Abstract

The realization of commercial photonic devices based on three-dimensional optical metamaterials is challenged by large absorptive losses as well as complex and costly fabrication. Metasurfaces—two-dimensional metamaterials—have been introduced to overcome these major challenges. They provide simple, compact, and power efficient solutions to problems of immense importance in photonics design. In addition to the strong potential of metasurfaces to enable next generation optical devices, their reduced dimensionality also allows for new physical effects which do not have volumetric counterparts. Furthermore, various technologies are presently emerging to provide modulation of metasurface response using mechanical, electrical, or optical control. Although the general purpose of these approaches is to obtain tunable versions of static metasurfaces, recent studies have uncovered that the impact of dynamic metasurfaces far exceeds tunability alone and comprises new physical effects such as Lorentz nonreciprocity. Here we start with reviewing recent developments of static metasurface devices and their applications. Then we discuss the burgeoning area of dynamic metasurfaces and demonstrate current evolving technologies to achieve time-varying properties and their conceivable applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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