Abstract

Electronic structure properties of undoped single crystals of KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and RbPb2Cl5 (RPC) have been studied using low-temperature (T=8°K) far ultraviolet (3.7–24 eV) synchrotron radiation spectroscopy. Dispersions of optical functions have been calculated. The electronic transitions at 4.4–5.0 eV were ascribed to the excitation of cationic excitons. The energy region of 5–9 eV was associated with the transitions from the valence band to the conduction band: 6S106P11 at 6.28 eV, 6S106P32 at 5.94 eV. The complex band at 7.87 eV was attributed to the excitation of anionic excitons. The 19–24 eV peaks were associated with the 5d6p transitions in Pb2+ ions.

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    [CrossRef]

2013

L. I. Isaenko, I. N. Ogorodnikov, V. A. Pustovarov, A. Yu. Tarasova, and V. M. Pashkov, “Optical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of KPb2Cl5 and RbPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 35, 620–625 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. A. Tanner, G. Jia, B.-M. Cheng, and M. G. Brik, “Analysis of spectra of neat and lanthanide ion-doped KPb2Cl5 excited by synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 581–587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

Q. Sun, B. Qu, and J. Shi, “Investigation of relations between absorption band positions and crystalline environment in Pb2+-doped alkali halides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 4178–4183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Zimmerer, “SUPERLUMI: a unique setup for luminescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation,” Radiat. Meas. 42, 859–864 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, “Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97  μm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+,” Opt. Lett. 30, 729–731 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Visible luminescence in KPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal,” J. Lumin. 97, 190–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwanaga, M. Shirai, K. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “Self-trapped states and related luminescence in PbCl2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 064304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwanaga, M. Watanabe, and T. Hayashi, “Charge separation of excitons and the radiative recombination process in PbBr2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10766–10773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Belsky and J. C. Krupa, “Luminescence excitation mechanisms of rare earth doped phosphors in the VUV range,” Displays 19, 185–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Myagkota, A. S. Voloshinovskii, I. V. Stefanskii, M. S. Mikhailik, and I. P. Pashuk, “Reflection and emission properties of lead-based perovskite-like crystals,” Radiat. Meas. 29, 273–277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. H. Page, K. I. Shaffers, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Dy-doped chlorides as gain media for 1.3  μm telecommunications amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 786–793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growt, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Nistor, E. Goovaerts, and D. Schoemaker, “Temperature variation of the ESR parameters of the self-trapped-electron center in PbCl2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Nitsch, A. Cihlár, Z. Málková, M. Rodová, and M. Vanecek, “The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 131, 612–615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Matsumoto, T. Kawata, A. Miyamoto, and K. Kan’no, “Time-resolved spectroscopic study on type I self-trapped excitons in alkali halide crystals: I. Emission spectra and decay behavior,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 4229–4241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, and K. Polak, “Photoluminescence of RbPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 166, 511–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

K. Nakamura, Y. Sasaki, M. Watanabe, and M. Fujita, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorhombic indium bromide in 2–30  eV region,” Phys. Scr. 35, 557–560 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

R. Abreu, “Electron energy loss measurements on PbF2, PbCl2, PbBr2 and PbI2,” Phys. Lett. A 100, 375–378 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, M. Bacci, G. Viliani, and M. P. Fontana, “The optical properties of thallium-like impurities in alkali-halide crystals,” Adv. Phys. 32, 823–905 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

K. Heidrich, W. Schafer, M. Schreiber, and J. Sochtig, “Electronic structure, photoemission spectra and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5642–5649 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. Kanbe, H. Takezoe, and R. Onaka, “Reflection spectra of PbCl2 in the exciton region,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 41, 942–949 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. Liidja and V. Plekhanov, “Low-temperature X-ray and photoluminescence of lead halide crystals,” J. Lumin. 6, 71–76 (1973).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Plekhanov, “Optical constants of lead halides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 57, K55–K59 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Malysheva and V. G. Plekhanov, “Study for optical constants of PbCl2 and PbBr2 at 78  K in the energy range of 3.5–11.0  eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 34, 302–304 (1973).

1970

J. F. Verwey, “Time and intensity dependence of the photolysis of lead halides,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 163–168 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1959

R. Knox and N. Inchauspe, “Exciton states in ionic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1093–1099 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, R.

R. Abreu, “Electron energy loss measurements on PbF2, PbCl2, PbBr2 and PbI2,” Phys. Lett. A 100, 375–378 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alov, D. L.

M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Visible luminescence in KPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal,” J. Lumin. 97, 190–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Avramaa, T.

R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bacci, M.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, M. Bacci, G. Viliani, and M. P. Fontana, “The optical properties of thallium-like impurities in alkali-halide crystals,” Adv. Phys. 32, 823–905 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Visible luminescence in KPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal,” J. Lumin. 97, 190–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bastrikova, N. S.

V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belsky, A.

A. Belsky and J. C. Krupa, “Luminescence excitation mechanisms of rare earth doped phosphors in the VUV range,” Displays 19, 185–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bokumoto, Y.

M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, and P. Schmidt, “Further investigation of potential 4  μm laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 487–490.

Brik, M. G.

P. A. Tanner, G. Jia, B.-M. Cheng, and M. G. Brik, “Analysis of spectra of neat and lanthanide ion-doped KPb2Cl5 excited by synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 581–587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burger, A.

K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, “Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97  μm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+,” Opt. Lett. 30, 729–731 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T. J.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B.-M.

P. A. Tanner, G. Jia, B.-M. Cheng, and M. G. Brik, “Analysis of spectra of neat and lanthanide ion-doped KPb2Cl5 excited by synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 581–587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cihlár, A.

K. Nitsch, A. Cihlár, Z. Málková, M. Rodová, and M. Vanecek, “The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 131, 612–615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
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K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growt, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
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A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, T.

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
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R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Visible luminescence in KPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal,” J. Lumin. 97, 190–197 (2002).
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A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, M. Bacci, G. Viliani, and M. P. Fontana, “The optical properties of thallium-like impurities in alkali-halide crystals,” Adv. Phys. 32, 823–905 (1983).
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M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
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M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
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K. Nakamura, Y. Sasaki, M. Watanabe, and M. Fujita, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorhombic indium bromide in 2–30  eV region,” Phys. Scr. 35, 557–560 (1987).
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M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
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S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, and P. Schmidt, “Further investigation of potential 4  μm laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 487–490.

Gapontsev, V. P.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

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U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, M.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

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M. Iwanaga, M. Shirai, K. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “Self-trapped states and related luminescence in PbCl2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 064304 (2002).
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M. Iwanaga, M. Watanabe, and T. Hayashi, “Charge separation of excitons and the radiative recombination process in PbBr2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10766–10773 (2000).
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Huber, G.

Hybler, J.

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
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Inchauspe, N.

R. Knox and N. Inchauspe, “Exciton states in ionic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1093–1099 (1959).
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Isaenko, L.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
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Isaenko, L. I.

L. I. Isaenko, I. N. Ogorodnikov, V. A. Pustovarov, A. Yu. Tarasova, and V. M. Pashkov, “Optical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of KPb2Cl5 and RbPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 35, 620–625 (2013).
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A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
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V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
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K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, “Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97  μm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+,” Opt. Lett. 30, 729–731 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schumenann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 19 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 524–528.

S. A. Payne, M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low phonon chloride and sulfide crystals, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 34 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 459–463.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, A. M. Tkachuk, and S. E. Ivanova, “New monocrystals with low phonon energy for mid-IR lasers,” in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Application. Series B: Physics and Biophysics (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 3–65.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441–449.

Itoh, M.

M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, S.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, S. E.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, A. M. Tkachuk, and S. E. Ivanova, “New monocrystals with low phonon energy for mid-IR lasers,” in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Application. Series B: Physics and Biophysics (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 3–65.

Ivanova, S. É.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iwanaga, M.

M. Iwanaga, M. Shirai, K. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “Self-trapped states and related luminescence in PbCl2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 064304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwanaga, M. Watanabe, and T. Hayashi, “Charge separation of excitons and the radiative recombination process in PbBr2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10766–10773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jia, G.

P. A. Tanner, G. Jia, B.-M. Cheng, and M. G. Brik, “Analysis of spectra of neat and lanthanide ion-doped KPb2Cl5 excited by synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 581–587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

Joubert, M.-F.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kan’no, K.

T. Matsumoto, T. Kawata, A. Miyamoto, and K. Kan’no, “Time-resolved spectroscopic study on type I self-trapped excitons in alkali halide crystals: I. Emission spectra and decay behavior,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 4229–4241 (1992).
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T. Matsumoto, T. Kawata, A. Miyamoto, and K. Kan’no, “Time-resolved spectroscopic study on type I self-trapped excitons in alkali halide crystals: I. Emission spectra and decay behavior,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 4229–4241 (1992).
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R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
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Kink, R.

R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
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Kisand, V.

R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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R. Knox and N. Inchauspe, “Exciton states in ionic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 116, 1093–1099 (1959).
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A. Belsky and J. C. Krupa, “Luminescence excitation mechanisms of rare earth doped phosphors in the VUV range,” Displays 19, 185–196 (1999).
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A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, “Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97  μm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+,” Opt. Lett. 30, 729–731 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Shaffers, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Dy-doped chlorides as gain media for 1.3  μm telecommunications amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 786–793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schumenann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 19 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 524–528.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441–449.

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G. Liidja and V. Plekhanov, “Low-temperature X-ray and photoluminescence of lead halide crystals,” J. Lumin. 6, 71–76 (1973).
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R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
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Málková, Z.

K. Nitsch, A. Cihlár, Z. Málková, M. Rodová, and M. Vanecek, “The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 131, 612–615 (1993).
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A. F. Malysheva and V. G. Plekhanov, “Study for optical constants of PbCl2 and PbBr2 at 78  K in the energy range of 3.5–11.0  eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 34, 302–304 (1973).

Martinson, I.

R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Kawata, A. Miyamoto, and K. Kan’no, “Time-resolved spectroscopic study on type I self-trapped excitons in alkali halide crystals: I. Emission spectra and decay behavior,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 4229–4241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, V. G.

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Merkulov, A.

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. V. Myagkota, A. S. Voloshinovskii, I. V. Stefanskii, M. S. Mikhailik, and I. P. Pashuk, “Reflection and emission properties of lead-based perovskite-like crystals,” Radiat. Meas. 29, 273–277 (1998).
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Miyagawa, T.

M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, A.

T. Matsumoto, T. Kawata, A. Miyamoto, and K. Kan’no, “Time-resolved spectroscopic study on type I self-trapped excitons in alkali halide crystals: I. Emission spectra and decay behavior,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 4229–4241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mugnai, D.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, M. Bacci, G. Viliani, and M. P. Fontana, “The optical properties of thallium-like impurities in alkali-halide crystals,” Adv. Phys. 32, 823–905 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Myagkota, S. V.

S. V. Myagkota, A. S. Voloshinovskii, I. V. Stefanskii, M. S. Mikhailik, and I. P. Pashuk, “Reflection and emission properties of lead-based perovskite-like crystals,” Radiat. Meas. 29, 273–277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nadolinny, V. A.

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, H.

M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, Y. Sasaki, M. Watanabe, and M. Fujita, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorhombic indium bromide in 2–30  eV region,” Phys. Scr. 35, 557–560 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, D. Yu.

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikl, M.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growt, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, and K. Polak, “Photoluminescence of RbPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 166, 511–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nistor, S. V.

S. V. Nistor, E. Goovaerts, and D. Schoemaker, “Temperature variation of the ESR parameters of the self-trapped-electron center in PbCl2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nitsch, K.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growt, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Nitsch, A. Cihlár, Z. Málková, M. Rodová, and M. Vanecek, “The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 131, 612–615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, and K. Polak, “Photoluminescence of RbPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 166, 511–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nostrad, M.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M. C.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441–449.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schumenann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 19 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 524–528.

S. A. Payne, M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low phonon chloride and sulfide crystals, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 34 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 459–463.

Ogorodnikov, I. N.

L. I. Isaenko, I. N. Ogorodnikov, V. A. Pustovarov, A. Yu. Tarasova, and V. M. Pashkov, “Optical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of KPb2Cl5 and RbPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 35, 620–625 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, R.

J. Kanbe, H. Takezoe, and R. Onaka, “Reflection spectra of PbCl2 in the exciton region,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 41, 942–949 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Page, R.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Shaffers, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Dy-doped chlorides as gain media for 1.3  μm telecommunications amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 786–793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schumenann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 19 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 524–528.

S. A. Payne, M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low phonon chloride and sulfide crystals, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 34 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 459–463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441–449.

Pashkov, V. M.

L. I. Isaenko, I. N. Ogorodnikov, V. A. Pustovarov, A. Yu. Tarasova, and V. M. Pashkov, “Optical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of KPb2Cl5 and RbPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 35, 620–625 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pashuk, I. P.

S. V. Myagkota, A. S. Voloshinovskii, I. V. Stefanskii, M. S. Mikhailik, and I. P. Pashuk, “Reflection and emission properties of lead-based perovskite-like crystals,” Radiat. Meas. 29, 273–277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, V. M.

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, G. Huber, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, “Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97  μm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+,” Opt. Lett. 30, 729–731 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Shaffers, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Dy-doped chlorides as gain media for 1.3  μm telecommunications amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 786–793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schumenann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 19 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 524–528.

S. A. Payne, M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low phonon chloride and sulfide crystals, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 34 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 459–463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441–449.

Peiponen, K. E.

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Krönig Relations in Optical Materials Research (Springer-Verlag, 2005), p. 168.

Phillips, J. C.

J. C. Phillips, “The fundamental optical spectra of solids,” in Solid State Physics (Academic, 1966), Vol. 18, pp. 55–164.

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D. Pines, Elementary Excitation in Solids (W. A. Benjamin, 1963).

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G. Liidja and V. Plekhanov, “Low-temperature X-ray and photoluminescence of lead halide crystals,” J. Lumin. 6, 71–76 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Plekhanov, V. G.

A. F. Malysheva and V. G. Plekhanov, “Study for optical constants of PbCl2 and PbBr2 at 78  K in the energy range of 3.5–11.0  eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 34, 302–304 (1973).

V. G. Plekhanov, “Optical constants of lead halides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 57, K55–K59 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Polak, K.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growt, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, and K. Polak, “Photoluminescence of RbPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 166, 511–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pustovarov, V. A.

L. I. Isaenko, I. N. Ogorodnikov, V. A. Pustovarov, A. Yu. Tarasova, and V. M. Pashkov, “Optical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of KPb2Cl5 and RbPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 35, 620–625 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

Qu, B.

Q. Sun, B. Qu, and J. Shi, “Investigation of relations between absorption band positions and crystalline environment in Pb2+-doped alkali halides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 4178–4183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

Ranfagni, A.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, M. Bacci, G. Viliani, and M. P. Fontana, “The optical properties of thallium-like impurities in alkali-halide crystals,” Adv. Phys. 32, 823–905 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rodová, M.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growt, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Nitsch, A. Cihlár, Z. Málková, M. Rodová, and M. Vanecek, “The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 131, 612–615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roy, U. N.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, J. J.

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Krönig Relations in Optical Materials Research (Springer-Verlag, 2005), p. 168.

Sasaki, Y.

K. Nakamura, Y. Sasaki, M. Watanabe, and M. Fujita, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorhombic indium bromide in 2–30  eV region,” Phys. Scr. 35, 557–560 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, W.

K. Heidrich, W. Schafer, M. Schreiber, and J. Sochtig, “Electronic structure, photoemission spectra and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5642–5649 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, and P. Schmidt, “Further investigation of potential 4  μm laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 487–490.

Schoemaker, D.

S. V. Nistor, E. Goovaerts, and D. Schoemaker, “Temperature variation of the ESR parameters of the self-trapped-electron center in PbCl2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, M.

K. Heidrich, W. Schafer, M. Schreiber, and J. Sochtig, “Electronic structure, photoemission spectra and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5642–5649 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schumenann, P. G.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schumenann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 19 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 524–528.

Schunemann, P. G.

S. A. Payne, M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low phonon chloride and sulfide crystals, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 34 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 459–463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441–449.

Searles, S. K.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, and P. Schmidt, “Further investigation of potential 4  μm laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 487–490.

Shaffers, K. I.

R. H. Page, K. I. Shaffers, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Dy-doped chlorides as gain media for 1.3  μm telecommunications amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 786–793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Q. Sun, B. Qu, and J. Shi, “Investigation of relations between absorption band positions and crystalline environment in Pb2+-doped alkali halides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 4178–4183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, M.

M. Iwanaga, M. Shirai, K. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “Self-trapped states and related luminescence in PbCl2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 064304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A. A.

V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sobelman, I. I.

I. I. Sobelman, An Introduction to the Theory of Atomic Spectra, International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy (Pergamon, 1972), Vol. 40, pp. 1–609.

Sochtig, J.

K. Heidrich, W. Schafer, M. Schreiber, and J. Sochtig, “Electronic structure, photoemission spectra and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5642–5649 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Solarts, R.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, R.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. S. Song and R. T. Williams, Self-Trapped Excitons (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

Stefanskii, I. V.

S. V. Myagkota, A. S. Voloshinovskii, I. V. Stefanskii, M. S. Mikhailik, and I. P. Pashuk, “Reflection and emission properties of lead-based perovskite-like crystals,” Radiat. Meas. 29, 273–277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, B. Qu, and J. Shi, “Investigation of relations between absorption band positions and crystalline environment in Pb2+-doped alkali halides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 4178–4183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

J. Kanbe, H. Takezoe, and R. Onaka, “Reflection spectra of PbCl2 in the exciton region,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 41, 942–949 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

M. Iwanaga, M. Shirai, K. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “Self-trapped states and related luminescence in PbCl2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 064304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, P. A.

P. A. Tanner, G. Jia, B.-M. Cheng, and M. G. Brik, “Analysis of spectra of neat and lanthanide ion-doped KPb2Cl5 excited by synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 581–587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tarasova, A. Yu.

L. I. Isaenko, I. N. Ogorodnikov, V. A. Pustovarov, A. Yu. Tarasova, and V. M. Pashkov, “Optical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of KPb2Cl5 and RbPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 35, 620–625 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A. M.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, A. M. Tkachuk, and S. E. Ivanova, “New monocrystals with low phonon energy for mid-IR lasers,” in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Application. Series B: Physics and Biophysics (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 3–65.

Vanecek, M.

K. Nitsch, A. Cihlár, Z. Málková, M. Rodová, and M. Vanecek, “The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 131, 612–615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vartiainen, E. M.

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Krönig Relations in Optical Materials Research (Springer-Verlag, 2005), p. 168.

Vasil’ev, A. N.

A. N. Vasil’ev and V. V. Mikhailin, Introduction in Solid State Spectroscopy (Moscow University, 1987).

Vatnik, S.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Velicka, I.

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Verwey, J. F.

J. F. Verwey, “Time and intensity dependence of the photolysis of lead halides,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 163–168 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Viliani, G.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, M. Bacci, G. Viliani, and M. P. Fontana, “The optical properties of thallium-like impurities in alkali-halide crystals,” Adv. Phys. 32, 823–905 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Virovets, A. V.

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voda, M.

R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Visible luminescence in KPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal,” J. Lumin. 97, 190–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voloshinovskii, A. S.

S. V. Myagkota, A. S. Voloshinovskii, I. V. Stefanskii, M. S. Mikhailik, and I. P. Pashuk, “Reflection and emission properties of lead-based perovskite-like crystals,” Radiat. Meas. 29, 273–277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G. J.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. Iwanaga, M. Watanabe, and T. Hayashi, “Charge separation of excitons and the radiative recombination process in PbBr2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10766–10773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, Y. Sasaki, M. Watanabe, and M. Fujita, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorhombic indium bromide in 2–30  eV region,” Phys. Scr. 35, 557–560 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. T.

A. K. S. Song and R. T. Williams, Self-Trapped Excitons (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

Yelisseyev, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A. P.

V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, A. M. Tkachuk, and S. E. Ivanova, “New monocrystals with low phonon energy for mid-IR lasers,” in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Application. Series B: Physics and Biophysics (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 3–65.

Zimmerer, G.

G. Zimmerer, “SUPERLUMI: a unique setup for luminescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation,” Radiat. Meas. 42, 859–864 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, M. Bacci, G. Viliani, and M. P. Fontana, “The optical properties of thallium-like impurities in alkali-halide crystals,” Adv. Phys. 32, 823–905 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Displays

A. Belsky and J. C. Krupa, “Luminescence excitation mechanisms of rare earth doped phosphors in the VUV range,” Displays 19, 185–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, and S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Nitsch, A. Cihlár, Z. Málková, M. Rodová, and M. Vanecek, “The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 131, 612–615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

R. H. Page, K. I. Shaffers, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Dy-doped chlorides as gain media for 1.3  μm telecommunications amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 786–793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, M.-F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, L. I. Isaenko, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Upconversion processes in Er3+:KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 125, 271–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Liidja and V. Plekhanov, “Low-temperature X-ray and photoluminescence of lead halide crystals,” J. Lumin. 6, 71–76 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Visible luminescence in KPb2Cl5:Pr3+ crystal,” J. Lumin. 97, 190–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Opt. Technol

A. M. Tkachuk, S. É. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Eliseev, V. Krupke, S. Payne, R. Solarts, M. Nostrad, R. Page, and S. Payne, “Dy3+-doped crystals of double chlorides and double fluorides as the active media of IR solid-state lasers and telecommunication amplifiers,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 460–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

J. F. Verwey, “Time and intensity dependence of the photolysis of lead halides,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 163–168 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

R. Kink, T. Avramaa, V. Kisand, A. Lõhmus, I. Kink, and I. Martinson, “Luminescence of cation excitons in PbCl2 and PbBr2 crystals in a wide excitation VUV region,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 693–700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

J. Kanbe, H. Takezoe, and R. Onaka, “Reflection spectra of PbCl2 in the exciton region,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 41, 942–949 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, T. Kawata, A. Miyamoto, and K. Kan’no, “Time-resolved spectroscopic study on type I self-trapped excitons in alkali halide crystals: I. Emission spectra and decay behavior,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 4229–4241 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, H. Nakagawa, K. Fukui, H. Matsumoto, T. Miyagawa, and M. Watanabe, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorombic PbCl2 and PbBr2,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 4393–4394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Struct. Chem.

A. Merkulov, L. I. Isaenko, V. M. Pashkov, V. G. Mazur, A. V. Virovets, and D. Yu. Naumov, “Crystal structure of KPb2Cl5 and KPb2Br5,” J. Struct. Chem. 46, 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “New laser crystals based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 81, 188–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

L. I. Isaenko, I. N. Ogorodnikov, V. A. Pustovarov, A. Yu. Tarasova, and V. M. Pashkov, “Optical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of KPb2Cl5 and RbPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 35, 620–625 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, S. Payne, R. Solarz, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, “Spectroscopic study of neodymium-doped potassium-lead double chloride Nd3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 83–94 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Malysheva and V. G. Plekhanov, “Study for optical constants of PbCl2 and PbBr2 at 78  K in the energy range of 3.5–11.0  eV,” Opt. Spectrosc. 34, 302–304 (1973).

V. A. Pustovarov, I. N. Ogorodnikov, N. S. Bastrikova, A. A. Smirnov, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Low-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy of APb2X5 crystals (A≡K, Rb; X≡Cl, Br),” Opt. Spectrosc. 101, 234–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

Q. Sun, B. Qu, and J. Shi, “Investigation of relations between absorption band positions and crystalline environment in Pb2+-doped alkali halides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 4178–4183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

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[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, M. Itoh, Y. Bokumoto, H. Nakagawa, D. L. Alov, and M. Kitaura, “Optical spectra and electronic structures of lead halides,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 15731 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Nistor, E. Goovaerts, and D. Schoemaker, “Temperature variation of the ESR parameters of the self-trapped-electron center in PbCl2,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwanaga, M. Watanabe, and T. Hayashi, “Charge separation of excitons and the radiative recombination process in PbBr2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10766–10773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwanaga, M. Shirai, K. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “Self-trapped states and related luminescence in PbCl2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 064304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

K. Nakamura, Y. Sasaki, M. Watanabe, and M. Fujita, “Polarized reflection spectra of orthorhombic indium bromide in 2–30  eV region,” Phys. Scr. 35, 557–560 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, and K. Polak, “Photoluminescence of RbPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 166, 511–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, I. Velicka, J. Hybler, K. Polak, and T. Fabian, “Photoluminescence of KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Status Solidi B 168, K37–K42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tanner, G. Jia, B.-M. Cheng, and M. G. Brik, “Analysis of spectra of neat and lanthanide ion-doped KPb2Cl5 excited by synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 581–587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Plekhanov, “Optical constants of lead halides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 57, K55–K59 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Nadolinny, V. M. Paskov, M. Nostrand, R. Page, S. Payne, and R. Solarz, “Spectroscopic investigation of rare earth doped chloride single crystals for telecommunication amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 3265, 242–249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact.

K. Nitsch, M. Dusek, M. Nikl, K. Polak, and M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides: crystal growt, crystal structure, absorption and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Meas.

S. V. Myagkota, A. S. Voloshinovskii, I. V. Stefanskii, M. S. Mikhailik, and I. P. Pashuk, “Reflection and emission properties of lead-based perovskite-like crystals,” Radiat. Meas. 29, 273–277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Zimmerer, “SUPERLUMI: a unique setup for luminescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation,” Radiat. Meas. 42, 859–864 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K. E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, Kramers-Krönig Relations in Optical Materials Research (Springer-Verlag, 2005), p. 168.

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A. N. Vasil’ev and V. V. Mikhailin, Introduction in Solid State Spectroscopy (Moscow University, 1987).

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, V. A. Pustovarov, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontsev, “Emission peculiarities of TR3+-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals under selective direct, upconversion and excitonic/host excitation of impurity centers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 98 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 69–74.

L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, A. M. Tkachuk, and S. E. Ivanova, “New monocrystals with low phonon energy for mid-IR lasers,” in Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Application. Series B: Physics and Biophysics (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 3–65.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schumenann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 19 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 524–528.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm and KPb2Cl5:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43  μm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441–449.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, and P. Schmidt, “Further investigation of potential 4  μm laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 26 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 487–490.

S. A. Payne, M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low phonon chloride and sulfide crystals, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Vol. 34 (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 459–463.

A. K. S. Song and R. T. Williams, Self-Trapped Excitons (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflection spectrum of a KPC single crystal recorded at 8 K. The inset shows, in an enlarged scale, the reflection spectra recorded at 8 and 293 K in the energy range of 4–5.25 eV. Vertical arrows indicate the calculated Eg value and (1–7) locations corresponding to certain peaks in the optical absorption spectrum.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection spectrum of a RPC single crystal recorded at 8 K. The inset shows in an enlarged scale the reflection spectra recorded at 8 and 293 K in the energy range of 4–5.25 eV. The vertical arrow indicates the calculated value of Eg.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical functions, n(E) and k(E), calculated through the Kramers–Krönig transform for KPC single crystals at 8 K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical functions, n(E) and k(E), calculated through the Kramers–Krönig transform for RPC single crystals at 8 K.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical functions, ε1(E) and ε2(E), calculated through the Kramers–Krönig transform for KPC single crystals at 8 K.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical functions, ε1(E) and ε2(E), calculated through the Kramers–Krönig transform for RPC single crystals at 8 K.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical functions μ(E), Imε^1, and Im(1+ε^)1 calculated through the Kramers–Krönig transform for KPC single crystals at 8 K. Vertical arrows indicate locations corresponding to the 1–7 peaks.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Optical functions μ(E), Imε^1, and Im(1+ε^)1 calculated through the Kramers–Krönig transform for RPC single crystals at 8 K.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Peak Energy Positions (eV) in μ(E) Spectra for KPb2Cl5 Single Crystal according to Our Data, and for PbCl2 Single Crystal according to [14]

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

En=EgR/n2,
μ=4πkλ×107,
Ep=28.75(zρA)1/2,

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