Abstract

Ultrabright sources of entangled photon pairs with high heralding efficiency are an important step in the pursuit of high-bit-rate entanglement-base quantum key distribution, as well as an enabling tool for loss-sensitive quantum optics experiments. Here, we present a robust single-mode fiber-coupled source of polarization-entangled photons around 810 nm with both high brightness and heralding efficiency. Our approach is based on quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) from periodically poled KTiOPO4 in a Sagnac loop configuration. We demonstrate a high degree of two-photon polarization entanglement for single-frequency-pumped type-0 and type-II SPDC, and conduct a conclusive comparison in terms of efficiency and spectral characteristics. In light of applications outside a laboratory environment, we evaluate the feasibility of pumping nonlinear crystals with free-running laser diodes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013

F. Steinlechner, S. Ramelow, M. Jofre, M. Gilaberte, T. Jennewein, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, and V. Pruneri, “Phase-stable source of polarization-entangled photons in a linear double-pass configuration,” Opt. Express 21, 11943–11951 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Gröblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, and R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21, 6707–6717 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. D. C. Pereira, F. E. Becerra, B. L. Glebov, J. Fan, S. W. Nam, and A. Migdall, “Demonstrating highly symmetric single-mode, single-photon heralding efficiency in spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1609–1611 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Krapick, H. Herrmann, V. Quiring, B. Brecht, H. Suche, and C. Silberhorn, “An efficient integrated two-color source for heralded single photons,” New J. Phys. 15, 033010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Scheidl, E. Wille, and R. Ursin, “Quantum optics experiments using the international space station: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 15, 043008 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Lerch, B. Bessire, C. Bernhard, T. Feurer, and A. Stefanov, “Tuning curve of type-0 spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 953–958 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Guerreiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, N. Bruno, H. Zbinden, and R. T. Thew, “High efficiency coupling of photon pairs in practice,” Opt. Express 21, 27641–27651 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

A. Predojević, S. Grabher, and G. Weihs, “Pulsed Sagnac source of polarization entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Express 20, 25022–25029 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rideout, T. Jennewein, G. Amelino-Camelia, T. F. Demarie, B. L. Higgins, A. Kempf, A. Kent, R. Laflamme, X. Ma, R. B. Mann, E. Martín-Martínez, N. C. Menicucci, J. Moffat, C. Simon, R. Sorkin, L. Smolin, and D. R. Terno, “Fundamental quantum optics experiments conceivable with satellites—reaching relativistic distances and velocities,” Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 224011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Wittmann, S. Ramelow, F. Steinlechner, N. K. Langford, N. Brunner, H. M. Wiseman, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Loophole-free Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment via quantum steering,” New J. Phys. 14, 053030 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. Söller, O. Cohen, B. J. Smith, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Silberhorn, “High-performance single-photon generation with commercial-grade optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 031806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Takesue and K. Shimizu, “Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 276–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Medic, J. B. Altepeter, M. A. Hall, M. Patel, and P. Kumar, “Fiber-based telecommunication-band source of degenerate entangled photons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 802–804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Arora and S. Ghosh, “A twisted periscope arrangement for transporting elliptically polarized light without change in its polarization state,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, “Optimal collinear Gaussian beams for spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Gühne and G. Toth, “Entanglement detection,” Phys. Rep. 474, 1–75 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express 17, 13059–13069 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vucovic, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 687–695 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “Three-color Sagnac source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Express 17, 23153–23159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lütkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest, experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhy. News 40, 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Baek and Y.-H. Kim, “Spectral properties of entangled photons generated via type-I frequency-nondegenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrabroadband biphotons generated via chirped quasi-phase-matched optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Trojek and H. Weinfurter, “Collinear source of polarization-entangled photon pairs at nondegenerate wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Nonclassical interference and entanglement generation using a photonic crystal fiber pair photon source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Fedrizzi, T. Herbst, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled source of narrowband entangled photons,” Opt. Express 15, 15377–15386 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Kim, M. Fiorentino, and F. N. C. Wong, “Phase-stable source of polarization-entangled photons using a polarization Sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 012316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, “Measurement of the spectral properties of the two-photon state generated via type II spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 30, 908–910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear interactions with an ultrahigh flux of broadband entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Ljunggren and M. Tengner, “Optimal focusing for maximal collection of entangled narrow-band photon pairs into single-mode fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 062301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. V. Pack, D. J. Armstrong, and A. V. Smith, “Measurement of the χ(2) tensors of KTiOPO4, KTiOAsO4, RbTiOPO4, and RbTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3319–3323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B.-S. Shi and A. Tomita, “Generation of a pulsed polarization entangled photon pair using a Sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 013803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Tittel and G. Weihs, “Photonic entanglement for fundamental tests and quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 1, 3–56 (2001).

2000

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. N. Satyanarayan, A. Deepthy, and H. L. Bhat, “Potassium titanyl phosphate and its isomorphs: growth, properties, and applications,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 24, 103–191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, “Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R773–R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with a broadband pump,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627–1634 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1987

1968

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Acin, A.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lütkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest, experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhy. News 40, 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alibart, O.

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Nonclassical interference and entanglement generation using a photonic crystal fiber pair photon source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Altepeter, J. B.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. B. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Medic, J. B. Altepeter, M. A. Hall, M. Patel, and P. Kumar, “Fiber-based telecommunication-band source of degenerate entangled photons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 802–804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amelino-Camelia, G.

D. Rideout, T. Jennewein, G. Amelino-Camelia, T. F. Demarie, B. L. Higgins, A. Kempf, A. Kent, R. Laflamme, X. Ma, R. B. Mann, E. Martín-Martínez, N. C. Menicucci, J. Moffat, C. Simon, R. Sorkin, L. Smolin, and D. R. Terno, “Fundamental quantum optics experiments conceivable with satellites—reaching relativistic distances and velocities,” Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 224011 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appelbaum, I.

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, “Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R773–R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, D. J.

Arora, A.

A. Arora and S. Ghosh, “A twisted periscope arrangement for transporting elliptically polarized light without change in its polarization state,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeyer, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lütkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest, experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhy. News 40, 26–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baek, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Baek and Y.-H. Kim, “Spectral properties of entangled photons generated via type-I frequency-nondegenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033814 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, J. Kofler, J. M. Perdigues, L. Cacciapuoti, C. J. de Matos, M. Aspelmeyer, A. Valencia, T. Scheidl, A. Acin, C. Barbieri, G. Bianco, C. Brukner, J. Capmany, S. Cova, D. Giggenbach, W. Leeb, R. H. Hadfield, R. Laflamme, N. Lütkenhaus, G. Milburn, M. Peev, T. Ralph, J. Rarity, R. Renner, E. Samain, N. Solomos, W. Tittel, J. P. Torres, M. Toyoshima, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, V. Pruneri, P. Villoresi, I. Walmsley, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, M. Zukowski, and A. Zeilinger, “Space-quest, experiments with quantum entanglement in space,” Europhy. News 40, 26–29 (2009).
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F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized spectra of collinear type-0 (orange lines) and type-II (dark blue lines) quasi-phase-matched SPDC in ppKTP: for type-0 SPDC, the FWHM bandwidth for the nondegenerate signal and idler wavelengths (dashed orange line, T=29°C) is smaller than that for wavelength-degenerate QPM (solid orange line, T=26.5°C). The bandwidth of type-II quasi-phase-matched SPDC is smaller for both wavelength degeneracy (solid dark blue line, T=35°C) and nondegeneracy (dashed dark blue line, T=20°C), and is less affected by changes in temperature.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectral characteristics of type-0 and type-II SPDC in 20 mm of ppKTP: the phase-matched cwls (left) of the signal (dark blue solid line) and idler (orange solid line) of type-0 SPDC (squares) show a much stronger temperature dependence than those of type-II SPDC (triangles), and are extended beyond the range of our spectrometer for temperatures above T37°C. Similarly, the FWHM bandwidth (right) of type-0 SPDC shows a stronger temperature dependence than that of the type-II process. (For a relative comparison of bandwidth, see also Table 1.)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pair-generation efficiency in type-0 (dark blue) and type-II (orange) SPDC: spectral brightness (Mcps/mW/nm) remains almost constant over the observed temperature range for both QPM configurations (once the phase-matching condition for type-0 is met at T=26.5°C). Since the total pair rate (Mcps/mW) is proportional to the temperature-dependent bandwidth (Fig. 2), it decreases strongly with temperature for type-0 SPDC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Qualitative explanation of type-0 (left) and type-II (right) SPDC spectra with a multimode pump: at the reference temperature ΔT=0, multiple spectral modes of the pump are phase-matched at different cwls, resulting in a broadband SPDC response (dashed envelope). For the type-0 SPDC process depicted, the longest wavelength of the pump is not phase-matched. This is contrasted by the type-II process, in which all pump components contribute to the SPDC signal observed. Nevertheless, due to the QPM characteristics of type-II SPDC in ppKTP, the resulting SPDC bandwidth is still significantly smaller than that of the type-0 process.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized SPDC spectra with multifrequency (experiment, green; theory, dashed black) and single-frequency pumps (experiment, orange) for type-0 (type-II) QPM in 11 mm (15 mm) of ppKTP. The differences between theory and experiment are the result of wavelength-dependent loss in the single-mode collection optics and spectrometer. For a multifrequency pump, the type-0 SPDC spectrum (left) covers a spectral range that is too broad for many applications, and would require strong spectral filtering. The type-II SPDC spectrum (right) is relatively robust with respect to the large pump bandwidth and could still be a feasible option for, e.g., free-space quantum communications and other standard quantum optics applications.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic setup of the Sagnac interferometer: a 405-nm cw laser diode, with its polarization state set by a combination of a PBS, a HWP, and a VWP, is focused to the center of one of two ppKTP crystals (type-0/II), placed at the center of the Sagnac loop. The Sagnac interferometer consists of a dPBS, two periscopes (P1, P2), and broadband high-reflection-coated mirrors. The downconverted photons traverse interference filters (IF) and are coupled into single-mode fibers (SMF). A dichroic mirror (DM2) and a mirror (M2), mounted on flip-mirror mounts, allow switching between type-0 and type-II configurations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance Characteristics of Nondegenerate Type-0 and Degenerate Type-II SPDC in a Unidirectionally Pumped Sagnac Loop

Tables Icon

Table 2. Low-Flux Performance Characteristics of the Entangled Photon Source for Type-0 and Type-II QPM in a Bidirectionally Pumped Configuration

Equations (1)

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Ms(i)(λpν+1λpν)(λs(i)ν+1λs(i)ν),

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