Abstract

We investigate a recently proposed scheme for differential detection of the magneto-optical rotation effect and its application to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) atomic clocks [Opt. Lett. 40, 3703 (2015) [CrossRef]  ]. This scheme utilizes a linearly polarized bichromatic laser field that is EIT-resonant with alkali atoms. The results of our study reveal that the suppression of the laser noise can substantially improve the signal-to-noise ratio in EIT atomic clocks. Our preliminary results demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in clock stability under some conditions when incorporating the differential detection scheme.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. E. E. Mikhailov, T. Horrom, N. Belcher, and I. Novikova, “Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin||lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 417–422 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  31. I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 333–353 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  32. D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  33. N. Belcher, E. E. Mikhailov, and I. Novikova, “Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: experiments for undergraduate laboratories,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 988–998 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, “Laser frequency stabilization using linear magneto-optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341–346 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. Kitching, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, and R. Wynands, “Optical-pumping noise in laser-pumped, all-optical microwave frequency references,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1676–1683 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

B. Tan, Y. Tian, H. Lin, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Noise suppression in coherent population-trapping atomic clock by differential magneto-optic rotation detection,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3703–3706 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent-population-trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041401 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Yano and S. Goka, “High-contrast coherent population trapping based on crossed polarizers method,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 61, 1953–1960 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J.-M. Mérolla, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Ramsey spectroscopy of high-contrast CPT resonances with push-pull optical pumping in Cs vapor,” Opt. Express 21, 12451–12459 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. E. Mikhailov, T. Horrom, N. Belcher, and I. Novikova, “Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin||lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 417–422 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. V. Balabas, T. Karaulanov, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, “Polarized alkali-metal vapor with minute-long transverse spin-relaxation time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. J. Seltzer and M. V. Romalis, “High-temperature alkali vapor cells with antirelaxation surface coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiao, “Spectral line narrowing in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 23, 661–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Belcher, E. E. Mikhailov, and I. Novikova, “Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: experiments for undergraduate laboratories,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 988–998 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3, 227–234 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (7)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 012903 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A chip-scale atomic clock based on 87Rb with improved frequency stability,” Opt. Express 13, 1249–1253 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, “Laser frequency stabilization using linear magneto-optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341–346 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Wynands and A. Nagel, “Precision spectroscopy with coherent dark states,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 259–354.

Audoin, C.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989), Vol. 1.

Balabas, M. V.

M. V. Balabas, T. Karaulanov, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, “Polarized alkali-metal vapor with minute-long transverse spin-relaxation time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belcher, N.

E. E. Mikhailov, T. Horrom, N. Belcher, and I. Novikova, “Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin||lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 417–422 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Belcher, E. E. Mikhailov, and I. Novikova, “Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: experiments for undergraduate laboratories,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 988–998 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blanshan, E.

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent-population-trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boudot, R.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J.-M. Mérolla, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Ramsey spectroscopy of high-contrast CPT resonances with push-pull optical pumping in Cs vapor,” Opt. Express 21, 12451–12459 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Breschi, E.

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Budker, D.

M. V. Balabas, T. Karaulanov, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, “Polarized alkali-metal vapor with minute-long transverse spin-relaxation time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070801 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3, 227–234 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 012903 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, “Laser frequency stabilization using linear magneto-optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341–346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Castagna, N.

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Cheng, P.

Chutani, R.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clairon, A.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clairon, C.

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Clercq, E.

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. R.

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, “Laser frequency stabilization using linear magneto-optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341–346 (2000).
[Crossref]

de Clercq, E.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J.-M. Mérolla, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Ramsey spectroscopy of high-contrast CPT resonances with push-pull optical pumping in Cs vapor,” Opt. Express 21, 12451–12459 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dimarcq, N.

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Donley, E. A.

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent-population-trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Erhard, M.

M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujita, K.

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gawlik, W.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Goka, S.

Y. Yano and S. Goka, “High-contrast coherent population trapping based on crossed polarizers method,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 61, 1953–1960 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gorecki, C.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, S.

Guerandel, S.

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guérandel, S.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J.-M. Mérolla, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Ramsey spectroscopy of high-contrast CPT resonances with push-pull optical pumping in Cs vapor,” Opt. Express 21, 12451–12459 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hafiz, M. A.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, N.

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Helm, H.

M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

Holleville, D.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Horrom, T.

Hoshina, Y.

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

Karaulanov, T.

M. V. Balabas, T. Karaulanov, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, “Polarized alkali-metal vapor with minute-long transverse spin-relaxation time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kazakov, G.

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimball, D.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kimball, D. F.

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 012903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kitching, J.

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent-population-trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041401 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 012903 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A chip-scale atomic clock based on 87Rb with improved frequency stability,” Opt. Express 13, 1249–1253 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kitching, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, and R. Wynands, “Optical-pumping noise in laser-pumped, all-optical microwave frequency references,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1676–1683 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Shah and J. Kitching, “Advances in coherent population trapping for atomic clocks,” in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, P. B. E. Arimondo, P. R. Berman, and C. Lin, eds. (Academic, 2010), Vol. 59, pp. 21–74.

Knappe, S.

Knappe, S. A.

S. A. Knappe, Emerging Topics: MEMS Atomic Clocks, Y. B. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds., Vol. 3 of Comprehensive Microsystems (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 571–612.

Lammegger, R.

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ledbetter, M. P.

M. V. Balabas, T. Karaulanov, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, “Polarized alkali-metal vapor with minute-long transverse spin-relaxation time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liew, L.

Lin, H.

Liu, X.

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

Matisov, B.

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Maurice, V.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mérolla, J.-M.

Mikhailov, E. E.

E. E. Mikhailov, T. Horrom, N. Belcher, and I. Novikova, “Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin||lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 417–422 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Belcher, E. E. Mikhailov, and I. Novikova, “Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: experiments for undergraduate laboratories,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 988–998 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mileti, G.

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mitsunaga, M.

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moreland, J.

Nagel, A.

R. Wynands and A. Nagel, “Precision spectroscopy with coherent dark states,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

Novikova, I.

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. E. Mikhailov, T. Horrom, N. Belcher, and I. Novikova, “Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin||lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 417–422 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Belcher, E. E. Mikhailov, and I. Novikova, “Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: experiments for undergraduate laboratories,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 988–998 (2009).
[Crossref]

Passilly, N.

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. F.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pustelny, S.

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 012903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Robinson, H. G.

Rochester, S.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rochester, S. M.

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent-population-trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Romalis, M.

D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3, 227–234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romalis, M. V.

S. J. Seltzer and M. V. Romalis, “High-temperature alkali vapor cells with antirelaxation surface coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schwindt, P.

Seltzer, S. J.

S. J. Seltzer and M. V. Romalis, “High-temperature alkali vapor cells with antirelaxation surface coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shah, V.

S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A chip-scale atomic clock based on 87Rb with improved frequency stability,” Opt. Express 13, 1249–1253 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. Shah and J. Kitching, “Advances in coherent population trapping for atomic clocks,” in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, P. B. E. Arimondo, P. R. Berman, and C. Lin, eds. (Academic, 2010), Vol. 59, pp. 21–74.

Sun, X. L.

Taichenachev, A. V.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

Taniguchi, S.

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Tremine, S.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989), Vol. 1.

Velichansky, V. L.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. J.

Weis, A.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Windholz, L.

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wynands, R.

Xiao, Y.

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiao, “Spectral line narrowing in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 23, 661–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

Yano, Y.

Y. Yano and S. Goka, “High-contrast coherent population trapping based on crossed polarizers method,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 61, 1953–1960 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yashchuk, V.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 012903 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, “Laser frequency stabilization using linear magneto-optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341–346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, I.

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yudin, V. I.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zanon, T.

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. W.

Zhao, L.

Zibrov, A. S.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zibrov, S. A.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

N. Belcher, E. E. Mikhailov, and I. Novikova, “Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: experiments for undergraduate laboratories,” Am. J. Phys. 77, 988–998 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Wynands and A. Nagel, “Precision spectroscopy with coherent dark states,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1–25 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. Zanon, S. Tremine, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes with optical CPT pulses,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 776–779 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and C. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 56, 246–253 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Yano and S. Goka, “High-contrast coherent population trapping based on crossed polarizers method,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 61, 1953–1960 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. J. Seltzer and M. V. Romalis, “High-temperature alkali vapor cells with antirelaxation surface coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114905 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hafiz, V. Maurice, R. Chutani, N. Passilly, C. Gorecki, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 184901 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. S. Zibrov, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Experimental investigation of the dark pseudoresonance on the D1 line of the 87Rb atom excited by a linearly polarized field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 82, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

I. Novikova, R. L. Walsworth, and Y. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow and stored light in warm atoms,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 333–353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

Y. Xiao, “Spectral line narrowing in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 23, 661–680 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. Budker and M. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3, 227–234 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

M. Erhard and H. Helm, “Buffer-gas effects on dark resonances: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Budker, L. Hollberg, D. F. Kimball, J. Kitching, S. Pustelny, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 012903 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Yoshida, N. Hayashi, K. Fujita, S. Taniguchi, Y. Hoshina, and M. Mitsunaga, “Line-shape comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman Ramsey fringes in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023836 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Breschi, G. Kazakov, R. Lammegger, G. Mileti, B. Matisov, and L. Windholz, “Quantitative study of the destructive quantum-interference effect on coherent population trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent-population-trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. V. Balabas, T. Karaulanov, M. P. Ledbetter, and D. Budker, “Polarized alkali-metal vapor with minute-long transverse spin-relaxation time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, “Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, “Laser frequency stabilization using linear magneto-optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341–346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

S. A. Knappe, Emerging Topics: MEMS Atomic Clocks, Y. B. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds., Vol. 3 of Comprehensive Microsystems (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 571–612.

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 259–354.

D. Budker and D. F. J. Kimball, eds., Optical Magnetometry (Cambridge University, 2013).

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards (Adam Hilger, 1989), Vol. 1.

V. Shah and J. Kitching, “Advances in coherent population trapping for atomic clocks,” in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, P. B. E. Arimondo, P. R. Berman, and C. Lin, eds. (Academic, 2010), Vol. 59, pp. 21–74.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Frequency stability measurements of a microwave CO, locked to the EIT clock resonance in Rb vapor obtained with a current-modulated VCSEL and transmission EIT (blue diamonds) or differential MOR (red squares) detection. The VCSEL power was 75 μW and the frequency counter gate time was 2 s. The intrinsic stability of the free-running CO exceeded our measurement sensitivity; hence, its measured stability is plotted for reference as the black dashed line with circles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Simple three-level Λ system, sufficient to explain the narrow electromagnetically induced transparency resonance. A dark state, the quantum superposition of the ground states |g1 and |g2 decoupled from both optical fields, is produced under the conditions of the two-photon resonance when ω1ω2=Δhf. (b) Double-Λ configuration, formed for a linearly-polarized bichromatic laser field in the presence of a magnetic field. |1 and |2, and |3 and |4 are the m=±1 Zeeman sublevels of the two hyperfine ground states, correspondingly, and |0 is the optical excited state. The two-photon resonance conditions in these two Λ systems occur approximately at the same frequency as for the traditional magneto-insensitive 0–0 “clock” transition, with the small difference arising from the gyromagnetic ratio difference between the two ground states.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the experimental setup. Left two blocks show interchangeable laser source: (1) a current-modulated VCSEL or (2) an ECDL with an external fiber modulator. The right blocks show two alternative detection methods: either (a) straight EIT transmission measurements or (b) differential MOR measurements. Here P is a Glan laser polarizer, λ/2 is a half-wave plate, and PBS is a polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

EIT and MOR signal line shapes (top row) and lock-in signals (bottom row) for the VCSEL (left) and the ECDL (right) using EIT (blue) or differential MOR (red) atomic feedback. The time constant of the lock-in is set to 0.1 s. For the two measurements, we used 35 μW VCSEL power and 25 μW of ECDL power, with base voltage levels on the PDs of 0.75 V and 0.65 V, respectively. The substantial low-frequency noise of the EIT line shape using the ECDL in plot (b) most likely arose from polarization instability in the optical fiber, resulting in slow intensity variation after the input polarizer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurements of the fractional clock stability versus averaging time at different powers of the ECDL and the low-noise CO using either (a) EIT transmission or (b) differential MOR detection methods. The frequency counter gate time is set to 1 s. The experimental stability limit (dotted black) is plotted for reference.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measurements of the fractional clock stability versus averaging time at different powers of the ECDL and the noisy FG using either (a) EIT transmission or (b) differential MOR detection methods. The free-running FG stability (solid black) and the measured CO stability (dashed black) are plotted for reference. The frequency counter gate time is set to 0.1 s.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependence of the Allan deviation measured at a 4.3 s averaging time as a function of laser power. The shaded region represents the stability limit of the experiment, measured as the performance of the free-running CO at that integration time. The error bars on each measurement are smaller than the marker size.