ0=0.6199πξdm22ρkBT0pr,
Si,exp=A(B2ω2)2+ω2C2,
Γ0(P1)=A1(A0/C0),
γ=ACπmkBT0.
Sx,min=NEPdetγ.
Escat=Escat,0eiβsin(α0t),
β=kz0z0zR.
Ediv=Ediv,0eiα,
I(t)|Escat+Ediv|2Ediv,02+Escat,02+2Ediv,0Escat,0[sin(α)sin(βsin(ω0t))+cos(α)cos(βsin(ω0t))].
I(t)Ediv,02+Escat,02+2Ediv,0Escat,0[sin(α)×J0(β)+sin(α)×2J1(β)sin(ω0t)+cos(α)×2J2(β)sin(2ω0t)],
ϱ=J2(β)J1(β)=β2/8β/2,=14β.
Tcm=T01ηω0sin(2θ)2Γ0.
xground=2mω0.
Pdet=ηQηtransPscat.

Metrics