Abstract

Soft x-ray reflection and transmission spectra of radiation propagating inside microchannel plates have been analyzed in the framework of the wave approximation. X-ray and fluorescence yields due to the grazing incidence reflection phenomenon have been investigated with respect to the geometry of the channel walls. We also discuss x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra collected at the exit of microcapillaries under the total x-ray reflection condition, taking into account a surface transition layer at the sample surface. The fine structures and the angular distribution of the transmitted radiation have been interpreted in the energy range of the anomalous dispersion of the Si L2,3 edges.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Kumakhov and F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optic,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201–203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, and S. V. Nikitina, “On the interference of X-rays in multiple reflection optics,” Phys. Lett. A 203, 279–282 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. MacDonald, “Focusing polycapillary optics and their applications,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 867049 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. S. B. Dabagov, “Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nanocapillaries,” Phys. Uspekhi 46, 1053–1075 (2003).
  11. I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3338–3343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. B. Dabagov and A. V. Okotrub, “On coherent scattering of x-rays in carbon nanotubes,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 1575–1580 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. V. Soldatov, and M. Kasrai, “X-ray optic characteristics of microchannel plates studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 31, 277–279 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. I. D. Feranchuk, S. I. Feranchuk, and A. P. Ulyanenkov, “Self-consistent approach to x-ray reflection from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085414 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Feenberg, “The scattering of slow electrons by neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. 40, 40–54 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).
  27. Q. Zhang, Q. Zhang, K. Zhao, J. Li, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, and Z. Chang, “Suppression of driving laser in high harmonic generation with a microchannel plate,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3670–3673 (2014).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

M. I. Mazuritskiy, S. B. Dabagov, K. Dziedzic-Kocurek, and A. Marcelli, “X-ray spectroscopy of fluorescence radiation channeling in μ-capillary holed glass plates,” Nucl. Intstrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 309, 240–243 (2013).

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. M. Lerer, A. A. Novakovich, and R. V. Vedrinskii, “Spectroscopy of the anomalous scattering and transport of the X-ray fluorescence inside hollow microcapillaries,” JETP Lett. 98, 130–133 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. I. Mazuritskiy, “Synchrotron-based spectroscopy of x-ray channeling through hollow capillary microchannels inside glass plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 129–131 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. A. MacDonald, “Focusing polycapillary optics and their applications,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 867049 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. D. Feranchuk, S. I. Feranchuk, and A. P. Ulyanenkov, “Self-consistent approach to x-ray reflection from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. V. Soldatov, and M. Kasrai, “X-ray optic characteristics of microchannel plates studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 31, 277–279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. B. Dabagov and A. V. Okotrub, “On coherent scattering of x-rays in carbon nanotubes,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 1575–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. B. Dabagov, “Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nanocapillaries,” Phys. Uspekhi 46, 1053–1075 (2003).

2002 (1)

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. M. Fechtchenko, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “On the reflectivity of surfaces with thin transition or contaminated layers,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 21, 62–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3338–3343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, and S. V. Nikitina, “On the interference of X-rays in multiple reflection optics,” Phys. Lett. A 203, 279–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. A. Kumakhov and F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optic,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

E. Spiller and A. Segmuller, “Propagation of x rays in waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 60–64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

E. Feenberg, “The scattering of slow electrons by neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. 40, 40–54 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Aifa, Y.

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andre, J.-M.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bac, S.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barchewitz, R.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benfatto, M.

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bianconi, A.

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bilderback, D. H.

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, C.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Bukreeva, I.

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cabaret, D.

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cedola, A.

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Cheng, Y.

Chini, M.

Cortes, R.

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, E.

Dabagov, S. B.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, S. B. Dabagov, K. Dziedzic-Kocurek, and A. Marcelli, “X-ray spectroscopy of fluorescence radiation channeling in μ-capillary holed glass plates,” Nucl. Intstrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 309, 240–243 (2013).

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov and A. V. Okotrub, “On coherent scattering of x-rays in carbon nanotubes,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 1575–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, “Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nanocapillaries,” Phys. Uspekhi 46, 1053–1075 (2003).

S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3338–3343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov and A. Marcelli, “Single-reflection regime of x rays that travel into a monocapillary,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7494–7497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, and S. V. Nikitina, “On the interference of X-rays in multiple reflection optics,” Phys. Lett. A 203, 279–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davoli, I.

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Demekhin, Ph. V.

R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

Dmitrirnko, V. E.

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic-Kocurek, K.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, S. B. Dabagov, K. Dziedzic-Kocurek, and A. Marcelli, “X-ray spectroscopy of fluorescence radiation channeling in μ-capillary holed glass plates,” Nucl. Intstrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 309, 240–243 (2013).

Eriksson, M.

Fanfoni, M.

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fechtchenko, R. M.

R. M. Fechtchenko, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “On the reflectivity of surfaces with thin transition or contaminated layers,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 21, 62–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fedorchuk, R. V.

S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3338–3343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feenberg, E.

E. Feenberg, “The scattering of slow electrons by neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. 40, 40–54 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Feranchuk, I. D.

I. D. Feranchuk, S. I. Feranchuk, and A. P. Ulyanenkov, “Self-consistent approach to x-ray reflection from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feranchuk, S. I.

I. D. Feranchuk, S. I. Feranchuk, and A. P. Ulyanenkov, “Self-consistent approach to x-ray reflection from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Filatova, E.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, J.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J.

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gaupp, A.

Gudat, W.

Hoffman, S. A.

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

Kasrai, M.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. V. Soldatov, and M. Kasrai, “X-ray optic characteristics of microchannel plates studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 31, 277–279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokobun, J.

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Komarov, F. F.

M. A. Kumakhov and F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optic,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kraizman, V.

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kraizman, V. L.

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krivitskii, E. V.

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumakhov, M. A.

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, and S. V. Nikitina, “On the interference of X-rays in multiple reflection optics,” Phys. Lett. A 203, 279–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kumakhov and F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optic,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lagomarsino, S.

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Cann, X.

Le Guern, F.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lerer, A. M.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. M. Lerer, A. A. Novakovich, and R. V. Vedrinskii, “Spectroscopy of the anomalous scattering and transport of the X-ray fluorescence inside hollow microcapillaries,” JETP Lett. 98, 130–133 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lodha, G. S.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, C. A.

C. A. MacDonald, “Focusing polycapillary optics and their applications,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 867049 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marcelli, A.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, S. B. Dabagov, K. Dziedzic-Kocurek, and A. Marcelli, “X-ray spectroscopy of fluorescence radiation channeling in μ-capillary holed glass plates,” Nucl. Intstrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 309, 240–243 (2013).

S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3338–3343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov and A. Marcelli, “Single-reflection regime of x rays that travel into a monocapillary,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7494–7497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mauri, F.

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazuritskiy, M. I.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. M. Lerer, A. A. Novakovich, and R. V. Vedrinskii, “Spectroscopy of the anomalous scattering and transport of the X-ray fluorescence inside hollow microcapillaries,” JETP Lett. 98, 130–133 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mazuritskiy, S. B. Dabagov, K. Dziedzic-Kocurek, and A. Marcelli, “X-ray spectroscopy of fluorescence radiation channeling in μ-capillary holed glass plates,” Nucl. Intstrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 309, 240–243 (2013).

M. I. Mazuritskiy, “Synchrotron-based spectroscopy of x-ray channeling through hollow capillary microchannels inside glass plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 129–131 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. V. Soldatov, and M. Kasrai, “X-ray optic characteristics of microchannel plates studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 31, 277–279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mertin, M.

Mertins, H.-C.

Modi, M. H.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murashova, V. A.

S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3338–3343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nandedkar, R. V.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, C. R.

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nikitina, S. V.

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, and S. V. Nikitina, “On the interference of X-rays in multiple reflection optics,” Phys. Lett. A 203, 279–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novakovich, A.

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novakovich, A. A.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. M. Lerer, A. A. Novakovich, and R. V. Vedrinskii, “Spectroscopy of the anomalous scattering and transport of the X-ray fluorescence inside hollow microcapillaries,” JETP Lett. 98, 130–133 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, R.

Okotrub, A. V.

S. B. Dabagov and A. V. Okotrub, “On coherent scattering of x-rays in carbon nanotubes,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 1575–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Packe, I.

Pelliccia, D.

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A.

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A. V.

R. M. Fechtchenko, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “On the reflectivity of surfaces with thin transition or contaminated layers,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 21, 62–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmolla, F.

Segmuller, A.

E. Spiller and A. Segmuller, “Propagation of x rays in waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 60–64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shäfers, F.

Sinha, A. K.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soldatov, A. V.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. V. Soldatov, and M. Kasrai, “X-ray optic characteristics of microchannel plates studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 31, 277–279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soullié, G.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller and A. Segmuller, “Propagation of x rays in waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 60–64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Svyatoslavsky, N. L.

Thiel, D. J.

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, P.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Troussel, P.

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ulyanenkov, A. P.

I. D. Feranchuk, S. I. Feranchuk, and A. P. Ulyanenkov, “Self-consistent approach to x-ray reflection from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urazhdin, S. V.

R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vedrinskii, R.

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vedrinskii, R. V.

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. M. Lerer, A. A. Novakovich, and R. V. Vedrinskii, “Spectroscopy of the anomalous scattering and transport of the X-ray fluorescence inside hollow microcapillaries,” JETP Lett. 98, 130–133 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

R. M. Fechtchenko, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “On the reflectivity of surfaces with thin transition or contaminated layers,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 21, 62–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Wu, Y.

Yakimenko, M. N.

S. B. Dabagov, A. Marcelli, V. A. Murashova, N. L. Svyatoslavsky, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3338–3343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Spiller and A. Segmuller, “Propagation of x rays in waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 60–64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (2)

E. Filatova, A. Stepanov, C. Blessing, J. Friedrich, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. Andre, F. Le Guern, S. Bac, and P. Troussel, “Total reflection and surface scattering of soft x-rays on the Si-SiO2 system and hexagonal BN crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 2731–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, Ph. V. Demekhin, and S. V. Urazhdin, “Pre-edge fine structure of the 3d atom K x-ray absorption spectra and quantitative atomic structure determinations for ferroelectric perovskite structure crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 9561–9580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Russ. Laser Res. (1)

R. M. Fechtchenko, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “On the reflectivity of surfaces with thin transition or contaminated layers,” J. Russ. Laser Res. 21, 62–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

M. I. Mazuritskiy, “Synchrotron-based spectroscopy of x-ray channeling through hollow capillary microchannels inside glass plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19, 129–131 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, S. V. Nikitina, V. A. Murashova, R. V. Fedorchuk, and M. N. Yakimenko, “Observation of interference effects at the focus of an x-ray lens,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 2, 132–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. M. Lerer, A. A. Novakovich, and R. V. Vedrinskii, “Spectroscopy of the anomalous scattering and transport of the X-ray fluorescence inside hollow microcapillaries,” JETP Lett. 98, 130–133 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Intstrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

M. I. Mazuritskiy, S. B. Dabagov, K. Dziedzic-Kocurek, and A. Marcelli, “X-ray spectroscopy of fluorescence radiation channeling in μ-capillary holed glass plates,” Nucl. Intstrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 309, 240–243 (2013).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft X-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

S. B. Dabagov, M. A. Kumakhov, and S. V. Nikitina, “On the interference of X-rays in multiple reflection optics,” Phys. Lett. A 203, 279–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. A. Kumakhov and F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optic,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. Feenberg, “The scattering of slow electrons by neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. 40, 40–54 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

B. Poumellec, V. Kraizman, Y. Aifa, R. Cortes, A. Novakovich, and R. Vedrinskii, “Experimental and theoretical studies of dipole and quadrupole contributions to the vanadium K-edge XANES for VOPO4, 2H2O Xerogel,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6133–6146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kokobun, K. Ishida, D. Cabaret, F. Mauri, R. V. Vedrinskii, V. L. Kraizman, A. A. Novakovich, E. V. Krivitskii, and V. E. Dmitrirnko, “Resonant diffraction in FeS2: determination of the x-ray polarization anisotropy of iron atoms,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 245103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Benfatto, C. R. Natoli, A. Bianconi, J. Garcia, A. Marcelli, M. Fanfoni, and I. Davoli, “Multiple-scattering regime and higher-order correlations in x-ray-absorption spectra of liquid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5774–5781 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Feranchuk, S. I. Feranchuk, and A. P. Ulyanenkov, “Self-consistent approach to x-ray reflection from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Bukreeva, A. Popov, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. B. Dabagov, and S. Lagomarsino, “Wave-field formation in a hollow x-ray waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 184801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Uspekhi (1)

S. B. Dabagov, “Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nanocapillaries,” Phys. Uspekhi 46, 1053–1075 (2003).

Science (1)

D. H. Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman, and D. J. Thiel, “Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments,” Science 263, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

S. B. Dabagov and A. V. Okotrub, “On coherent scattering of x-rays in carbon nanotubes,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 1575–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. I. Mazuritskiy, A. V. Soldatov, and M. Kasrai, “X-ray optic characteristics of microchannel plates studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 31, 277–279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X-Ray Opt. Instrum. (1)

C. A. MacDonald, “Focusing polycapillary optics and their applications,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 867049 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Cited By

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Image of a microchannel plate and its internal structure. A, General view; B, cross section; and C, top view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A, Layout of the Polarimeter station [18]; B, reflection mode geometry; and C, transmission mode geometry.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transition layer at the MCP surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A, Experimental and B, theoretical reflection spectra near the Si L2,3 absorption edge at different angles between the incident radiation and the (10–10) surface of a quartz crystal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical optical constants of a quartz crystal for ε1δ+iβ: δ (A) and β (B) are plotted in the energy range of the Si L2,3 absorption edges.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Reflection spectra near the Si L2,3 absorption edges for radiation at an incidence angle of 5°: 1, theoretical calculation; 2, (10–10) quartz crystal; 3, (0001) quartz crystal; 4, fused quartz; 5, at the output of the MCP.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Angular distribution of the x-ray radiation intensity collected at the output of the MCP, showing two spectra measured at the exit of the MCP at two angular positions of the detector, namely, at 5° (1) and 12° (2). A, Angular distribution of the radiation at the exit of the MCP; B, reflection spectrum collected at maximum 1 (5°); and C, fluorescence spectrum collected at maximum 2 (12°).

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔΨ(x)+k2[ε(x)cos2θ]Ψ(x)=0.
ε(x)=1+ε11+exp(αx).
R=|sh(πα(k1k2))/sh(πα(k1+k2))|2,k1=k·sinθ,k2=k·(εcos2θ)1/2,
R=|sinθ(εcos2θ)1/2sinθ+(εcos2θ)1/2|2.
Imf(an)(ω)=k4πσ(ω),
Ref(an)(ω)=1πPImf(an)(ω)ωωdω.
ε(ω)=1+4π·f˜(ω)k2,
f˜(ω)=e2mc2·Ne+f(an)(ω)·Nat,
ΔΨ(r,φ,z)+k2ε(r)Ψ(r,φ,z)=0,Ψ(r,φ,z)=U(r)cosmφexp(iγz).
ε(r)={1r<r0εrr0+h,
Φn(r)=Ym,n(r,rn1)Ym,n(rn,rn1),Φn+(r)=Ym,n(r,rn)Ym,n(rn1,rn),
Ym,n(R1,R2)=Jm(χnR1)Nm(χnR2)Jm(χnR2)Nm(χnR1),
χn=(k2εnγ2)1/2,χ^N2=χN2.

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