Abstract

We theoretically investigate the wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from a Rydberg atom driven by a few-cycle pulse. It is found that the harmonic yield decreases with a slow scaling λ2.8 as the increase of the laser wavelength for a Rydberg atom compared with λ4.6 for a ground atom though the traveling time of the electron in the continuum state is longer for a Rydberg atom. Further analysis reveals that the initial large spatial width of the Rydberg atom is responsible for the slow wavelength scaling of the high-order harmonic yield.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

H. Du, Y. Wen, X. Wang, and B. Hu, “Intense supercontinuum generation exceeding 300  eV using a two-color field in combination with a 400-nm few-cycle control pulse,” Opt. Express 21, 21337–21348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. He, Z. Wang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Wavelength dependence of high-order-harmonic yield in inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 053404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Du, L. Luo, X. Wang, and B. Hu, “Attosecond ionization control for broadband supercontinuum generation using a weak 400-nm few-cycle controlling pulse,” Opt. Express 20, 27226–27241 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

H. Du and B. Hu, “Propagation effects of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

Z. Zhai, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “Direct probing of electronic density distribution of a Rydberg state by high-order harmonic generation in a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Chen, S. L. Zeng, and Y. J. Yang, “Generation of isolated sub-50-as pulses by quantum path control in the multicycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength scaling of efficient high-oeder harmonic generation by two-color infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 061802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, R. Velotta, V. Tosa, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, M. Negro, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Interplay between group-delay-dispersion-induced polarization gating and ionization to generate isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2798–2800 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

W. Hong, P. Lu, Q. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Broadband water window supercontinuum generation with a tailored mid-IR pulse in neutral media,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2102–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200  eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Fine-scale oscillations in the wavelength and intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation: connection with channel closings,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Wavelength scaling of high-harmonic yield: threshold phenomena and bound state symmetry dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. K. Avetissian, G. F. Mkrtchian, and M. G. Poghosyan, “Creation of coherent superposition states in hydrogenlike ions via multiphoton resonant excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Gottlieb, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Dynamics of electronic wave packets in field emission and intense-field laser-atom physics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1022–R1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alisauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Augé, F.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Avetissian, H. K.

H. K. Avetissian, G. F. Mkrtchian, and M. G. Poghosyan, “Creation of coherent superposition states in hydrogenlike ions via multiphoton resonant excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H.-C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

B. Gottlieb, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Dynamics of electronic wave packets in field emission and intense-field laser-atom physics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1022–R1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burgdörfer, J.

K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Fine-scale oscillations in the wavelength and intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation: connection with channel closings,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

Chang, Z.

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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poghosyan, M. G.

H. K. Avetissian, G. F. Mkrtchian, and M. G. Poghosyan, “Creation of coherent superposition states in hydrogenlike ions via multiphoton resonant excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200  eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, Atoms in Intense Laser Fields (Academic, 1992).

Schiessl, K.

K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Fine-scale oscillations in the wavelength and intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation: connection with channel closings,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seres, E.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seres, J.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, A. D.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

Starace, A. F.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Wavelength scaling of high-harmonic yield: threshold phenomena and bound state symmetry dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Streli, C.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E.

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E. J.

P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength scaling of efficient high-oeder harmonic generation by two-color infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 061802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tosa, V.

Trallero-Herrero, C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

Verhoef, A. J.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

Vozzi, C.

Wang, B.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhai, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “Direct probing of electronic density distribution of a Rydberg state by high-order harmonic generation in a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

L. He, Z. Wang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Wavelength dependence of high-order-harmonic yield in inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 053404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.

Wobrauschek, P.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhai, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “Direct probing of electronic density distribution of a Rydberg state by high-order harmonic generation in a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. J.

J. G. Chen, S. L. Zeng, and Y. J. Yang, “Generation of isolated sub-50-as pulses by quantum path control in the multicycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, S. L.

J. G. Chen, S. L. Zeng, and Y. J. Yang, “Generation of isolated sub-50-as pulses by quantum path control in the multicycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Z.

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Z.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhai, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “Direct probing of electronic density distribution of a Rydberg state by high-order harmonic generation in a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

Zhu, Q.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (13)

H. Du and B. Hu, “Propagation effects of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Chen, S. L. Zeng, and Y. J. Yang, “Generation of isolated sub-50-as pulses by quantum path control in the multicycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Fine-scale oscillations in the wavelength and intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation: connection with channel closings,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Gottlieb, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Dynamics of electronic wave packets in field emission and intense-field laser-atom physics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1022–R1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhai, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “Direct probing of electronic density distribution of a Rydberg state by high-order harmonic generation in a few-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian, G. F. Mkrtchian, and M. G. Poghosyan, “Creation of coherent superposition states in hydrogenlike ions via multiphoton resonant excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength scaling of efficient high-oeder harmonic generation by two-color infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 061802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, Z. Wang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Wavelength dependence of high-order-harmonic yield in inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 053404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Wavelength scaling of high-harmonic yield: threshold phenomena and bound state symmetry dependence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation without the need to stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of driving lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, Atoms in Intense Laser Fields (Academic, 1992).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Wavelength scaling of HHG yield integrated over 20–50 eV energy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) High-order harmonic spectra generated from the ground hydrogen atom. (b) High-order harmonic spectra generated from the superposition state ψ1s+6s.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Electric field of the driving pulse. (b) The dependence of the emitted photon energy on the ionization and recombination times of the electron, and the corresponding ADK ionization rate (bold blue curve) of the ground hydrogen atom in this field. (c) The dependence of the emitted photon energy on the ionization and recombination times of the electron for the superposition state ψ1s+6s.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength dependence of the HHG yield for different Rydberg atoms and the ground atom. The HHG yield is integrated for the range from Ip+Up to Ip+2Up.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Traveling time of the electron contributing to the photon with the energy of Ip+1.5Up. (b) The ratio (filled squares and circles) between the traveling time (τ) and the initial spatial width (a0), and the size (empty squares and circles) of the recolliding wave packet (a). Note that the sizes of the recolliding wave packet are normalized to one at the wavelength of 800 nm for comparison.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength dependence of the HHG yield of the Rydberg atom (1s+6s) and the ground atom for different carrier-envelope phases. The HHG yield is integrated for the range from Ip+Up to Ip+2Up.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Time-frequency distribution of the harmonics by a 1500-nm driving pulse with two different carrier-envelope phases (a) ϕCEP=0 and (b) ϕCEP=π/2. The same color scale is used in the two pictures.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Normalized populations of the 6s state and the 1s state as functions of time for the Rydberg atom (1s+6s) in a 1500-nm driving field (solid black line) with ϕCEP=π/2.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

itψ(r,t)=[1221rzE(t)]ψ(r,t),
a(t)=ψ(r,t)|cosθr2+E(t)|ψ(r,t),
PA(ω)=|12π+a(t)exp(iωt)dt|2,
ψ1s+ns(r)=12ψ1s(r)+12ψns(r),
ΔI=13c3TIp+UpIp+2UpPA(ω)dω,
a(τ)2=a02+τ2/a02.

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