Abstract

We experimentally investigated the use of a bulk-structured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator (TI) as a saturable absorption material for passive Q-switching of a fiber laser at 1.56μm. Unlike previous TI-based Q-switched laser implementations that employed high-quality nanostructured TI saturable absorbers, we chose to use a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI film because it is easy to fabricate. Our saturable absorber was constructed by depositing a bulk-structured, 13μm thick Bi2Te3 TI film, which was prepared by using a mechanical exfoliation method, on the flat side of a side-polished fiber. The modulation depth of the evanescent field interaction-based saturable absorber was measured to be 10.8% at 1.56μm. Passively Q-switched pulses were readily obtained by incorporating the saturable absorber into an all fiberized erbium fiber-based ring cavity. The minimum temporal width was measured to be 2.81μs at a repetition rate of 42.8kHz. Through an output performance comparison between our Q-switched laser and recently demonstrated Q-switched fiber lasers incorporating nanostructured TI-based saturable absorbers, the pros and cons of our bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI-based saturable absorbers were analyzed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Min and D. M. Rowe, “Cooling performance of integrated thermoelectric microcooler,” Solid-State Electron. 43, 923–929 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 1209–1218 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Bensaid, M. Brignone, A. Ziggiotti, and S. Specchia, “High efficiency thermo-electric power generator,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1385–1398 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. J. Winder, G. C. Lisensky, and A. B. Ellis, “Thermoelectric devices: solid-state refrigerators and electrical generators in the classroom,” J. Chem. Edu. 73, 940–946 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Huang, W. Luan, J.-S. Zhang, Y.-S. Qi, and S.-T. Tu, “Thermoelectric hydrogen sensor working at room temperature prepared by bismuth-telluride P-N couples and Pt/γ-Al2O3,” Sens. Actuators B 128, 581–585 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. A. Bernevig, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells,” Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Moor, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464, 194–198 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S.-P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.
  19. C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).
  27. M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).
  29. J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935  nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865–7874 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Koo and J. H. Lee, “Passive Q-switching of a fiber laser using a side-polished birefringent fiber with index matching gel spread on the flat side,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 112, 61–65 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Herda, S. Kivistö, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Dynamic gain induced pulse shortening in Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1011–1013 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal dispersion dissipative soliton fiber laser at 1.06  μm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105106 (2014).
  36. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2014

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal dispersion dissipative soliton fiber laser at 1.06  μm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105106 (2014).

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935  nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865–7874 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Koo and J. H. Lee, “Passive Q-switching of a fiber laser using a side-polished birefringent fiber with index matching gel spread on the flat side,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 112, 61–65 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Bensaid, M. Brignone, A. Ziggiotti, and S. Specchia, “High efficiency thermo-electric power generator,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1385–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 1209–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Moor, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Herda, S. Kivistö, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Dynamic gain induced pulse shortening in Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1011–1013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, W. Luan, J.-S. Zhang, Y.-S. Qi, and S.-T. Tu, “Thermoelectric hydrogen sensor working at room temperature prepared by bismuth-telluride P-N couples and Pt/γ-Al2O3,” Sens. Actuators B 128, 581–585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. A. Bernevig, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells,” Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Min and D. M. Rowe, “Cooling performance of integrated thermoelectric microcooler,” Solid-State Electron. 43, 923–929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. J. Winder, G. C. Lisensky, and A. B. Ellis, “Thermoelectric devices: solid-state refrigerators and electrical generators in the classroom,” J. Chem. Edu. 73, 940–946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balandin, A. A.

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 1209–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bando, H.

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bao, L. H.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bensaid, S.

S. Bensaid, M. Brignone, A. Ziggiotti, and S. Specchia, “High efficiency thermo-electric power generator,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1385–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, F.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S.-P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Bernevig, B. A.

B. A. Bernevig, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells,” Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brignone, M.

S. Bensaid, M. Brignone, A. Ziggiotti, and S. Specchia, “High efficiency thermo-electric power generator,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1385–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brinkman, A.

M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cava, R. J.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Che, X. Y.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Checkelsky, J. G.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. G.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal dispersion dissipative soliton fiber laser at 1.06  μm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105106 (2014).

Chu, J.-H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daikohara, K.

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

Ellis, A. B.

E. J. Winder, G. C. Lisensky, and A. B. Ellis, “Thermoelectric devices: solid-state refrigerators and electrical generators in the classroom,” J. Chem. Edu. 73, 940–946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Emplit, P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S.-P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Fan, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, I. R.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gorza, S.-P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S.-P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Goyal, V.

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 1209–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, G.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, M. Z.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Herda, R.

Hilgenkamp, H.

M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hor, Y. S.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, D.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

Huang, Y.

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, T. L.

X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bernevig, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells,” Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jhon, Y.-M.

Jiang, G.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

Johnson, P. D.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, M.

Kane, C. L.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kidd, T. E.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-D.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kivistö, S.

Koh, H.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, K.

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koo, J.

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935  nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865–7874 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal dispersion dissipative soliton fiber laser at 1.06  μm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105106 (2014).

J. Koo and J. H. Lee, “Passive Q-switching of a fiber laser using a side-polished birefringent fiber with index matching gel spread on the flat side,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 112, 61–65 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kulbachinskii, V. A.

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lang, M. R.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal dispersion dissipative soliton fiber laser at 1.06  μm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105106 (2014).

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935  nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 7865–7874 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Koo and J. H. Lee, “Passive Q-switching of a fiber laser using a side-polished birefringent fiber with index matching gel spread on the flat side,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 112, 61–65 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Li, J.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, Z.

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lisensky, G. C.

E. J. Winder, G. C. Lisensky, and A. B. Ellis, “Thermoelectric devices: solid-state refrigerators and electrical generators in the classroom,” J. Chem. Edu. 73, 940–946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-X.

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, D. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

Luan, W.

H. Huang, W. Luan, J.-S. Zhang, Y.-S. Qi, and S.-T. Tu, “Thermoelectric hydrogen sensor working at room temperature prepared by bismuth-telluride P-N couples and Pt/γ-Al2O3,” Sens. Actuators B 128, 581–585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Macherzynski, W.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, N.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Min, G.

G. Min and D. M. Rowe, “Cooling performance of integrated thermoelectric microcooler,” Solid-State Electron. 43, 923–929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mo, S.-K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molenaar, C. G.

M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moor, J. E.

J. E. Moor, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noh, H.-J.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.-J.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, Y.

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Ong, N. P.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, H.

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Park, J.-H.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

Post, K.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X.-L.

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Y.-S.

H. Huang, W. Luan, J.-S. Zhang, Y.-S. Qi, and S.-T. Tu, “Thermoelectric hydrogen sensor working at room temperature prepared by bismuth-telluride P-N couples and Pt/γ-Al2O3,” Sens. Actuators B 128, 581–585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, D.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rameau, J. D.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richardella, A.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roushan, P.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, D. M.

G. Min and D. M. Rowe, “Cooling performance of integrated thermoelectric microcooler,” Solid-State Electron. 43, 923–929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.-X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sobon, G.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Specchia, S.

S. Bensaid, M. Brignone, A. Ziggiotti, and S. Specchia, “High efficiency thermo-electric power generator,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1385–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Teweldebrhan, D.

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 1209–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S.-T.

H. Huang, W. Luan, J.-S. Zhang, Y.-S. Qi, and S.-T. Tu, “Thermoelectric hydrogen sensor working at room temperature prepared by bismuth-telluride P-N couples and Pt/γ-Al2O3,” Sens. Actuators B 128, 581–585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valla, T.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veldhorst, M.

M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. L.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weng, J.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Winder, E. J.

E. J. Winder, G. C. Lisensky, and A. B. Ellis, “Thermoelectric devices: solid-state refrigerators and electrical generators in the classroom,” J. Chem. Edu. 73, 940–946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wray, L.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiu, F.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yazdani, A.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S.-P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Zhang, H. J.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.-S.

H. Huang, W. Luan, J.-S. Zhang, Y.-S. Qi, and S.-T. Tu, “Thermoelectric hydrogen sensor working at room temperature prepared by bismuth-telluride P-N couples and Pt/γ-Al2O3,” Sens. Actuators B 128, 581–585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. C.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.-C.

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bernevig, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells,” Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ziggiotti, A.

S. Bensaid, M. Brignone, A. Ziggiotti, and S. Specchia, “High efficiency thermo-electric power generator,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1385–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.

J. Koo and J. H. Lee, “Passive Q-switching of a fiber laser using a side-polished birefringent fiber with index matching gel spread on the flat side,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 112, 61–65 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Veldhorst, C. G. Molenaar, X. L. Wang, H. Hilgenkamp, and A. Brinkman, “Experimental realization of superconducting quantum interference devices with topological insulator junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Meyer, L. H. Bao, L. He, M. R. Lang, Z. G. Chen, X. Y. Che, K. Post, J. Zou, D. N. Basov, K. L. Wang, and F. Xiu, “High-quality Bi2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates for potential optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031605 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81, 57006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50, 393–396 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0900508 (2014).

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Hydrogen Energy

S. Bensaid, M. Brignone, A. Ziggiotti, and S. Specchia, “High efficiency thermo-electric power generator,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1385–1398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Edu.

E. J. Winder, G. C. Lisensky, and A. B. Ellis, “Thermoelectric devices: solid-state refrigerators and electrical generators in the classroom,” J. Chem. Edu. 73, 940–946 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Mater. Chem.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, and J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, and H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 5607–5616 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal dispersion dissipative soliton fiber laser at 1.06  μm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24, 105106 (2014).

Laser Phys. Lett.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10, 1209–1218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Moor, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464, 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. B

X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, and R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep.

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 04794 (2014).

Science

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Science 325, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bernevig, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells,” Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

H. Huang, W. Luan, J.-S. Zhang, Y.-S. Qi, and S.-T. Tu, “Thermoelectric hydrogen sensor working at room temperature prepared by bismuth-telluride P-N couples and Pt/γ-Al2O3,” Sens. Actuators B 128, 581–585 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron.

G. Min and D. M. Rowe, “Cooling performance of integrated thermoelectric microcooler,” Solid-State Electron. 43, 923–929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S.-P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Real photo of our saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI film-deposited side-polished fiber. (b) Measured SEM image of the surface of the Bi2Te3 TI film. (c) Cross-sectional and (d) side view of the schematic of the bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI film-deposited side-polished fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured Raman spectra of the bulk Bi2Te3 crystal and the exfoliated bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI film. (b) XPS scan for the Bi 4f region. (c) XPS scan for the Te 3d region. (d) Measured nonlinear absorption of our prepared saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI film-deposited side-polished fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Laser schematic.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured (a) optical spectrum and (b) oscilloscope trace of the laser output at a pump power of 52mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured repetition rate and temporal width of the output pulses as a function of the pump power. (b) Measured average output power and pulse energy versus pump power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser Output Performance Comparison between This Work and [22,2628]

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T(I)=1ΔT·exp(IIsat)Tns,

Metrics